Gray box testing
Gray-box testing (International English spelling: grey-box testing) is a combination of white-box testing and black-box testing. The aim of this testing is to search for the defects if any due to improper structure or improper usage of applications.
A black-box tester is unaware of the internal structure of the application to be tested, while a white-box tester has access to the internal structure of the application. A gray-box tester partially knows the internal structure, which includes access to the documentation of internal data structures as well as the algorithms used.
Gray-box testers require both high-level and detailed documents describing the application, which they collect in order to define test cases.
Need for gray-box testing
Gray-box testing is beneficial because it takes the straightforward technique of black-box testing and combines it with the code-targeted systems in white-box testing.
Gray-box testing is based on requirement test case generation because it presents all the conditions before the program is tested by using the assertion method. A requirement specification language is used to make it easy to understand the requirements and verify its correctness.
Gray-box testing assumptions for object-oriented software
Object-oriented software consists primarily of objects; where objects are single indivisible units having executable code and/or data. Some assumptions are stated below which are needed for the application of use gray-box testing.
- Activation of Methods
- State Reporting in Class Under Test (CUT).
- Report Testing is inherent in Class Under Test.
- Architectural model
- Unified Modeling Language - UML Design Model
- Finite-state machine - State Model.
Cem Kaner defines "gray-box testing as involving inputs and outputs, but test design is educated by information about the code or the program operation of a kind that would normally be out of view of the tester". Gray-box testing techniques are:
- Matrix Testing: states the status report of the project.
- Regression testing: it implies rerunning of the test cases if new changes are made.
- Pattern Testing: verify the good application for its design or architecture and patterns.
- Orthogonal array testing: used as subset of all possible combination. 
- Offers combined benefits: As Gray-box testing is combination of white-box and black-box testing, it serves advantages from both the testings.
- Non Intrusive: It is based on functional specification, architectural view whereas not on source code or binaries which makes it invasive too.
- Intelligent Test Authoring: Gray-box tester handles intelligent test scenario, for example, data type handling, communication protocol, exception handling.
- Unbiased Testing: In spite of all above advantages and functionalities, Gray-box testing maintains boundary for testing between tester and developer.
- Partial code coverage: In gray-box testing, source code or binaries are missing because of limited access to internal or structure of the applications which results in limited access for code path traversal.
- Defect Identification: In distributed applications, it is difficult to associate defect identification. Still, Gray-box testing is a boon to find how appropriate these systems throw exceptions and how fine are these exceptions handled in distributed systems having web services environment.
- Gray-box testing is well suited for web applications. Web applications have distributed network or systems; due to absence of source code or binaries it is not possible to use white-box testing. Black-box testing is also not used due to just contract between customer and developer, so it is more efficient to use gray-box testing as significant information is available in Web Services Description Language (WSDL).
- Gray-box testing is suited for functional or business domain testing. Functional testing is done basically a test of user interactions with may be external systems. Gray-box testing is well-suited for functional testing due to its characteristics; it also helps to confirm that software meets the requirements defined for the software.
The distributed nature of Web services allows gray-box testing to detect defects within a service-oriented architecture (SOA). As we know, white-box testing is not suitable for Web services as it deals directly with the internal structures. White-box testing can be used for state art methods; for example, message mutation which generates the automatic tests for large arrays to help exception handling states, flow without source code or binaries. Such a strategy is useful to push gray-box testing nearer to the outcomes of white-box testing.
- "Gray Box Testing". Software Testing Fundamentals. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Example of grey box testing with definition". Geekinterview.com. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- Jake Rogers (8 August 2016). "Common Questions Regarding Grey-Box Testing". cgsec.co.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Object-Oriented Extensions to Pascal". Pascal-central.com. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- Patton, Ron (26 July 2005). Software Testing. Sams. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-672-32798-8.
- Nguyen, Hung Q (2001). Testing Applications on the Web: Test Planning for Internet-Based Systems. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471437642.
- "Explore the World of Gray Box Testing". Extremesoftwaretesting.com. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "SOA Testing Tools for Black, White and Gray Box SOA Testing Techniques". Crosschecknet.com. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- Ramdeo, Anand (5 May 2011). "Gray Box Testing - Software". Testing Geek. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- Bach, James. Lessons Learned in Software Testing. Wiley Computer Publishing.
- Falk, Jack. Testing Computer Software, 2nd Edition. Wiley Computer Publishing.
- Li, Z. J.; Tan, H. F.; Liu, H. H.; Zhu, J.; Mitsumori, N. M. (6 April 2010). "IEEE Xplore - Business-process-driven gray-box SOA testing". Ibm Systems Journal. Ieeexplore.ieee.org. 47 (3): 457–472. doi:10.1147/sj.473.0457. Retrieved 19 January 2012.