Grigor Parlichev

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Grigor Stavrev Parlichev
Grigor Parlichev cropped.jpg
Native nameГригор Пърличев
Born18 January 1829 or 1830
Ohrid, Ottoman Empire
Died25 January 1893 (aged 63 or 64)
Ohrid, Ottoman Empire
Pen nameGrigorios Stavrides (for his Greek works)
Occupationpoet, writer, teacher, public figure
LanguageBulgarian,[1] Greek
PeriodBulgarian revival
Notable worksO Armatolos
Skenderbeg (Grigor Parlichev)
1762 leto
Notable awards1st prize, Athens University Poetry Competition (1860)
SpouseAnastasiya Uzunova
ChildrenKonstantinka Parlicheva
Luisa Parlicheva
Kiril Parlichev
Despina Parlicheva
Georgi Parlichev

Grigor Stavrev Parlichev (also spelled Prlichev, Parlitcheff or Prličev; Bulgarian language: Григор Ставрев Пърличев; Greek: Γρηγόριος Σταυρίδης, translit. Grigorios Stavrides, Macedonian: Григор Прличев) was a Bulgarian [2][3][4] writer and translator. He was born January 18, 1830 in Ohrid, Ottoman Empire and died in the same town January 25, 1893. Although he thought of himself as a Bulgarian,[5] according to the negationist Macedonian historiography,[6] he was an ethnic Macedonian..[7][8][9]


Parlichev studied in a Greek school in Ohrid. In the 1850s he worked as a teacher of Greek in the towns of Tirana, Prilep and Ohrid. In 1858 Parlichev started studying medicine in Athens but transferred to the Faculty of Linguistics in 1860. The same year Parlichev took part in the annual poetic competition in Athens winning first prize for his poem "O Armatolos" (Ο Αρματωλός, in Bulgarian "The Serdar"), written in Greek. Acclaimed as "second Homer", he was offered scholarships to the universities at Oxford and Berlin. At that time he was pretending to be a Greek, but the public opinion in Athens emphasized his non-Greek origin. Disappointed Parlichev declined offered scholarships and returned to Ohrid in the next year.[10]

The house of Grigor Prličev in Ohrid, Macedonia

In 1862 Parlichev joined the struggle for independent Bulgarian church and schools, though he continued to teach Greek. After spending some time in Constantinople in 1868 acquainting himself with Church Slavonic literature, he returned to Ohrid where he advocated the substitution of Greek with Bulgarian in the town's schools and churches. The same year Parlichev was arrested and spent several months in an Ottoman jail after a complaint was sent by the Greek bishop of Ohrid. At that time he began to study of standard Bulgarian, or, as he called it himself, the Slavonic language.[11] From this time until his death Parlichev continued writing only in Bulgarian.

From 1869 Parlichev taught Bulgarian in several towns across Ottoman Empire, including Struga, Gabrovo, Bitola, Ohrid and Thessaloniki. He initiated the creation of the Bulgarian Men's High School of Thessaloniki. In 1870 Parlichev translated his award-winning poem "The Serdar" into Bulgarian in an attempt to popularize his earlier works, which were written in Greek, among the Bulgarian audience. He also wrote another poem "Skenderbeg". Parlichev was the first Bulgarian translator of Homer's Iliad in 1871, though critics were highly critical of his language. Parlichev used a specific mixture of Church Slavonic and his native Ohrid dialect, quite different from then Bulgarian, that was in process of standardization on the basis of its Eastern dialects.[12] He is therefore also regarded as a founding figure of the literature of the later standardized Macedonian language.[13] He published also a number of newspaper articles and an autobiography (1884).

Parlichev's son Cyril Parlichev was also a prominent member of the revolutionary movement in Macedonia and a Bulgarian public figure.

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ During the Bulgarian national revival, which occurred in the first half of the 19th century, the Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavs under the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy wanted to create their own Church and schools which would use a common modern "Macedono-Bulgarian" literary standard, called simply Bulgarian. The national elites active in this movement used mainly ethnolinguistic principles to differentiation between "Slavic-Bulgarian" and "Greek" groups. At that time, every ethnographic subgroup in the Macedonian-Bulgarian linguistic area wrote in its own local dialect and choosing a "base dialect" for the new standard was not an issue. Subsequently, during the 1850s and 1860s a long discussion was held in the Bulgarian periodicals about the need for a dialectal group (eastern, western or central as a compromise) upon which to base the new standard and which dialect that should be. During the 1870s this issue became contentious, and sparked fierce debates. Eventually the eastern dialects prevailed during 1880s, and finally in 1890s a standard Bulgarian language was officially codified, based on them. Standard Macedonian was codified based on western dialects as the official language in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945.
  2. ^ Language and national identity in Greece, 1766-1976, Peter Mackridge, Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 0-19-921442-5, p. 189. 2009-04-02. ISBN 9780199214426. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  3. ^ Detrez, Raymond (2007). Canonization through Competition: The Case of Grigor Părličev (part of the "Literature Thoughts collection"). Literature institute. pp. 57–58.
  4. ^ Becoming Bulgarian: the articulation of Bulgarian identity in the nineteenth century in its international context: an intellectual history, Janette Sampimon, Pegasus, 2006, ISBN 9061433118, pp. 61; 89; 124.
  5. ^ Григор Пърличев, Автобиография, "Избрани произведения", Бълг. писател, София, 1970, гл. 16. Parlichev, G., Autobiography .
  6. ^ The origins of the official Macedonian national narrative are to be sought in the establishment in 1944 of the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This open acknowledgment of the Macedonian national identity led to the creation of a revisionist historiography whose goal has been to affirm the existence of the Macedonian nation through the history. Macedonian historiography is revising a considerable part of ancient, medieval, and modern histories of the Balkans. Its goal is to claim for the Macedonian peoples a considerable part of what the Greeks consider Greek history and the Bulgarians Bulgarian history. The claim is that most of the Slavic population of Macedonia in the 19th and first half of the 20th century was ethnic Macedonian. For more see: Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0275976483, p. 58; Victor Roudometof, Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question in Journal of Modern Greek Studies 14.2 (1996) 253-301.
  7. ^ Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation, John Shea, p. 199. 1997-01-01. ISBN 9780786402281. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  8. ^ "Gligor Prlicev". Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  9. ^ Prlicev and Sazdov, Gligor,Tome. Izbor. Matica. ISBN 978-86-15-00214-5.
  10. ^ Elka Agoston-Nikolova ed., Shoreless Bridges: South East European Writing in Diaspora, Rodopi, 2010, ISBN 9042030208, pp. 56-57.
  11. ^ Jolanta Sujecka, Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Profile of Grigor Prličev, (Grigorios Stawridis), p. 240.
  12. ^ Tchavdar Marinov, 1H slv05 (Bible or world classics translations: Macedonian). Archived 2017-08-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ L. M. Danforth: The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, Princeton University Press 1995, p.50, 62.

Further reading[edit]

Parlichev's Autobiography[edit]

  • Parlichev, Grigor. Автобиография. Сборник за народни умотворения, наука и книжнина, book IX, Sofia (1894). ( Media related to Parlichev's Autobiography at Wikimedia Commons) (in Bulgarian)
  • Parlichev, Grigor. Автобиографија. Skopje, 1967 (scan)(in Macedonian).


Historical context[edit]

  • Shapkarev, Kuzman. Материали за възраждането на българщината в Македония от 1854 до 1884 г. Неиздадени записки и писма (Materials about the Bulgarian Revival in Macedonia from 1854 to 1884. Unpublished Notes and Letters). Balgarski Pisatel, Sofia (1984) [1] (in Bulgarian)
  • Sprostranov, Evtim. По възражданьето в град Охрид (On the Revival in the City of Ohrid), Сборникъ за Народни Умотворения, Наука и Книжнина, book XIII, Sofia, pp 621–681 (1896) [2] (in Bulgarian)