Grigory Alexandrovich Gukovsky (Russian: Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Гуко́вский; 1 May 1902, Saint Petersburg – 2 April 1950, Moscow) was a Russian Formalist literary historian and scholar whose work at the Pushkin House led to the rediscovery of 18th-century Russian literature.
He graduated from the Petrograd University in 1923 and held the chair in Russian literature there. Gukovsky was considered the foremost authority on 18th-century Russian literature. After spending a winter in besieged Leningrad he read lectures in Saratov University until 1948. Upon his return to Leningrad Gukovsky was arrested as a "rootless cosmopolitan". He died of a heart attack in Lefortovo Prison.
Gukovsky's wife Natalia Rykova (1898-1928) was Anna Akhmatova's close friend. She died in childbirth. Their daughter Natalia Dolinina (1928-1879) wrote a number of books for children. Gukovsky's disciples include Yuri Lotman.
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