In hip hop culture, a grill (also front or golds) is a type of jewelry worn over the teeth. Grills are made of metal and are generally removable. They began to be worn by hip hop artists in the early 1980s, and upgraded during the 90s in New York City, but they became more widely popular during the mid-2000s due to the rise of Southern hip hop rap and the more mainstream pop culture status hip hop attained. Though grills are fitted to the tooth impression of the wearer, whether they are safe for long-term wear is unknown.
Characteristics and wearer demographics
Grills are made of several types of metal (often silver, gold or platinum) that is sometimes inlaid with precious stones; they are generally removable, though some may be permanently attached to the teeth. Gold grills can be made from 10 karat, up to 24 karat gold. The gold can be tinted yellow, white and rose color.
As of 2006, grills were most often worn by 18- to 35-year-old African American male hip-hop listeners, and one commentator argued that grills will never become mainstream. However, grills are worn by men and women of all races, including celebrities who are not a part of hip-hop culture (such as Marilyn Manson and Travis Barker of Blink-182). Many members of the band Avenged Sevenfold wear elaborate grills as well. Korn frontman Jonathan Davis wore a pair in the music video for the song "Coming Undone". Milan Moškon, the drummer of the Czech death metal band Epicardiectomy, wears grills as a part of his hip hop inspired appearance. Grills received mainstream attention, including on network television, when, during the 2012 Summer Olympics, Olympic swimmer Ryan Lochte posed with a grill that sported stones in the design of an American flag; he had previously worn diamond grills after earlier competitions.
The insertion of gems into teeth has long predated hip hop culture, with rich Mayans drilling pieces of jade into their teeth. Hip hop artists began wearing grills in the early 1980s; New Yorker Eddie Plein, owner of Eddie's Gold Teeth, is often credited with starting the trend. Plein made gold caps for Flavor Flav, and then outfitted New York rappers including Big Daddy Kane and Kool G. Rap. He later moved to Atlanta, where he designed ever-more-elaborate grills for rappers like OutKast, Goodie Mob, Ludacris, and Lil Jon. Other writers have cited Slick Rick as an important early contributor to the popularity of grills.
Grills remained popular in the Southern U.S., especially in Houston or Memphis, even as they rose and fell from popularity elsewhere, and the rise of Dirty South rappers in the 2000s spurred a nationwide grill trend. During this time, grills frequently appeared in hip hop music, most notably in the 2005 number one single "Grillz," by Nelly, Paul Wall, Big Gipp, and Ali, and in other Paul Wall songs. Wall is known for his grill business as well as his rapping; his clients include Kanye West and Cam'ron.
Mass market availability
Brian Roberts, an entrepreneur from Sayreville, New Jersey introduced a series of mass produced grills as an affordable alternative to higher priced options. Brian's grills became an internet sensation  and he has been praised for "making the previously high dollar item affordable for the masses." 
While early grills could not be removed easily and involved reshaping the tooth itself to fit the grill, grills are today made from custom dental molds. For more expensive grills, a dentist takes a mold of the wearer's front teeth with a quick set alginate. A tooth mold is obtained by filling the alginate negative with buff stone, then the buff stone is used to fit the grill to the unique set of teeth. However, for inexpensive novelty grills, a jeweler may make an impression by having the wearer bite into dental putty or wax softened in water, or the wearer may do this himself. Such grills may be less comfortable or dependable than grills that are professionally fitted, and in several instances jewelers manufacturing grills in this manner have been charged with practicing dentistry without a license.
Criticism and health hazards
According to the American Dental Association in June 2006, no studies have shown whether the long-term wearing of grills is safe. If the grills fit properly and are worn only intermittently, wearers are at a low risk for dental problems, according to the ADA. The ADA has warned, however, that grills made from base metals could cause irritation or allergic reactions, and that bacteria trapped under a grill worn on a long-term basis could result in gum disease, cavities, or even bone loss. School districts in Alabama, Georgia, and Texas have banned grills for reasons both disciplinary and health-related.
- Schepp, David. "Gold Teeth Are a Gold Mine." BBC News (August 3, 2001). Accessed September 14, 2007.
- "Facts about gold teeth" Krunk Grillz. Accessed January 1, 2014.
- Sims, Brian. "History of the Grill." Hip Hop DX (July 17, 2006). Accessed September 14, 2007.
- Laue, Christine. "Grins with Grills." Omaha World-Herald (February 7, 2006).
- Steven, Curtis. "Rap Sinks Teeth into Grills." Tampa Tribune (February 2, 2006).
- Jones, Vanessa E. "Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is." Boston Globe (January 31, 2006).
- Auerbach, Nichole (July 28, 2012). "Ryan Lochte's post-race grill shines with stars and stripes". USA Today. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Heldman, Breanne L. "More Bite for the Buck." New York Daily News (October 6, 2005).
- Stewart, T.D. (1941). New examples of tooth mutilation from Middle America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 28(1):117-124.
- Du Lac, J. Freedom. "Brace Yourselves: Designer 'Grills' Have Rappers Smiling." Washington Post (January 17, 2006).
- Ellenberg, Celia (6 March 2014). "Introducing Dolly Cohen: The French Jewelry Designer Behind Cara Delevingne, Rihanna, and A$AP Rocky’s Custom Grillz". Vogue.
- Colao, JJ (2014-03-17). "Meet The Community College Dropout Who Made 22k Selling Gold 'Grills' Online". Forbes. p. 1.
- Napollello, Alex. "Sayreville man makes $22,000 in 1 month for selling sets of gold teeth". NJ.com. p. 1.
- "Grills by Refinement Co.". Hypebeast. 2014-01-11.
- "Grills by Refinement Co.". Complex Media Network. 2014-01-10.
- Phillips, Bianca. "Rappers May Lose Reason To Smile." Memphis Flyer (February 7, 2007).
- Ju*Ma how http://www.ju-ma.com/how.lasso
- Bauer, Andrea. "What Are You Wearing?" Chicago Reader (September 8, 2006).
- Hill, Ian. "Grills Gone Wild." The Record (Stockton) (December 19, 2005).
- "Grills FAQ." Grillsbypaulwall.com. Accessed September 14, 2007.
- Rosenbaum, S.I. "Jeweler's Gold Grill Business to Lose Its Luster." St. Petersburg Times (December 17, 2005).
- American Dental Association. "Dentists Say Dental Grills (Grillz) Might Bring Glitz, But Could Tarnish Smile." ADA.org (June 28, 2006). Accessed September 14, 2007. Archived September 27, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Texas School District Bans Grills." Spin (July 13, 2006).