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|Cultural origins||Early 2000s; East London, United Kingdom|
Grime emerged from London with its origins on UK pirate radio stations such as Rinse FM, Deja Vu FM, Freeze 92.7 and Raw Mission. At this point, the style was known by a number of names, including 8-bar (meaning 8 bar verse patterns), nu shape (which encouraged more complex 16 bar and 32 bar verse patterns), sublow (a reference to the very low bassline frequencies, often around 40 Hz), as well as eskibeat, a term applied specifically to a style initially developed by Wiley and his collaborators, incorporating dance and electro elements. This indicated the movement of UK garage away from its house influences towards darker themes and sounds. Among the first tracks to be labelled "grime" as a genre in itself were "Eskimo", "Ice Rink" and "Igloo" by Wiley, "Pulse X" by Musical Mob and "Creeper" by Danny Weed.
Dizzee Rascal, Wiley, Kano and Lethal Bizzle were among the first to bring the genre to mainstream media attention in 2003–2004, with their albums Boy in da Corner, Treddin' on Thin Ice, Home Sweet Home and Against All Oddz respectively. Dizzee Rascal garnered widespread critical acclaim and commercial success with Boy in da Corner winning the 2003 Mercury Music Prize. Grime has since received exposure from television stations including Channel U (now known as Channel AKA), Logan Sama's show on London radio station Kiss FM, the BBC's youth-oriented digital radio station BBC Radio 1Xtra. and the MOBO Awards which launched its first 'Best Grime' category in 2005 when the show was being broadcast on BBC One.
Grime is not an offshoot of early electronic music, but rather a subgenre that draws from a wide variety of influences. Early innovative artists such as Dizzee Rascal and Wiley were able to take the strong thumping drums of drum and bass, lyricism and vocal styles of UK Garage and alter some of the rhythms of dancehall to capture all three genre’s essences and add a new half-time, down-tempo dimension to the mix. The genre’s popularity grew exponentially in the United Kingdom, as people across the scene’s musical spectrum appreciated Grime’s eclectic mix of instrumentation and subcultures. This hybridization united many different music scenes, allowing for it to spread in the same word-of-mouth and mixtape-based style as hip-hop, yet still appeal to fans of electronic music. It also paved the way for more electronic music artists to incorporate stronger African and Caribbean influences in the future. Unfortunately, grime never received the same attention worldwide that it did in the UK. Much like many other less mainstream forms of British electronic music, its main scene and fan base remained in its home, the United Kingdom.
Although Grime is recognised as a creative and innovative musical style, there are other contributing factors to its rapid and widespread growth in popularity; the MCs producing current grime music are overwhelmingly young as a group. The most well known names in the industry such as Dizzee Rascal and Kano both getting their first hits at age 16 with "I Luv U" and "Boys Love Girls" respectively, and the resultant package of "youth making music for youth" is seen as a crucial factor for grime's success.
In April 2014, Meridian Dan reached #13 in the UK Singles Charts with his single "German Whip" featuring Big H and Jme. Two months after that, Skepta reached #21 in the UK Singles Chart with his single "That's Not Me" featuring his brother Jme. Two months later, Lethal Bizzle released the single "Rari WorkOut" featuring Jme and Tempa T, which also charted, peaking at #11 in the UK Singles Charts.
As of 2015, Lethal Bizzle has the highest three charting grime songs to date. "Oi!" (More Fire Crew) which was released in 2002 hit #7 on the UK Singles charts, "Pow! (Forward Riddim)" released in 2004, peaked at #11 in the UK Singles chart and finally "Rari Workout", which again peaked at #11 in the UK Singles Charts in 2014. "Fester Skank" also hit #11 in 2015.
In late 2015, following Stormzy's performance of "Shut Up" during the ring walk to Anthony Joshua's Heavyweight boxing match with Dillian White, Stormzy gained attention and pushed the song further up the charts, peaking at number eight in the UK Singles Chart.
In May 2016, Skepta's fourth studio album, Konnichiwa, entered the UK Albums Chart at number two. The album explored grime's relationship with the United States, and features appearances from ASAP Mob members Young Lord and ASAP Nast as well as production and vocals from Pharrell Williams. The album was awarded the 2016 Mercury Prize.
As Grime became more popular in the UK throughout the mid 2000s, it spread out of London to other big British cities. Birmingham, Nottingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol and Manchester now have Grime MCs who are currently gaining major exposure in the scene and have featured on Lord Of The Mics, an annual DVD released by Boy Better Know's Jammer (rapper).
The largest scene outside of London is based in Birmingham and the wider Birmingham area. Some of the pioneers of Grime music in Birmingham include Mike Skinner of The Streets, Devilman (who gained notoriety after his clash with Skepta), Deadly who formed the grime group N.O.D.B who was the first Grime group from Birmingham to feature on BBC Radio 1Xtra and Mayhem who is also a founding member of N.O.D.B who is known for his bombastic sound and his 2012 feud with Wiley. Many Birmingham artists have had success outside of the Birmingham region in recent years. Lady Leshurr's Queen's Speech series of freestyles have attracted many fans, her fourth edition has gained over 28 million views on YouTube as of May 2016.
Since Skepta and the Bloodline Crew spent a lot of time outside of London in the city of Manchester, it has been considered one of the biggest scenes outside of London. By many London grime artists, such as Big Narstie, Manchester is praised for holding on to grime when many London artists attempted to make money in the pop scene around the 2007-2012 dark era. Bugzy Malone and his recent beef with artist Chip, Manchester has been propelled in to the mainstream of grime.
It was not until the release of his third album, 2007's Maths + English, that Dizzee Rascal experienced international acclaim. He was nominated for the Mercury Music Prize again, and despite the fact that the album was not released in the United States in 2007, it received high praise from international music critics, magazines, websites and blogs, including Pitchfork Media, Rolling Stone, and Rock Sound. By 2010, he had achieved three number one singles in a row.
The 2005 release of 679 Recordings' Run the Road compilation showcased some of the most popular grime releases to that point, increasing the popularity and fame of grime and grime artists internationally. A particularly notable grime artist who has had success overseas is Lady Sovereign, who appeared on Late Show with David Letterman, signed to Jay-Z's Roc-A-Fella Records, and whose "Love Me or Hate Me" became the first video by a British artist to reach number one on MTV's Total Request Live, although her music has departed considerably from her early output on pirate radio stations, and she does not regard herself as a grime artist.
The international growth of the grime scene has also been evident in recent years with many popular grime artists playing on the urban music stages of the big summer festivals such as Glastonbury, Reading and Leeds, T in the Park and O2 Wireless Festival in Hyde Park. Dizzee Rascal played at all these events in the summer of 2008.
Following the string of hits in 2014, Grime music has become increasingly popular in North America. Skepta's collaborations with American rappers like Ace Hood, Earl Sweatshirt, Drake and the Flatbush Zombies have made him one of grime's best-known names in the United States. Grime has also spread to other countries including America, Australia, Japan and The Netherlands. Grime is expanding globally in these countries and gaining exposure which is leading to many new grime MCs from these countries being noticed. Examples are Tre Mission, Pakin, and Danny G Tha Saviour, who are increasing and forming their own grime in these countries.
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Grime is typified by complex 2-step, 4x4 breakbeats, generally around 140 beats per minute, or sometimes structured around a double-time rhythm, and constructed from different synth, string and electronic sounds. Stylistically, grime draws on many genres including UK garage, drum and bass, hip hop and dancehall. The lyrics and music combine futuristic electronic elements and dark, guttural basslines.
Grime predominantly evolved from the UK speed garage scene and genre towards the latter stages, although it takes influences from other genres. According to Sasha Frere-Jones of The New Yorker, grime has developed a fierce sound by "distilling" rhythms to a minimal style resulting in a choppy, off-centre sound. Whereas hip hop is inherently dance music, the writer argues that "grime sounds as if it had been made for a boxing gym, one where the fighters have a lot of punching to do but not much room to move." Frere-Jones also states that grime has maintained a style different to hip hop. Hattie Collins supports Frere-Jones' analysis, asserting that grime is "an amalgamation of UK garage with a bit of drum & bass, a splash of punk."
According to Alex de Jong and Marc Schuilenburg, grime music also samples sawtooth wave sounds (chiptunes) from video game music and ringtones which had become part of everyday life in London and other parts of the country. British grime lyrics often reference communication technologies popular with artists and listeners such as smartphones, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp and Snapchat.
As with many similar scenes around the world, grime has encountered some criticism, especially from government officials such as Kim Howells who made comments that some grime supporters claimed to find "deeply racist", referring to popular artists and crews as "boasting macho idiot rappers". A counter argument is given by Jeff Chang in an article in The Village Voice where he said Dizzee Rascal’s often violent and sexual lyrics are heralded as "capturing, encapsulating, and preserving" the life that he and his peers live on the streets every day.
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-  O2 reports Dizzee Rascal to play at O2 & Glastonbury
-  NME reports on Dizzee Rascal playing at Reading festival
- Dexter, Thomas. "POP & HISS; Noble Grime; Paintings Grandly Honor Heroes of a Pop Genre." Los Angeles TimesOct 27 2015. ProQuest. Web. 15 Feb. 2016 .
- Alex de Jong, Marc Schuilenburg (2006). Mediapolis: popular culture and the city. 010 Publishers. p. 106. ISBN 90-6450-628-0. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
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