Grimms' Fairy Tales

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For the comic series, see Grimm Fairy Tales (comics).
Children's and Household Tales
or
Grimm's Fairy Tales
Frontispiece of first volume of Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen (1812)
Author Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
Country Germany
Language German
Genre
Published 1812
ISBN n/a

Children's and Household Tales (German: Kinder- und Hausmärchen) is a collection of German fairy tales first published in 1812 by the Grimm brothers, Jacob and Wilhelm. The collection is commonly known in the Anglosphere as Grimm's Fairy Tales (German: Grimms Elfenmärchen).

Composition[edit]

The first volume of the first edition was published in 1812, containing 86 stories; the second volume of 70 stories followed in 1815. For the second edition, two volumes were issued in 1819 and a third in 1822, totalling 170 tales. The third edition appeared in 1837; fourth edition, 1840; fifth edition, 1843; sixth edition, 1850; seventh edition, 1857. Stories were added, and also subtracted, from one edition to the next, until the seventh held 211 tales. All editions were extensively illustrated, first by Philipp Grot Johann and, after his death in 1892, by German illustrator Robert Leinweber.[citation needed]

The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter.[1] Many changes through the editions – such as turning the wicked mother of the first edition in Snow White and Hansel and Gretel (shown in original Grimm stories as Hänsel and Grethel) to a stepmother, were probably made with an eye to such suitability. They removed sexual references—such as Rapunzel's innocently asking why her dress was getting tight around her belly, and thus naïvely revealing her pregnancy and the prince's visits to her stepmother—but, in many respects, violence, particularly when punishing villains, was increased.[2]

In 1825 the Brothers published their Kleine Ausgabe or "small edition", a selection of 50 tales designed for child readers. This children's version went through ten editions between 1825 and 1858.

Influence[edit]

The influence of these books was widespread. W. H. Auden praised the collection, during World War II, as one of the founding works of Western culture.[3] The tales themselves have been put to many uses. Hitler praised them as folkish tales showing children with sound racial instincts seeking racially pure marriage partners, and so strongly that the Allied forces warned against them;[4] for instance, Cinderella with the heroine as racially pure, the stepmother as an alien, and the prince with an unspoiled instinct being able to distinguish.[5] Writers who have written about the Holocaust have combined the tales with their memoirs, as Jane Yolen in her Briar Rose.[6]

The work of the Brothers Grimm influenced other collectors, both inspiring them to collect tales and leading them to similarly believe, in a spirit of romantic nationalism, that the fairy tales of a country were particularly representative of it, to the neglect of cross-cultural influence. Among those influenced were the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the Norwegians Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, the English Joseph Jacobs, and Jeremiah Curtin, an American who collected Irish tales.[7] There was not always a pleased reaction to their collection. Joseph Jacobs was in part inspired by his complaint that English children did not read English fairy tales;[8] in his own words, "What Perrault began, the Grimms completed".

Three individual works of Wilhelm Grimm include Altdänische Heldenlieder, Balladen und Märchen ('Old Danish Heroic Songs, Ballads, and Folktales') in 1811, Über deutsche Runen ('On German Runes') in 1821, and Die deutsche Heldensage ('The German Heroic Saga') in 1829.

On 20 December 2012 the search engine Google honoured the 200th anniversary of the Grimms' Fairy Tales with an interactive Doodle.[9]

List of fairy tales[edit]

Grimm Brothers
Further information: List of fairy tales

The code "KHM" stands for Kinder- und Hausmärchen, the original title. All editions from 1812 until 1857 split the stories into two volumes.

Volume 1[edit]

Monument to brothers Grimm on the market place in Hanau. (Hessen, Germany)
Frontispiece used for the first volume of the 1840 4th edition

Volume 2[edit]

Frontispiece used for the second volume of the 1840 4th edition. The portrait by Ludwig Emil Grimm bears resemblance to the storyteller Dorothea Viehmann.

The children's legends (Kinder-legende)
first appeared in the G. Reimer 1819 edition at the end of volume 2

No longer included in last edition[edit]

  • Das Birnli has not fallen
  • Blaubart (Bluebeard)
  • Die drei Schwestern (The Three Sisters)
  • Die Prinzessin auf der Erbse (Princess and the Pea)
  • Der Faule und der Fleißige (The sluggard and the diligent)
  • Der gestiefelte Kater (Puss in Boots)
  • Der gute Lappen (Fragment) (The good rag)
  • Die Hand mit dem Messer (The hand with the knife)
  • Hans Dumm
  • Die heilige Frau Kummernis (The holy woman Kummernis)
  • Hurleburlebutz
  • Die Krähen (The Crows)
  • Der Löwe und der Frosch (The Lion and the Frog)
  • Das Mörderschloss (The Murder Castle)
  • Der Okerlo (The Okerlo)
  • Prinzessin Mäusehaut (Princess Mouse Skin)
  • Der Räuber und seine Söhne (The Robber and His Sons)
  • Schneeblume (Snow Flowers)
  • Der Soldat und der Schreiner (The Soldier and the Carpenter)
  • Der Tod und der Gänsehirt (Death and the Goose herder)
  • Die treuen Tiere (The faithful animals)
  • Das Unglück (The Accident)
  • Vom Prinz Johannes (Fragment) (Of Prince Johannes)
  • Vom Schreiner und Drechsler (From the Maker and Turner)
  • Von der Nachtigall und der Blindschleiche (The nightingale and the slow worm)
  • Von der Serviette, dem Tornister, dem Kanonenhütlein und dem Horn (Of the napkin, the knapsack, the Cannon guarding flax, and the Horn)
  • Wie Kinder Schlachtens miteinander gespielt haben (How children played slaughter with each other)
  • Der wilde Mann (The Wild Man)
  • Die wunderliche Gasterei (The strange Inn)
  • Rumpilsktilskin

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p15-17, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  2. ^ Maria Tatar, "Reading the Grimms' Children's Stories and Household Tales" p. xxvii-iv, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  3. ^ Maria Tatar, "Reading the Grimms' Children's Stories and Household Tales" p. xxx, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  4. ^ Maria Tatar, "-xxxix, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  5. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p 77-8 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  6. ^ Maria Tatar, "Reading the Grimms' Fairy Stories and Household Tales" p. xlvi, Maria Tatar, ed. The Annotated Brothers Grimm, ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  7. ^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p 846, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
  8. ^ Maria Tatar, p 345-5, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  9. ^ interactive Google Doodle on the occasion of the 200th birthday of the Grimms' Fairy Tales
  • Grimm Brothers. The Complete Grimm's Fairy Tales. New York: Pantheon Books, 1944. ISBN 0394494156. (in English, based on Margarate Hunt's translation)

External links[edit]