14, see text
Grimpoteuthis is a genus of pelagic umbrella octopuses known as the dumbo octopuses. The name "dumbo" originates from their resemblance to the title character of Disney's 1941 film Dumbo, having a prominent ear-like fin which extends from the mantle above each eye. There are 13 species recognized in the genus. Prey include crustaceans, bivalves, worms and copepods. The average life span of various Grimpoteuthis species is 3 to 5 years.
Species and taxonomy
|Species name||Reference||Geographic range||Depth range (meters)||Taxonomic notes|
|Grimpoteuthis abyssicola||O'Shea, 1999||South Pacific (off New Zealand and Australia)||3145–3180|
|Grimpoteuthis bathynectes||Voss & Pearcy, 1990||North Pacific (Tufts and Cascadia Abyssal Plains off Oregon)||3932|
|Grimpoteuthis boylei||Collins, 2003||Northeast Atlantic (Porcupine and Madeira Abyssal Plains)||4845–4847|
|Grimpoteuthis challengeri||Collins, 2003||Northeast Atlantic (Porcupine Abyssal Plain)||4828–4838|
|Grimpoteuthis discoveryi||Collins, 2003||Northeast Atlantic||2600–4870|
|Grimpoteuthis hippocrepium||Hoyle, 1905||East Pacific (off Malpelo Island)||3334||Previously assigned to genus Stauroteuthis; known from a single, "sadly mutilated" individual according to Hoyle|
|Grimpoteuthis innominata||O'Shea, 1999||South Pacific (East of New Zealand)||2000||Alternatively classified as Enigmatiteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis meangensis||Hoyle, 1885||West Pacific (off Meangis Islands, near Philippines)||925||Previously assigned to genera Cirroteuthis and Stauroteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis megaptera||Verrill, 1885||Northwest Atlantic (Southeast of Martha's Vineyard)||4600||Previously assigned to genus Cirroteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis pacifica||Hoyle, 1885||South Pacific (off Papua New Guinea)||4500||Previously assigned to genus Cirroteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis plena||Verrill, 1885||Northwest Atlantic||2000||Previously assigned to genus Cirroteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis tuftsi||Voss & Pearcy, 1990||North Pacific (Tufts and Cascadia Abyssal Plains off Oregon)||3900|
|Grimpoteuthis umbellata||P. Fischer, 1883||North Atlantic (off Morocco, Canary Islands, and the Azores)||2235||Previously assigned to genus Cirroteuthis|
|Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri||Grimpe, 1920||Northeast and Northwest Atlantic||2055|
As noted above, many species collected on the Challenger expedition were initially classified in the genera Cirroteuthis and Stauroteuthis. Several species formerly classified in this genus were moved to other opisthoteuthid genera. A new family, Grimpoteuthididae, has been proposed to accommodate these species and those of genus Enigmatiteuthis. The persistent confusion and disparity about the taxonomy of these species has been attributed to the poor quality and limited number of specimens available for study.
Range and habitat
Species of Grimpoteuthis are assumed to have a worldwide distribution, living in the cold, abyssal depths ranging from 1,000 to 7,000 metres. Specimens have been found off the coast of Oregon, the Philippines, Martha's Vineyard, the Azores, New Zealand, Australia, California, Gulf of Mexico, Papua, and New Guinea. Dumbo octopuses are among the deepest living octopuses known. In 2020, Grimpoteuthis was spotted ~ 7000m deep down in the Java Trench.
Species of Grimpoteuthis face few direct threats from humans, living at depths of 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) and below. Natural predators include sharks and predatory cephalopods. The Grimpoteuthis does not have an ink sac. Instead they use their chromatophore cells to change colors, which helps them avoid predators. Some color changes can be red, white, pink, or brown; or they can use color to camouflage themselves to blend in with the appearance of the ocean floor. Grimpoteuthis feed on worms, crustaceans, shellfish, and copepods.
Movement, characteristics and food supply
Specimens of Grimpoteuthis have been observed to swim by using movement of the fins. Although it has been suggested that species of Grimpoteuthis are capable of jet-propulsion, this has since been deemed unlikely. Movement of the arms can be used to help the animal move in any direction. The arms permit the animal to crawl along the seafloor, to capture prey, lay eggs, explore, etc. Dumbos hover above the sea floor, searching for polychaete worms, pelagic copepods, isopods, amphipods, and other crustaceans for food. Prey is captured by pouncing on the target, which then is swallowed whole. It is also interesting to know that in contrast to other octopuses, dumbo octopuses do not produce ink. This makes sense considering the fact that their habitat is a deep, dark place in the ocean. Instead of ink sacs, dumbo octopuses take advantage of a strand-like structure on their suckers to help them sense the surrounding environment as well as looking for food. The dumbo octopus has a distinct characteristic, what was once thought to be white spot(s) above their eyes, near the base of the fins is transparent patches. These patches function to detect (unfocused) light.
Females have no distinct period for breeding. Females carry multiple eggs in various stages of maturation, suggesting that they have no optimal breeding period. Male octopuses have a separate protuberance on one of their arms that carries an encapsulated sperm packet to the female. After mating, the females can store the male’s sperm until the conditions are suitable to allow the reproduction process to begin. Once the female finds a suitable environment on the sea flow, they plant their eggs on a hard surface such as a rock and wait for the eggs to hatch. As with other octopuses, females do not invest any further time in the young after they hatch because once they are born they are able to defend themselves. In 2018, Shea et al. determined that Grimpoteuthis hatchlings emerge as "fully competent" juveniles with all of the sensory and motor features to survive on their own. Females can be distinguished from males by body type. Females have a much more prevalent gelatinous body type with size being more width than length, having 1.5 to 2 time more short arms. Other differences include females having broadly U-shaped shells, larger eyes, and gills with six lamellae.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. ser.4:v.47 (1990–1992). San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences. 1990–1992.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- "Finned Deep-sea Octopuses". Marinebio. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Young, Richard. "Grimpoteuthis". Retrieved 10 May 2014.
- O'Shea, Steve (1999). "The marine fauna of New Zealand: Octopoda (Mollusca: Cepahlopoda)". Niwa Biodiversity Memoirs. Wellington: NIWA Research (112): 5–278.
- O'Shea, Steve; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis abyssicola". Tree Of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
- Voss, G. L.; Pearcy, W. C. (1990). "Deep-water octopods (Mollusca; Cephalopoda) of the northeastern Pacific". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 47 (3): 57–63.
- Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael (2003). "Grimpoteuthis bathynectes". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-27.
- Collins, M. A. (2003). "The genus Grimpoteuthis (Octopoda: Grimpoteuthidae) in the north-east Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 139: 93–127. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00074.x.
- Collins, Martin A.; Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis boylei". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Collins, Martin; Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis challengeri". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Collins, Martin; Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis discoveryi". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Hoyle, William E. (1904). "Reports on the Cephalopoda". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 43 (1): 5–7.
- Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis hippocrepium". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- O'Shea, Steve; Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis innominata". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Hoyle, William Evans (1886). Report on the Cephalopoda collected by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–76 / by William Evans Hoyle. Edinburgh?: Edinburgh: Neill. pp. 3, 230–33. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.46542.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
- Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis meangensis". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis megaptera". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Young, Richard E; Vecchione, Michael. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis pacifica". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis plena". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Young, Richard E.; Vecchione, Michael. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis tuftsi". Tree of Life Web Project. Rerieved 2020-02-28.
- Collins, Martin; Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis umbellata". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Grimpe, G. (1920). Teuthologische Mitteilungen V. Zwei neue Cirraten-Arten. Zoologischer Anzeiger 51: 230–243.
- Collins, Martin; Vecchione, Michael; Young, Richard E. (2003). "Grimpoteuthis wuelkeri". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
- Piertney, Stuart B.; Hudelot, Cendrine; Hochberg, F.G.; Collins, Martin A. (2003). "Phylogenetic relationships among cirrate octopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) resolved using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 27 (2): 348–353. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00420-7. PMID 12695097.
- Jamieson, Alan J.; Vecchione, Michael (2020). "First in situ observation of Cephalopoda at hadal depths (Octopoda: Opisthoteuthidae: Grimpoteuthis sp.)". Marine Biology. 167 (82). doi:10.1007/s00227-020-03701-1.
- Hadjisolomou, Stavros P. (March 2017). "SpotMetrics: An Open-Source Image-Analysis Software Plugin for Automatic Chromatophore Detection and Measurement". Frontiers in Physiology. 8: 106. doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00106. PMC 5331055. PMID 28298896.
- "10 Dumbo Octopus Facts & Adaptations!". Fun Facts You Need to Know!. 2015-06-04. Retrieved 2018-11-05.
- Crampton, Linda (July 4, 2019). "Fascinating Facts About Octopuses: Adorable, Dumbo, and Two-Spot". Owlcation.
- Villanueva, R.; Segonzac, M.; Guerra, A. (1997-07-01). "Locomotion modes of deep-sea cirrate octopods (Cephalopoda) based on observations from video recordings on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge". Marine Biology. 129 (1): 113–122. doi:10.1007/s002270050152. S2CID 85848021.
- Vecchlone, M.; Piatkowski, U.; Allcock, A. L. (1998). "Biology of the cirrate octopod Grimpoteuthis glacialis (Cephalopoda; opisthoteuthididae) in the south Shetland Islands, Antarctica". South African Journal of Marine Science. 20: 421–428. doi:10.2989/025776198784126467.
- Gibson, R. N.; Atkinson, R. J. A.; Gordon, J. D. M. (2006). Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, Volume 44. CRC Press. p. 316. ISBN 9781420006391.
- Collins, M.A. & R. Villaneuva. (2006). Taxonomy, ecology and behavior of the cirrate octopods. In: Gibson, R.N., R.J.A. Atkinson & J.|isbn=9781420006391}}
- "Dumbo Octopus". Aquarium of the Pacific.
- Shea, Elizabeth K.; Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Shank, Timothy M. (February 2018). "Dumbo octopod hatchling provides insight into early cirrate life cycle". Current Biology. 28 (4): R144–R145. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.032. PMID 29462576.
- Vega Petkovic, Marco A (2007). "Description of the female off Grimpoteuthis bruuni Voss, 1982". Gayana (Concepción). 71 (2). doi:10.4067/S0717-65382007000200011. ISSN 0717-6538.
- Dumbo Octopus video at BBC