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Puget Sound gumweed
(Grindelia integrifolia)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Astereae
Subtribe: Machaerantherinae
Genus: Grindelia
Willd. (1807)
Type species
Grindelia inuloides
Willd. (1807)
  • Aurelia Cass.
  • Demetria Lag.
  • Donia R.Br.
  • Doniana Raf., nom. superfl.
  • Golionema S.Watson
  • Hoorebekia Cornel.
  • Oligonema S.Watson, nom. illeg.
  • Olivaea Sch.Bip. ex Benth.
  • Prionopsis Nutt.
  • Thuraria Nutt. in J.Fraser, nom. illeg.

Grindelia (gumweed) is a genus of plants native to the Americas belonging to the family Asteraceae.[2][3][4] The genus was named for Latvian botanist David Hieronymus Grindel, 1776–1836.[5]

They are herbaceous plants or subshrubs with annual, biennial, or perennial life cycles.[5] The flowerheads are composed of numerous yellow disc florets (usually between 100–200) and from zero to sixty or more yellow or orange ray florets.[5] Grindelia squarrosa, a plant with bright yellow flowers indigenous to much of the United States, is commonly called curlycup gumweed. Grindelia robusta, found in the western states, is a coastal scrub bush that is reputed to have several medicinal uses. Hairy gumweed, Grindelia cuneifolia, occurs in brackish coastal marshes of western North America, such as in some portions of the San Francisco Bay perimeter.[5] The genus is native to South America, Mexico, and western North America, though some species have been introduced and naturalized in eastern North America and the Old World.[5]

Grindelia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Schinia mortua.


There are many species,[5] including:[6][7][8][9][10]


  1. ^ "Grindelia Willd". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 20 March 2024.
  2. ^ Willdenow, Carl Ludwig von. 1807. Magazin für die Neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde, Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1(4): 259–261
  3. ^ "Grindelia Willd.". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  4. ^ Nesom, Guy L. 1990. Studies in the systematics of Mexican and Texan Grindelia (Asteraceae: Astereae). Phytologia 68(4):303-332
  5. ^ a b c d e f Strother, John L.; Wetter, Mark A. (2006). "Grindelia". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 20. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  7. ^ "Grindelia". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013.
  8. ^ Davidse, G., M. Sousa-Peña, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2015. Asteraceae. 5(2): ined. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México
  9. ^ Pruski, J.F. & G. Sancho. 2004. Asteraceae or Compositae (Aster or Sunflower Family). 33–39. In N. Smith et al. (eds.) Flowering plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  10. ^ The Plant List, search for Grindelia

External links[edit]