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Grinnell, Iowa

Coordinates: 41°44′37″N 92°43′29″W / 41.74361°N 92.72472°W / 41.74361; -92.72472
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grinnell, Iowa
Downtown Grinnell
Downtown Grinnell
"Jewel of the Prairie"[1]
Location of Grinnell, Iowa
Location of Grinnell, Iowa
Grinnell, Iowa is located in the United States
Grinnell, Iowa
Grinnell, Iowa
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 41°44′37″N 92°43′29″W / 41.74361°N 92.72472°W / 41.74361; -92.72472
Country United States
State Iowa
 • Total5.73 sq mi (14.84 km2)
 • Land5.69 sq mi (14.74 km2)
 • Water0.04 sq mi (0.11 km2)
1,014 ft (309 m)
 • Total9,564
 • Density1,681.14/sq mi (649.06/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
50112, 50177
Area code641
FIPS code19-33105
GNIS feature ID0457150

Grinnell (/ɡrɪˈnɛl/ gri-NELL) is a city in Poweshiek County, Iowa, United States. The population was 9,564 at the time of the 2020 census.[3] It is best known for being the home of Grinnell College, as well as being the location of the Merchants' National Bank building, designed by famous architect Louis Sullivan.


Grinnell was founded by settlers from New England who were descended from English Puritans of the 1600s.[4][5][6] Grinnell was founded in 1854 by four men: Josiah B. Grinnell, a Congregationalist from Vermont; Homer Hamlin, a minister; Henry Hamilton, a surveyor; and Dr. Thomas Holyoke.[7] The city was to be named "Stella," but J. B. Grinnell convinced the others to adopt his name, describing it as rare and concise.[8] Grinnell was incorporated on April 28, 1865,[9] and by 1880, Grinnell had a population of around 2,000. Located at the junction of two railway lines (east–west line of the Rock Island Railroad and the north–south Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway), it is the largest community in Poweshiek County.

Grinnell was a stop on the Underground Railroad from its founding.[10][11] One of the most famous events occurred in February 1859, when abolitionist John Brown, and 12 slaves he was helping escape to freedom, were hosted by J. B. Grinnell and several other community residents. Because of J. B. Grinnell's efforts to help slaves and end slavery, in 2013, the National Park Service included his gravesite at Hazelwood Cemetery on the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom listings.[12]

The Mormon Trail ran along the southern edge of Grinnell. The trail was traveled by an estimated 100,000 plus travelers from 1846 to 1869, including some 70,000 Mormons escaping religious persecution. The Pioneer Company of 1846–1847 established the first route; from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City. A stone marker memorializes the Mormon Handcart Trail and the grave of a child who died along the trail near Grinnell.[13]

Grinnell is home to Grinnell College, a private liberal arts college, which was established in 1846.

Two major events marked the early years of the community. On June 17, 1882,[14] a violent, estimated, F5 tornado destroyed most of the college campus and much of the community with a death toll of 68, causing up to $1.3 million in total damages (in 1882 USD).[15][16] In June 1889, fire[17] destroyed most of the downtown area.[18]

Grinnell was home to the Spaulding Manufacturing Company. H. W. Spaulding began making carriages and spring wagons in Grinnell in 1876. In 1909, Spaulding Manufacturing added automobiles to its production line. At one time, the factory was the largest employer in the county.[citation needed] Automobile production ceased at the Spaulding factory in 1916 when it could no longer compete with the cheaper Ford automobile.[citation needed] The Spaulding factory site became home to the Spaulding Center for Transportation/Iowa Transportation Museum, as well as a 77 unit loft apartment complex which opened in 2017.[19]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.64 square miles (14.61 km2), of which 5.60 square miles (14.50 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) is water.[20]


Grinnell has a humid continental climate with hot humid summers, and cold snowy winters. The precipitation averages 38.19 in (970 mm) yearly. Summers are the rainiest times of year, with over two thirds of the precipitation falling between April and September in an average year.[21]

Climate data for Grinnell, Iowa, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1893–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 64
Mean maximum °F (°C) 49.5
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 28.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 19.3
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 10.2
Mean minimum °F (°C) −12.7
Record low °F (°C) −34
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.10
Average snowfall inches (cm) 9.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 7.6 7.7 8.9 11.8 12.9 12.2 9.4 10.6 8.8 9.5 7.4 8.2 115
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.3 5.2 2.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.1 5.0 20
Source 1: NOAA[22]
Source 2: National Weather Service[23]


Historical population
Iowa Data Center[3]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[24] of 2010, there were 9,218 people, 3,567 households, and 2,026 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,646.1 inhabitants per square mile (635.6/km2). There were 3,844 housing units at an average density of 686.4 per square mile (265.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.9% White, 2.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population.

There were 3,567 households, of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2% were non-families. Of all households 36.8% were made up of individuals, and 16.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.82.

The median age in the city was 35.6 years. 19% of residents were under the age of 18; 21.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 18.4% were from 25 to 44; 21.9% were from 45 to 64; and 19.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[25] of 2000, there were 9,105 people, 3,498 households, and 2,067 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,825.7 inhabitants per square mile (704.9/km2). There were 3,725 housing units at an average density of 746.9 per square mile (288.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.88% White, 1.04% African American, 0.29% Native American, 2.01% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.57% of the population.

There were 3,498 households, out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.9% were non-families. Of all households, 34.7% were made up of individuals, and 16.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.5% under the age of 18, 19.9% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,625, and the median income for a family was $48,991. Males had a median income of $33,956 versus $23,864 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,939. About 8.9% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.


In addition to Grinnell College,[26] other major employers include Grinnell Mutual Reinsurance Company, Grinnell Regional Medical Center, JELD-WEN and Brownell's.[27]

Downtown renovations[edit]

In the spring of 2005, Grinnell embarked upon a renovation project to make its downtown area more inviting. It encompassed new water mains, restoration of two-way traffic flow, brick crosswalks in the middle of each block, and more uniform parking spaces in front of downtown businesses. A median strip at each intersection was designed with Grinnell's distinctive Jewel Box pattern.[citation needed] Infrastructure upgrades and aesthetic renovations were also planned for the southern section of the downtown area, to include Commercial Street. Downtown street improvements have continued, and as of 2016, nearly all downtown streets have been redone. Improvements have been made to many business facades. Central Park underwent a major makeover during the summer of 2016, relocating the gazebo and adding a bandstand, public restrooms, and a large group picnic enclosure. In September 2017, Grinnell's first independently owned, boutique hotel (Hotel Grinnell) opened downtown across from Central Park giving visitors luxury accommodations.[28]

Retirement communities[edit]

Grinnell is home to two growing retirement communities, the Mayflower community[29] in the middle of town and Seeland Park[30] on the eastern edge. Both communities include housing options for independent living, including duplexes and apartments, and also assisted living accommodations.

Arts and culture[edit]


  • The Grinnell Area Arts Council[31] (GAAC) began in 1979 and sponsors many of the creative projects in Grinnell, including various community theater plays, the community band and a summer arts camp. Each season, the GAAC offers a variety of different classes including theater classes, crafts classes, and language classes. GAAC also sponsors various events throughout the year, such as Music in the Park, a free event offered to community members. The Turlach Ur bagpipe band is also a program of GAAC.[32] The Grinnell Arts Center is housed in the renovated old library building. It includes a gallery on the main floor and a small theater performance space on the top level.
  • The Grinnell College Museum of Art at Grinnell College showcases exhibitions of artists in a 7,400 square feet space situated in the heart of Grinnell College's Bucksbaum Center for the Arts. Exhibitions by members of the Grinnell College art faculty can be seen throughout the year, and in May, the annual Student Art Salon features student work.


Grinnell has several notable architectural landmarks:[33] Among them, includes the Merchants' National Bank, designed by architect Louis Sullivan in 1914. The bank is one in a series of small banks, referred to as "Jewel Boxes" designed by Sullivan in the Midwest. The Ricker House was designed by Walter Burley Griffin[34] Marion Mahony Griffin in 1911 and completed in 1912. It was the first of seven houses the Griffins designed for Iowa clients, six of which were built and the other five of which are in Mason City. Ricker House was purchased by Grinnell College in 2000 and is operated as a short-term residence for guests of the college for several years.[35] The house was sold in 2019 and became a private residence.[36]

Festivals and events[edit]

Grinnell Games Criterium

Grinnell Farmers Market features locally grown produce, freshly baked goods, honey, jams, plants and flowers, and handmade crafts. The market runs from May 16 through October 14 on Thursday and Saturdays. It is located in Grinnell's Central Park, located at 833 4th Avenue.[citation needed]

Grinnell Games is a weekend family sports festival. Community-organized events include Imagine Grinnell's Half Marathon and 5K Run, the Twilight Bike Criterium, The Amazing Chase, Twilight Trail Run, and the Warrior Run. Grinnell Games draws visitors from across the state with its family-friendly activities, sidewalk sales, live music, and a beer garden on Saturday night.[citation needed]


The Grinnell Herald-Register is a semi-weekly newspaper in Grinnell, Iowa. It was formed on February 13, 1936, after the merger of the Grinnell Herald and Grinnell Register. The Herald was founded on August 16, 1871, as a semi-weekly newspaper, and the Register was founded in 1888. The Grinnell Herald, in turn, was founded as the Poweshiek County Herald on March 18, 1868.

The Poweshiek County Chronicle Republican[37] – often referred to as the Poweshiek County CR or simply The CR – was created in January 2009 as the result of a merger of two newspapers serving other communities in Poweshiek County, the Brooklyn Chronicle and the Montezuma Republican; the Pennysaver, a shopper that had operated in Grinnell, continued, and the new newspaper began incorporating Grinnell news along with its existing coverage of rural Poweshiek County and its communities.


Freq Call Owner Start ERP (W) Nickname Format RDS HD
106.7 KRTI Newton License Co, LLC 1993 50,000 Energy 106.7 Hot AC
Freq Call Owner Start Day Power (W) Night Power Nickname Format Stereo HD
1410 KGRN Grinnell License Co, LLC 1957 500 47 AM 1410 Stereo Full Service,
adult contemporary
Yes No

Government and infrastructure[edit]


The first school in Grinnell was founded in 1855.[38] Public schools within the Grinnell–Newburg Community School District[39] include Fairview Elementary School (K-2nd grade for the eastern side of town), Bailey Park Elementary School (K–2nd grade for the western side of town), Davis School (3rd–4th grade), Grinnell–Newburg Middle School (5th–8th grade) and Grinnell–Newburg High School[40] (9th–12th grade). There is one private school, Central Iowa Christian School,[41] which enrolls about 35 students in kindergarten through eighth grade. Grinnell is home to Grinnell College, a private liberal arts college. Iowa Valley Community College[42] also operates a satellite campus on the western edge of Grinnell.

Health care[edit]

In 2019, the local hospital became a part of the Unity Point Hospital system. Unity Point Grinnell, formerly known as Grinnell Regional Medical Center, is an acute care hospital licensed for 81 beds. GRMC was established in 1967 after the merger of two hospitals, one step in a century of providers joining to serve the community.[43] Nearly 60 physicians provide care at the medical center.


Drake Community Library

Drake Community Library opened in November 2009.[44] The library serves as a center of community activities. It has 25 public computers, 3 large meetings rooms, two small study rooms, a variety of seating areas and offers a full range of reading and AV materials. The library is actively working to create a digital archive of local history and make archived photos and documents available on their website. A wide range of photos and documents are available for viewing as part of Digital Grinnell[45] and the Poweshiek History Preservation Project.[46] Area residents can also use the Grinnell College Libraries.[47] In 1901, Joel Stewart[48] funded the construction of the first library in Grinnell, the Stewart Library, which served in that capacity until 2009. The building remains in service today as the headquarters for the Grinnell Area Arts Council.[31]

Parks and recreation[edit]

Grinnell has nine parks that are run by Parks and Recreations, including Arbor Lake, Bailey Park, Central Park, Jaycee Park, Lions Park, Merrill Park, Miller Park, Thomazin Park, and Van Horn Park. Ahrens and Paschall Memorial Park is privately run by the Claude & Dolly Ahrens Foundation.[49] The city boasts three aquatic centers. A small indoor pool is part of the Ahrens Family Center.[50] The Grinnell Mutual Family Aquatic Center[51] is open during the summer months. Area residents also have access to the College Natatoriaum[52] Grinnell and other college athletic facilities.

Museums and art galleries[edit]

Grinnell Historical Museum[53] was founded as a community collaborative effort through a contest for community development by the Grinnell Herald Register in 1950. Four women's groups—two chapters of the DAR, the Historical and Literary Club, and the Tuesday Club, took as their project the creation of a museum. People responded enthusiastically; donations included a rope bed, a hair wreath, and the twisted bell clapper from the ruins of the first High School, which had burned. The house the museum is currently situated in was generously donated by Rubie Burton. Displays are of interest to visitors of all ages. The kitchen holds an electric refrigerator made by the Grinnell Washing Machine Company, one of the first 50 made in 1932. There is a Military exhibit with uniforms from the Civil War to the Vietnam war. The Carriage House holds several horse-drawn vehicles built by the Spaulding Carriage Factory in Grinnell.[54]

The Grinnell Area Arts Council (GAAC) building, formerly Stewart Library, includes the Stewart Gallery and features works of local and regional artists. The gallery space includes high ceilings and nice light. The GAAC also includes the Loft Theater and is home to the Grinnell Community Theater. In 2008, the GAAC expanded to space across the street and opened The Stew Makerspace. The Stew Makerspace is a collaboration between the Grinnell Area Arts Council and the Wilson Center for Innovation and Leadership at Grinnell College. Located at 927 Broad Street, the Stew houses spaces for ceramics, woodworking, 3D printing, metal working, laser engraving, and much more.

The Faulconer Gallery (now called the Grinnell College Museum of Art)[55] on the Grinnell College campus features year-round exhibits of regional, national and international artists. The space is inside the Bucksbaum Center for the Arts.




Grinnell is served by two freight-only railroad lines:

The two lines meet in a diamond near The Peppertree at the Depot Crossing, a railroad-themed restaurant.[57] The Union Pacific line sees 3 trains per day[58] while the IAIS line sees about 2 trains per day.[59]


The Grinnell Regional Airport, also known as Billy Robinson Field, is a city-owned airport located within city limits about 2 miles south of the town center.[60] The airport provides private and charter flights, and saw an average of 114 aircraft operations per week during 2019.[61]

Community organizations[edit]

The Imagine Grinnell Foundation[62] is a small, grassroots foundation that focuses on quality-of-life issues, such as a healthy and sustainable environment, that complement economic efforts.

The Claude & Dolly Ahrens Foundation[49] provides space and office support for the Greater Poweshiek Community Foundation, the Imagine Grinnell Foundation, and other foundations that are sheltered under the Greater Poweshiek Community Foundation umbrella. The Ahrens Foundation focuses on quality of life, health, and parks and recreation through overseeing its own property and collaborating with partner institutions.

The Greater Poweshiek Community Foundation[63] serves as an umbrella organization for smaller nonprofits in the Grinnell area and helps with their financial management.

Mid Iowa Community Action[64] is a private nonprofit that seeks to help those affected by poverty.

The Grinnell Area Arts Council[31] encourages artistic expression at the Grinnell Art Center and throughout the community.

Notable people[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "City of Grinnell, Iowa". City of Grinnell, Iowa. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  3. ^ a b "2020 Census State Redistricting Data". census.gov. United states Census Bureau. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  4. ^ History of Poweshiek County, Iowa: A Record of Settlement, Organization, Progress and Achievement, Volume 1, p. 10.
  5. ^ The expansion of New England: the spread of New England settlement and institutions to the Mississippi River, 1620–1865, p. 247.
  6. ^ Grinnells of America, archived from the original on 2021-12-11, retrieved 2021-05-19
  7. ^ "J.B. Grinnell : Abolitionist, minister, land speculator | Grinnell College".
  8. ^ Hamilton, Henry. "A Chapter in the Early History of Grinnell." Grinnell Herald, 1892.
  9. ^ "Grinnell, Iowa". City-Data.com. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  10. ^ "Iowa's Underground Railroad". The University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  11. ^ Cools, Gabriel Victor (1918). The Negro in typical communities of Iowa. Part II, Chapter 1. M.A. thesis, University of Iowa. doi:10.17077/etd.y3e9horj. hdl:2027/iau.31858021974641.
  12. ^ "NTS listings fall 2014" (PDF). National Park Service.
  13. ^ "Jasper Co. Iowa IAGenWeb Project". iagenweb.org. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  14. ^ Kaiser, Daniel (May 29, 2016). "Grinnell Stories: Tornado!".
  15. ^ Grazulis, Thomas P. "The Most "Important" US Tornadoes by State". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-07-02.
  16. ^ Grazulis, Thomas P. (July 1993). Significant Tornadoes 1680–1991: A Chronology and Analysis of Events. St. Johnsbury, VT: The Tornado Project of Environmental Films. ISBN 1-879362-03-1.
  17. ^ "Grinnell, IA Business Section Fire, June 1889 - GenDisasters ... Genealogy in Tragedy, Disasters, Fires, Floods". www.gendisasters.com.
  18. ^ Fire Ravaged Grinnell in 1889
  19. ^ "Hubbell Restores Historic Spaulding Manufacturing Company, Holds Ribbon Cutting for Urban-Style Lofts - ourgrinnell".
  20. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  21. ^ "Grinnell, IA Monthly Weather Forecast - weather.com".
  22. ^ "U.S. Climate Normals Quick Access". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
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  27. ^ "Brownells Retail Store | Top Rated Supplier of Firearm Reloading Equipment, Supplies, and Tools - Colt". April 24, 2019.
  28. ^ Greene, Jay (July 30, 2020). "Luxurious Hotel Grinnell beautifully combines past and present". www.kcrg.com. Retrieved 2023-06-02.
  29. ^ "Mayflower Community – A Place To Call Home". www.mayflowerhomes.com.
  30. ^ "Active 55+ Senior Living in Grinnell, Iowa - St. Francis Manor". www.stfrancismanor.com.
  31. ^ a b c "Home". Grinnell Arts Center.
  32. ^ "News & Updates". Archived from the original on 2013-08-11. Retrieved 2013-04-02.
  33. ^ Additional documents on Grinnell architecture are available in pdf format from the Stewart Library website Archived 2007-02-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  34. ^ Details and photos at "The Benjamin Ricker House--Grinnell". Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
  35. ^ "The Benjamin J. and Mabel T. Ricker House - Grinnell College". www.grinnell.edu.
  36. ^ "Ricker House sold to private citizens: New owners of Prairie-style architectural landmark remain dedicated to its historic preservation". The Scarlet and Black. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  37. ^ "Poweshiek County Chronicle Republican". Des Moines Register.
  38. ^ Grinnell: A Century of Progress, p.10. Grinnell: Grinnell Herald-Register, 1954.
  39. ^ "Grinnell-Newburg CSD". www.grinnell-k12.org.
  40. ^ "Grinnell-Newburg CSD - Grinnell High School". www.grinnell-k12.org.
  41. ^ "Central Iowa Christian School". Central Iowa Christian School.
  42. ^ "Iowa Valley Grinnell - Marshalltown Community College".
  43. ^ "Our History | UnityPoint Health Grinnell Regional Medical Center". www.unitypoint.org. Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  44. ^ "New Drake Community Library opens". The Scarlet and Black. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  45. ^ "Digital Grinnell | sites/Default/Themes/Digital_grinnell_bootstrap/Primary_Libraries.PNG".
  46. ^ "Poweshiek History Preservation Project · Drake Community Library".
  47. ^ "Circulation for Visitors - Grinnell College". www.grinnell.edu.
  48. ^ "About Joel Stewart". Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  49. ^ a b "Ahrens Park Foundation".
  50. ^ "Ahrens Family Center". Grinnell, IA.
  51. ^ "Aquatic Center - Grinnell, IA - Official Website". www.grinnelliowa.gov.
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  55. ^ "Faulconer Gallery - Grinnell College". www.grinnell.edu.
  56. ^ "Iowa State Rail Plan Final" (PDF). Iowa Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-10-18. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  57. ^ "The Peppertree at the Depot Crossing". www.facebook.com.
  58. ^ "Crossing Inventory Lookup for Crossing 193096Y". Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  59. ^ "Crossing Inventory Lookup for Crossing 607495J". Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  60. ^ "Airport - Grinnell, IA - Official Website". www.grinnelliowa.gov.
  61. ^ "AirNav: Grinnell Regional Airport". www.airnav.com.
  62. ^ "ImagineGrinnell » Green - Playing - Growing". imaginegrinnell.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  63. ^ "Home - Greater Poweshiek Community Foundation". Greater Poweshiek Community Foundation. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
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  70. ^ Edgar, Laura (December 1, 2014). "Abby Williams Hill". Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History. Vol. 28, no. 4. p. 13-20.
  71. ^ "Grinnell Artist: Joe Lacina". The Scarlet and Black. October 5, 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-04-13. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  72. ^ "Illinois Blue Book 19971998,' Biographical Sketch of Bernard E. Pedersen, p. 61.
  73. ^ "The Billy Robinson Story / Grinnell's Pioneer Aviator". Drake Community Library Archives. Retrieved 2011-05-16.
  74. ^ Billy Robinson's story. From the online collections of Stewart Library.
  75. ^ "June 1937: Edith Renfrow makes college history · "I recruited myself": Becoming a Grinnellian · Edith Renfrow Smith". edithrenfrowsmith.sites.grinnell.edu. Retrieved 2024-01-18.
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External links[edit]