|Motto: "Jewel of the Prairie"|
Location of Grinnell, Iowa
|• Total||5.64 sq mi (14.61 km2)|
|• Land||5.60 sq mi (14.50 km2)|
|• Water||0.04 sq mi (0.10 km2)|
|Elevation||1,014 ft (309 m)|
|• Estimate (2012)||9,118|
|• Density||1,646.1/sq mi (635.6/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (CST) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP codes||50112, 50177|
|GNIS feature ID||0457150|
|Website||City of Grinnell, Iowa|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Arts and culture
- 6 Government and Infrastructure
- 7 Notable people
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Grinnell was founded in 1854 by Josiah B. Grinnell. The city was originally slated to be named "Stella," but J.B. Grinnell convinced other members of the colony to adopt his own name for the city, citing it as a rare and concise name. Grinnell was incorporated on April 28, 1865, and by 1880 Grinnell had a population of around 2000. Located at the junction of two railway lines (east-west line of the Rock Island Railroad and the north-south Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway), it became and remains the largest community in Poweshiek County.
Grinnell is home to Grinnell College, established in 1846. In 1889, Grinnell College and the University of Iowa played each other at Grinnell College in the first football game played west of the Mississippi River. On June 17, 1882, a tornado destroyed most of the college campus and much of the community with a death toll of 68. In 1889 fire destroyed most of the downtown area.
Grinnell was home to Spaulding Manufacturing. H.W. Spaulding began making carriages and spring wagons in Grinnell, Iowa in 1876. In 1909 the Spaulding Manufacturing Company added automobiles to its production line. At one time, the factory was the largest employer in the county. Automobile production ceased at the Spaulding factory in 1916 when it could no longer compete with the cheaper Ford automobile. The Spaulding factory site became home to the Spaulding Center for Transportation/Iowa Transportation Museum.
Grinnell has a humid continental climate with clear seasons, hot, humid summers, and cold, snowy winters. The precipitation averages 36.07 in (916 mm) yearly. Summers are the rainiest times of year, with over two thirds of the precipitation falling between April and September in an average year.
As of the census of 2010, there were 9,218 people, 3,567 households, and 2,026 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,646.1 inhabitants per square mile (635.6 /km2). There were 3,844 housing units at an average density of 686.4 per square mile (265.0 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.9% White, 2.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population.
There were 3,567 households of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 43.2% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.82.
The median age in the city was 35.6 years. 19% of residents were under the age of 18; 21.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 18.4% were from 25 to 44; 21.9% were from 45 to 64; and 19.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.3% male and 52.7% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,105 people, 3,498 households, and 2,067 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,825.7 people per square mile (704.5/km²). There were 3,725 housing units at an average density of 746.9 per square mile (288.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.88% White, 1.04% African American, 0.29% Native American, 2.01% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.57% of the population.
There were 3,498 households out of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.9% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.84.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.5% under the age of 18, 19.9% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,625, and the median income for a family was $48,991. Males had a median income of $33,956 versus $23,864 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,939. About 8.9% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
In the spring of 2005, Grinnell embarked upon a renovation project to make its downtown area more inviting for residents and visitors. The renovation encompassed new water mains, restoration of two-way traffic flow, brick crosswalks in the middle of each block, and more uniform parking spaces in front of downtown businesses. Additionally, a median strip at each intersection was designed with Grinnell's distinctive Jewel Box pattern. Infrastructure upgrades and aesthetic renovations were also planned for the southern section of the downtown area, to include Commercial Street.
Arts and culture
The Grinnell Area Arts Council (GAAC) began in 1979 and sponsors many of the creative projects in Grinnell, including various community theater plays, the community band and a summer arts camp. Each season, the GAAC offers a variety of different classes including theater classes, crafts classes, and language classes. GAAC also sponsors various events throughout the year, such as Music in the Park, a free event offered to community members. The Turlach Ur bagpipe band is also a program of GAAC.
The Faulconer Gallery at Grinnell College showcases exhibitions of regional, national, and internationally esteemed artists the year in a 7,400 square feet state-of-the-art museum space situated in the heart of Grinnell College's Bucksbaum Center for the Arts. Exhibitions by members of the Grinnell College art faculty can be seen throughout the year, and in May, the annual Student Art Salon features student work.
Grinnell has several notable architectural landmarks: Among them, include the Merchant's National Bank designed by architect Louis Sullivan in 1914. The bank is one in a series of small banks designed in the Midwest. The Ricker House was designed by Walter Burley Griffen Marion Mahony Griffin in 1911 and completed in 1912. It was the first of seven houses the Griffins designed for Iowa clients, six of which were built and the other five of which are in Mason City. Ricker House was purchased by Grinnell College in 2000 and is operated as a short-term residence for guests of the College.
- See Also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Poweshiek County, Iowa for more listings
Festivals and events
Grinnell Farmers Market features locally-grown produce, freshly baked goods, honey, james, plants and flowers, and handmade crafts. The market runs from May 16 through October 26 on Thursday and Saturdays. It is located in Grinnell's Central Park, located at 833 4th Avenue.
Grinnell Games is a weekend family sports festival. Community-organized events include Imagine Grinnell's Half Marathon and 5K Run, the Twilight Bike Criterium, The Amazing Chase, Twilight Trail Run, and the Warrior Run. Grinnell Games draws visitors from across the state with its family-friendly activities, sidewalk sales, live music, and a beer garden on Saturday night.
The Grinnell Herald-Register is a semi-weekly newspaper in Grinnell, Iowa. It was formed February 13, 1936 after the merger of the Grinnell Herald and Grinnell Register. The Herald was founded on August 16, 1871 as a semi-weekly newspaper, and the Register was founded in 1888. The Grinnell Herald, in turn, was originally founded as the Poweshiek County Herald on March 18, 1868.
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Government and Infrastructure
The first school in Grinnell was founded in 1855. Public schools within the Grinnell-Newburg School District include Fairview Elementary School (K-2nd grade for the eastern side of town), Bailey Park Elementary School (K-2nd grade for the western side of town), Davis School (3rd-4th grade), Grinnell Middle School (5th-8th grade) and Grinnell High School (9th-12th grade). There is one private school, Central Iowa Christian School, which enrolls about 35 students in kindergarten through eighth grade. Grinnell is home to Grinnell College, a private liberal arts college. Iowa Valley Community College also operates a satellite campus on the western edge of Grinnell.
Grinnell is served by Grinnell Regional Medical Center, an acute care hospital licensed for 81 beds. GRMC was established in 1967 after the merger of two hospitals. Nearly 60 physicians provide care at the medical center.
In 1901, Joel Stewart funded the construction of the current Stewart Library, which remains in service today as the headquarters for the Grinnell Area Arts Council. Plans for a new library for Grinnell began in 2006 with the passage of a Local Option Sales Tax (LOST) to assist with funding. In addition to the funds raised through the LOST tax, the library committed to raising $3.5 million in public funds through the Chapter campaign. Groundbreaking took place in the spring of 2008 and the library opened in the fall of 2009, now known as Drake Community Library.
Parks and recreation
Grinnell has nine parks that are run by Parks and Recreations, including Arbor Lake, Bailey Park, Central Park, Jaycee Park, Lions Park, Merrill Park, Miller Park, Thomazin Park, and Van Horn Park. Ahrens and Paschall Memorial Park is a privately run by the Claude & Dolly Ahrens Foundation. The city also boasts two aquatic centers, the Ahrens Family Center and the Grinnell Mutual Family Aquatic Center.
Grinnell Historical Museum was founded as a community collaborative effort through a contest for community development by the Grinnell Herald Register in 1950. Four women’s groups––two chapters of the DAR, the Historical and Literary Club, and the Tuesday Club, took as their project the creation of a museum. People responded enthusiastically; donations included a rope bed, a hair wreath, and the twisted bell clapper from the ruins of the first High School, which had burned. The house the museum is currently situated in was generously donated by Rubie Burton. Displays are of interest to visitors of all ages. The kitchen holds an electric refrigerator made by the Grinnell Washing Machine Company, one of the first 50 made in 1932. There is a Military exhibit with uniforms from the Civil War to the Vietnam war. The Carriage House holds several horse-drawn vehicles built by the Spaulding Carriage Factory in Grinnell.
Iowa Transportation Museum was built in order to recognize the special people across the transportation industry. The Museum received $3.6 million in federal appropriation through the efforts of Senator Chuck Grassley and the Iowa congressional delegation. Phase One of the construction project was recently completed in April 2012. The former administrative building of the Spaulding Manufacturing Company has been restored to its original appearance.
The Grinnell Regional Airport makes private and charter flights out of Grinnell. Local cab companies include the Jewel Cab and Peoplerides.
- See also: Grinnell College's Notable alumni
- John O. Bailey (1880-1959), judge and politician who served as the Chief Justice of the Oregon Supreme Court, was born in Grinnell and attended local schools before enrolling at Harvard University.
- Bruce Braley (born 1957), member of the U.S. House of Representatives for Iowa's 1st congressional district, was born in Grinnell.
- Jeff Criswell (born 1964), offensive lineman who played twelve seasons in the National Football League, was born in Grinnell.
- Kirby Criswell (born 1957), linebacker who played two seasons in the National Football League, was born and raised in Grinnell and attended Grinnell High School.
- Josiah Bushnell Grinnell (1821–1891), city founder and abolitionist to whom Horace Greeley is quoted as having said: "Go West, young man, go West."
- Danai Gurira, actress, known for her role as Michonne in the hit television series The Walking Dead.
- Hallie Flanagan (1890–1969), Federal Theater Project head, grew up in Grinnell and also attended Grinnell College.
- Harry Hopkins (1890–1946), one of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's advisors and New Deal architect, lived in Grinnell as a teenager before attending Grinnell College.
- David R. Nagle (born 1943), Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1987 to 1993, was born in Grinnell.
- Robert Noyce (1927–1990), inventor and Intel co-founder who grew up in Grinnell and also attended Grinnell College.
- Billy Robinson (1884–1916), pioneer aviator, moved to Grinnell at the age of 12.
- "City of Grinnell, Iowa". City of Grinnell, Iowa. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Hamilton, Henry. "A Chapter in the Early History of Grinnell." Grinnell Herald, 1892.
- "Grinnell, Iowa". City-Data.com. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Iowa’s Underground Railroad". The University of Iowa. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Football: The Legendary Game of 1889". Grinnell College. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Grazulis, Thomas P. "The Most "Important" US Tornadoes by State". Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- 1889 fire Fire Ravaged Grinnell in 1889]
- Average Weather for Grinnell, IA – Temperature and Precipitation
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Additional documents on Grinnell architecture are available in pdf format from the Stewart Library website.
- Details and photos at http://web.grinnell.edu/faulconergallery/rickerhouse/
- http://www.grinnell.edu/faulconergallery/collection/rickerhouse. Retrieved 26 April 2013. Missing or empty
- Grinnell: A Century of Progress, p.10. Grinnell: Grinnell Herald-Register, 1954.
- Next Chapter campaign
- http://grinnellhistoricalmuseum.org/history-of-the-grinnell-historical-museum.html. Retrieved 26 April 2013. Missing or empty
- http://www.iowatransportationmuseum.com/. Retrieved 26 April 2013. Missing or empty
- http://www.grinnell.edu/aboutinfo/abr. Retrieved 26 April 2013. Missing or empty
- "John Ora Bailey Biography". Oregon.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "The Billy Robinson Story / Grinnell's Pioneer Aviator". Drake Community Library Archives. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
- Billy Robinson's story. From the online collections of Stewart Library.
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- City Data Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Grinnell, Iowa