Griselinia

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Griselinia
Griselinia littoralis.jpg
Griselinia littoralis foliage and flowers
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Griseliniaceae
Takht.[1]
Genus: Griselinia
G.Forst.
Species

Griselinia carlomunozii
Griselinia jodinifolia
Griselinia littoralis
Griselinia lucida
Griselinia racemosa
Griselinia ruscifolia
Griselinia scandens

Griselinia is a genus of seven species of shrubs and trees, with a highly disjunct distribution native to New Zealand and South America. It is a classic example of the Antarctic flora. It is the sole genus in the family Griseliniaceae; in the past it was often placed in Cornaceae but differs from that in many features. The leaves are evergreen, smooth and glossy above, often paler below. The flowers are very small, with five sepals and stamens and a single stigma. Petals 2–3 mm long. However, the female flower of G.lucida has no petals. The fruit is a small purple oval berry 5–10 mm long.

Description[edit]

In general, this tree can grow up to 10 meters or longer to 15 meters tall. It has rough and short branches which can stretch to 15 decimeters in diameter. The shape of apical leaf is broad-ovate to ovate-oblong or rounded with smooth margin. [2] The yellow-green leaf is thick and its width can be 5-12 cm long * 4-5cm wide, the leaf often be glossy and grow as alternative type, one side can be a little longer than the other side at base sometimes, this is one of the typical characters. The greenish flowers are borne on the slim twigs and they are quite small, they always grow up from late spring to mid-summer. The panicles of flower is small, too. Five petals are owned by the pistillate flowers. The dark purple or black berries can be 6-7 mm long and appearing in mid-summer and ripening from autumn to winter and the berries are small, too. [3]

Distribution[edit]

Natural global range[edit]

This plant is the native species in New Zealand and there is a large number of this plant in coastal area. It can be found not only in New Zealand but also in other regions with wet and warm climates like the south coast of Great Britain. In addition, this plant is fond to growing as screen to resist wind or other extreme situations.[4]

New Zealand range[edit]

This plant is a native plant in New Zealand. It can be found everywhere in New Zealand from lowland to high hills or forest or shrub land. [5] It can be found more quantity in south island than north island. [6] In north island, it always grow at high attitude than south island. [7]

Habitat preferences[edit]

This plant can grow at a lot of growing environments.[8]. In moist climates this plant might be an epiphyte with roots deep to the ground to absorb the water and nutrients. [9]

Life cycle/Phenology[edit]

There are three phases of the forest growth cycle:the gap phase, the building phase and the mature phase [10] It is easier to tell from these three phases. The diameter grow faster during the gap and building phase (0.31cm per year) that the leaves become bigger and bigger to absorb the sunlight to do photosynthesis than mature phase (just 0.19cm per year). Broadleaf grow very quickly in building phase than other phases. The gap phase is the period when the colonisation forming by the canopy opening. The building phase is the period when the seeding attain canopy status. The mature phase is the period when the canopy keep intact. The average height of this plant is 15 cm per year (range 10-18 cm).[11] The flowers are borne on the slim twigs and they are very small, the color is green, they always appear from late spring to mid-summer. [12] Greenish flowers have two type: male flowers and female flowers. They grow up at different trees.[13] The wind and insects are good media to transfer the pollen from one flower to another flower .[14] Fruits keep green until they get ready to become mature and fall down from the tree to the ground. [15] The dark purple or black berries can be 6-7 mm long and appearing in mid-summer and ripening from autumn to winter.[16]

Chemical characteristics[edit]

Petroselinic acid occurs as the major fatty acid in the species, indicating a relationship to the Apiaceae and the Araliaceae.[17] Recent genetic evidence from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has shown that Griselinia is correctly placed in the Apiales.[18]

New Zealand species[edit]

The two New Zealand species are large shrubs or trees, from 4–20 m (13–66 ft) tall. Both trees can be epiphytic or hemiepiphytic. The young tree often colonizes amongst other epiphytes like Collospermum and Astelia high in the forest canopy, before growing aerial roots down the trunk of its host. Upon contact with the ground the roots can become large – up to 25 cm (10 in) thick, and are easily identified for their heavy lengthwise corrugations. G. lucida seldom becomes a freestanding tree if having begun life epiphytically, and can often be seen to have collapsed where the host has died. Epiphytic growth in G. littoralis is less common but does occur in wetter climates.

The vernacular names are of Māori origin.

  • G. littoralis – Kapuka; leaves 6 cm (2 in) long.
  • G. lucida – Puka, akapuka, shining broadleaf; differs from G. littoralis in larger leaves, to 12 cm (5 in) long.

South American species[edit]

The five South American species are smaller shrubs, 1–5 m tall. All are known as Yelmo.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. Retrieved 2016-04-10. 
  2. ^ Allan, H.H (1961). Flora of New Zealand. 
  3. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  4. ^ Matthews, Julian (1983). Trees in New Zealand. 
  5. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  6. ^ Matthews, Julian (1983). Trees in New Zealand. 
  7. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  8. ^ Matthews, Julian (1983). Trees in New Zealand. 
  9. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  10. ^ Watt, A.S (1947). "Pattern and process in the plant community". Journal of Ecology. 35: 1–22. 
  11. ^ Smale, M.C; Kimberley, M.O (1993). "Regeneration patterns in montane conifer/broadleaved forest on Mt Pureora, New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 23 (2): 123–41. 
  12. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  13. ^ Moore, L.B; Irwin, J.B (1978). The Oxford book of New Zealand plants. 
  14. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  15. ^ Moore, L.B; Irwin, J.B (1978). The Oxford book of New Zealand plants. 
  16. ^ Dawson, John; Lucas, Rob (2000). Nature guide to the New Zealand forest. 
  17. ^ B. Breuer; T. Stuhlfauth; H. Fock; H. Huber (1987). "Fatty acids of some cornaceae, hydrangeaceae, aquifoliaceae, hamamelidaceae and styracaceae". Phytochemistry. 26 (5): 1441–1445. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81830-0. 
  18. ^ Maas, P.J.M. & Maas-van de Kamer, H. (2012). Neotropical Griseliniaceae. In: Milliken, W., Klitgård, B. & Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. [1]

External links[edit]