|The Grodno Ghetto|
Jews flooding the gates of Ghetto One during relocation action, November 1941
Grodno location in the Holocaust in Poland
|Location||Grodno, German-occupied Poland
|Incident type||Imprisonment, forced labor, starvation, transit to extermination camps|
|Organizations||Schutzstaffel (SS), Orpo, Belarusian Auxiliary Police|
|Victims||25,000 Polish Jews|
The Grodno Ghetto (Polish: getto w Grodnie, Hebrew: עברית) was a World War II ghetto established in November 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Grodno for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews in German-occupied eastern Poland. Until the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 Grodno (now, Belarus) was part of the Białystok Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic. Following the secret pact signed with Germany, the Soviets annexed the region temporarily in 1939 to the Belarusian SSR in the atmosphere of terror. Grodno was annexed by the Nazis in 1941 to the Bezirk Bialystok district of East Prussia in the course of the German attack on the Soviet positions in eastern Poland codenamed Operation Barbarossa.
The Ghetto, run by Nazi German Schutzstaffel (SS), consisted of two interconnected units about 2 km apart. The Ghetto One was established in the Old Town district, around the synagogue (Shulhoif), with some 15,000 Jews crammed into an area less than half a square kilometer. The Ghetto Two was created in the Słobódka suburb, with around 10,000 Jews incarcerated in it. Ghetto Two was larger than the main ghetto but far more ruined. The reason for the split was determined by the concentration of Jews within the city and less need to transfer them from place to place. Their situation however, had considerably worsened with the ghettos' locations highly inadequate in terms of sanitation, water and electricity.
The separation of the ghettos would later enable the Germans to exterminate their population with greater ease. The larger ghetto was liquidated in 1943, a year-and-a-half after its establishment, and the smaller one, a few months earlier.
Establishment and organization
Twelve days into the German occupation of the city a number of restrictions and prohibitions were enforced by the new administration. All Jews were ordered to register and the word Jude (German for Jew) was stamped into their identity cards. They were forbidden to walk on the sidewalks; and allowed to walk only on roads in a single file. On 30 June 1941, it became mandatory for all Jews to wear an identifying badge.
Ghetto One was established in the city's central part, close to the castle and around the synagogue. Jews had already concentrated in that area before the founding of the ghetto, but the space was greatly reduced nonetheless. All 15,000 Jews living nearby were forced into an area less than half a square kilometer, between Wilenska Street on one side, and Zamkowa Street (renamed Burg Strasse) on the other. The ghetto was surrounded by a 2 metre fence. The entrance to the ghetto was on Zamkowa Street between the sidewalk and the road. Some of the houses on that street were demolished. The total area of the ghetto would shrink in time; as the transports of the Jews went on to the transit camp in Kiełbasin, and then on to the death camp in Treblinka. Just before its closure, Ghetto One included only a few buildings on Zamkowa Street.
Ghetto Two was created behind the railway tracks in the Słobódka (Slobodka) suburb, next to the old army barracks near the market square. The neighborhood was underdeveloped, with fewer houses and a lot of empty lots. Some 10,000 Jews were herded into this ghetto, larger in size than Ghetto One but far more dilapidated. They were given only six hours to move in without the use of vehicles, resulting in near panic, with thousands of Jews flooding the gates. The ghetto was surrounded by a fence, which ran along Skidel Street. The entrance to the ghetto was from Artyleryjska Street (renamed Kremer Strasse).
In both ghettos ration cards were introduced in the bakeries. The Jews were allowed to purchase about 200 grams of bread a day for a token payment. The Judenrat was permitted to run a butcher shop with horse meat available from time to time. Potatoes were distributed from the cellar of the Great Synagogue. There were public kitchens in both ghettos serving up to 3,000 meals a day without meat or fat but with a piece of bread (50-100 grams). A separate pot was used for those who wanted kosher food.
Mass executions were conducted in Grodno on 2 November 1942. On the same day, both ghettos were sealed off from the outside. The first deportation action took place at the Słobódka Ghetto two weeks later on 15 November 1942. Some 4,000 Jewish tradesmen were transferred to Ghetto One, and all remaining prisoners were marched to the Sammellager in Kiełbasin for departure aboard Holocaust trains to Auschwitz-Birkenau. The successive liquidation of the ghetto was performed with the participation of Orpo battalions and all available men from Gestapo, SiPo, Kripo, and Schupo, reinforced by units of the Belarusian Auxiliary Police. The first deportation train arrived at Birkenau three days later on 18 November. Before death, some Jews were ordered to sign postcards in German that read "Being treated well, we are working and everything is fine".
|Date of arrival||Jews||Selected for work||Exterminated|
|20 Jan. 1943||2,000||256 (155 men, 101 women)||1,744|
|21 Jan. 1943||2,000||297 (175 men, 122 women)||1,003|
|22 Jan. 1943||3,650||594 (365 men, 229 women)||3,056|
|23 Jan. 1943||2,000||426 (235 men, 191 women)||1,574|
|24 Jan. 1943||2,000||226 (166 men, 60 women)||1,774|
|Total||11,650||1,799 (1,096 men, 703 women)||9,851|
|Source: Danuta Czech, Kalendarium der Ereignisse im Konzentrationslager Auschwitz-Birkenau, Rowohlt, 1989, pp. 336-337, 348, 354.|
The next deportation action from Ghetto One to transit camp in Kiełbasin (5 kilometres (3.1 mi) distance) began at the end of November 1942. There were 22,000–28,000 Jews from 22 cities, towns and villages imprisoned there by that time. In Kiełbasin (now Kolbasino), the Jews were loaded onto the same windowless freight cars and sent to Auschwitz and Treblinka. In early March 1943 the remaining Jews from the Ghetto were sent to the Białystok Ghetto (82 km distance). On 13 March 1943 Grodno was declared Judenrein by announcements posted in public. Until November 1943 the inmates from Kiełbasin were either massacred or sent for extermination at Majdanek and Treblinka, soon after the courageous Białystok Ghetto uprising was extinguished in the district. On 14 July 1944 the Red Army liberated Grodno.
During the ghetto liquidation, there were numerous Jewish escape, and rescue attempts by Catholic Poles. In March 1943, Meir Trachtenberg with his wife and son crossed the ghetto boundary and walked for 20 kilometres (12 mi) to Dulkowszczyzna, where they were rescued by Polish Righteous Anna and Stanisław Krzywicki. All survived. Polish Righteous Krystyna Cywińska who lived in Grodno with two children, was killed in 1943 for saving Jews. She was arrested after one of the Jewish girls at her home, Bella Ilin, went with her daughter Danuta Cywińska back to the ghetto to rescue Bella's mother and brother. Bella (now Shulman) and Danuta were unsuccessful, but lived. Danuta rescued five other Jews soon thereafter. Polish medical doctor Antoni Docha was asked by his prewar colleague Dr. Chaim Blumstein to help him and his family escape. Docha bribed a Polish driver of a big German truck and went to the ghetto along with him. They put a dozen Jews under the rags and tarpaulin including Blumstein and Broide families and successfully crossed several German checkpoints. The driver finally broke down and asked Docha along with everybody else to get out of the lorry. They reached Docha's house in Indura on foot. Antoni Docha and his wife Janina took in more Jews as the time went on. All survived. Many kept corresponding after the war.
After World War II, Poland's borders were redrawn in accordance with the demands made by Josef Stalin during the Tehran Conference, which were confirmed (as not negotiable) at the Yalta Conference of 1945. Grodno (Cyrillic: Гродно) was then incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR of the Soviet Union. The remaining Polish population was expelled and resettled back within the new borders of Poland before the end of 1946. The Jewish community was never restored. According to Encyclopedia Judaica: "In the mid-1950s the Jewish cemetery was plowed up. Tombstones were taken away and used for building a monument to Lenin." On 31 December 1991 the USSR officially ceased to exist. Since than, Grodno has been one of the district centres of the Grodno Region in sovereign Belarus.
Notes and references
- Bernd Wegner (1997). From peace to war: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the world, 1939–1941. Berghahn Books. p. 74. ISBN 1-57181-882-0.
- Stosunki polsko-białoruskie pod okupacją sowiecką, (Polish-Belarusian relations under the Soviet occupation). Bialorus.pl (Polish)
- Encyklopedia PWN (2015). "Okupacja sowiecka ziem polskich 1939–41" [Soviet occupation of Poland in 1939-41]. Przywracanie Pamięci (in Polish). Polscy Sprawiedliwi. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Noah Archer & Chris Webb (2007). "The Grodno Ghetto". H.E.A.R.T.; as well as Yad Vashem, "Lost Jewish Worlds - Grodno", and "History and Geography of Grodno", at The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
- Krzysztof Bielawski (2012), Kiełbasin, ul. O. Solomowoj - były nazistowski obóz tranzytowy. POLIN Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich.
- Yad Vashem Photo Archives 1366/193, Holocaust History: Ghetto in Grodno, Poland. End of November 1942 – January 1943.
- Felix Zandman, J. Szwarc and A. May, eds. (2016). "Liquidation of the Ghettos and the Deportations to the Camps (November 2, 1942 – March 12, 1942)". The German Occupation - 4. Lost Jewish Worlds.
- Andrea Simon (2002). Bashert: A Granddaughter's Holocaust Quest. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 228. ISBN 1578064813.
- Donald M. McKale (2006). Hitler's Shadow War: The Holocaust and World War II. Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 253. ISBN 1461635470.
- Geni.com (2017). "Kielbasin Transit Camp". Geni family tree project.
- The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews (English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon, (Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm (English). Accessed July 12, 2011.
- Sprawiedliwi (2015). "Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata" [Righteous among the Nation]. Tytuł przyznany: Anna Krzywicka and Stanisław Krzywicki. Sprawiedliwi.org. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Sprawiedliwi (2015). "Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata" [Righteous among the Nation]. Tytuł przyznany: Krystyna Cywińska and Danuta Jurkowska nee Cywińska. Sprawiedliwi.org. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Sprawiedliwi (2015). "Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata" [Righteous among the Nation]. Tytuł przyznany: Janina Docha nee Bartoszewicz and Antoni Docha. Sprawiedliwi.org. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Encyclopedia Judaica (2008). "Virtual Jewish World: Grodno". After World War II. The Gale Group.
- Sylwester Fertacz (2005), "Krojenie mapy Polski: Bolesna granica" (Carving of Poland's map). Magazyn Społeczno-Kulturalny Śląsk. Retrieved from the Internet Archive on 5 June 2016.
- Simon Berthon, Joanna Potts (2007). Warlords: An Extraordinary Re-Creation of World War II. Da Capo Press. p. 285. ISBN 0306816504.
- Chabad Center - The Jewish Community of Grodno, 2007
- (Polish) Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich, Sprawiedliwi wśród Narodów Świata.
- Weiner, Rebecca. Virtual Jewish History Tour
- Dr. Mordecai Paldiel, "The Face of the Other: Reflections on the Motivations of Gentile Rescuers of Jews" (PDF). (83.7 KB) Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.