|Province of the Netherlands|
|Anthem: "Grönnens Laid"
"Song of Groningen"
Location of Groningen in the Netherlands
|• King's Commissioner||Max van den Berg (PvdA)|
|• Total||2,967 km2 (1,146 sq mi)|
|• Land||2,337 km2 (902 sq mi)|
|• Water||0,630 km2 (240 sq mi)|
|Area rank||7th nationally (2013)|
|• Rank||9th nationally (2013)|
|• Density||200/km2 (510/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||8th nationally (2013)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|ISO 3166 code||NL-GR|
Groningen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣroːnɪŋə(n)] ( ); Gronings: Grönnen; West Frisian: Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. In the east it borders the German state of Niedersachsen (districts of Leer and Emsland), in the south Drenthe, in the west Friesland and in the north the Wadden Sea. In 2013, it had a population of 580,875 and a total area of 2,967 km2 (1,146 sq mi).
The area was subsequently part of Frisia, the Frankish Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Dutch Republic, which is the precursor state of the Netherlands. In the 14th century, the city of Groningen became a member of the Hanseatic League.
The capital of the province and the seat of the provincial government is the city of Groningen. Since 2007, Max van den Berg is the King's Commissioner in the province. A coalition of the Labour Party, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Democrats 66, and ChristianUnion forms the executive branch. The province is divided into 23 municipalities.
The land is mainly used for agriculture. There are sea ports in Delfzijl and Eemshaven. The Groningen gas field was discovered in 1959. It is home to the University of Groningen and Hanze University of Applied Sciences.
During the Middle Ages, central control was remote, and the city of Groningen acted as a city-state, exerting a dominating influence on the surrounding Ommelanden. In the 14th century, Groningen became one of the towns within the Hanseatic League.
Around 1500, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor gave Groningen and Friesland to Albert III, Duke of Saxony, who could however not establish permanent control. In 1514/15 Groningen came to the Duchy of Guelders, and in 1536 to the Habsburg Netherlands.
In 1594, Groningen was conquered by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, precursor state of the Netherlands, to which it belonged henceforth.
East Groningen was the scene of a particularly fierce class struggle in the 19th and 20th centuries. Perhaps not coincidentally, Groningen boasts the only municipality (Beerta) where the Communist Party of the Netherlands has ever had a mayor (Hanneke Jagersma).
Groningen is situated in the north of the Netherlands. With to the west the province Friesland, to the south the province Drenthe, to the east the German districts Leer and Emsland in the state Lower Saxony, and to the north the North Sea, Ems, and Dollart.
In the Wadden Sea of Groningen, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2009, there are the large sandbank Simonszand and the three uninhabited islands Rottumeroog, Rottumerplaat, and Zuiderduintjes. The Lauwersmeer National Park is located on the border between Groningen and Frisia.
Land use in Groningen is mainly agricultural; it has a large natural gas field near Slochteren. Since 1986, the exploitation of the Groningen gas field caused earthquakes in the region with magnitudes up to 3.6.
Groningen is home to the Low Saxon dialect called Gronings (Grönnegs / Grunnegs in Gronings regional language), with local nuances. Nowadays, many inhabitants of the province don't speak the dialect, especially in the city of Groningen where many outsiders have moved.
Martinitoren, icon of the provincial capital of Groningen
Der Aa-kerk in Groningen
Groninger Museum in Groningen
Hanging kitchens of Appingedam
Star fort of Bourtange
Windmill Goliath in Eemshaven
Strawboard factory in Scheemda
A provincial government in the Netherlands consists of a Provincial Council, the directly elected legislative branch, and a Provincial Executive, the executive branch. The King's Commissioner is chairman of both branches. In Groningen, the Provincial Council consists of 43 members and the Provincial Executive consists of the King's Commissioner and six deputies. The goverment has its seat in the city of Groningen, which is the provincial capital.
Max van den Berg, member of the Labour Party, is the King's Commissioner in Groningen since 2007. In the last provincial elections in 2011, the Labour Party became the largest party with 25% of the votes. Following the elections, a coalition was formed by the Labour Party (PvdA), the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), Democrats 66 (D66), and GreenLeft (GL). In 2013, GreenLeft left the coalition and was replaced by the ChristianUnion (CU).
|People's Party for Freedom and Democracy||34,701||13.17||+1.48||6||+1|
|Christian Democratic Appeal||31,517||11.96||-7.42||5||-4|
|Party for Freedom||20,373||7.73||+7.73||3||+3|
|Party for the North||8,312||3.2||-0.49||1||0|
|Party for the Animals||5,601||2.13||-0.03||1||0|
The province of Groningen is divided into 23 municipalities:
|Appingedam||12025||24.58 km2 (9.49 sq mi)||506 /km2 (1,310 /sq mi)|
|Bedum||10494||44.96 km2 (17.36 sq mi)||235 /km2 (610 /sq mi)|
|Bellingwedde||8929||110.08 km2 (42.50 sq mi)||82 /km2 (210 /sq mi)|
|De Marne||10217||240.33 km2 (92.79 sq mi)||61 /km2 (160 /sq mi)|
|Delfzijl||25736||227.50 km2 (87.84 sq mi)||193 /km2 (500 /sq mi)|
|Eemsmond||15924||543.35 km2 (209.79 sq mi)||84 /km2 (220 /sq mi)|
|Groningen||198201||83.75 km2 (32.34 sq mi)||2,539 /km2 (6,580 /sq mi)|
|Grootegast||12167||87.74 km2 (33.88 sq mi)||140 /km2 (360 /sq mi)|
|Haren||18788||50.73 km2 (19.59 sq mi)||412 /km2 (1,070 /sq mi)|
|Hoogezand-Sappemeer||34307||72.99 km2 (28.18 sq mi)||514 /km2 (1,330 /sq mi)|
|Leek||19611||64.28 km2 (24.82 sq mi)||310 /km2 (800 /sq mi)|
|Loppersum||10199||111.99 km2 (43.24 sq mi)||92 /km2 (240 /sq mi)|
|Marum||10378||64.89 km2 (25.05 sq mi)||161 /km2 (420 /sq mi)|
|Menterwolde||12258||81.62 km2 (31.51 sq mi)||153 /km2 (400 /sq mi)|
|Oldambt||38564||295.96 km2 (114.27 sq mi)||169 /km2 (440 /sq mi)|
|Pekela||12698||50.20 km2 (19.38 sq mi)||259 /km2 (670 /sq mi)|
|Slochteren||15552||158.87 km2 (61.34 sq mi)||103 /km2 (270 /sq mi)|
|Stadskanaal||32769||119.94 km2 (46.31 sq mi)||278 /km2 (720 /sq mi)|
|Ten Boer||7477||45.73 km2 (17.66 sq mi)||165 /km2 (430 /sq mi)|
|Veendam||27784||78.68 km2 (30.38 sq mi)||365 /km2 (950 /sq mi)|
|Vlagtwedde||15883||170.55 km2 (65.85 sq mi)||95 /km2 (250 /sq mi)|
|Winsum||13847||102.53 km2 (39.59 sq mi)||137 /km2 (350 /sq mi)|
|Zuidhorn||18777||128.37 km2 (49.56 sq mi)||150 /km2 (390 /sq mi)|
The motorway A7 (E22) connects the city of Groningen with Friesland in the west and Germany in the east. The motorway A28 (E232) starts at the city of Groningen and runs south connecting it with Drenthe.
There are six railways located partially or entirely in the province of Groningen. The railway station Groningen connects several of these railways and is the only railway station in the province with an intercity service. Nederlandse Spoorwegen and Arriva are operating the railway services.
|Trajectory||Railway stations in Groningen|
|Groningen–Delfzijl||Groningen – Groningen Noord – Sauwerd – Bedum – Stedum – Loppersum – Appingedam – Delfzijl West – Delfzijl|
|Harlingen–Nieuweschans||Friesland – Grijpskerk – Zuidhorn – Groningen – Groningen Europapark – Kropswolde – Martenshoek – Hoogezand-Sappemeer – Sappemeer Oost – Zuidbroek – Scheemda – Winschoten – Bad Nieuweschans|
|Ihrhove–Nieuweschans||Germany – Bad Nieuweschans|
|Meppel–Groningen||Drenthe – Haren – Groningen Europapark – Groningen|
|Sauwerd–Roodeschool||Sauwerd – Winsum – Baflo – Warffum – Usquert – Uithuizen – Uithuizermeeden – Roodeschool|
|Stadskanaal–Zuidbroek||Stadskanaal – Veendam – Zuidbroek|
The international airport that serves Groningen is Groningen Airport Eelde, which is located in Eelde in the province of Drenthe. Its summer destinations are Antalya, Faro, Girona, Gran Canaria, Heraklion, Kos, Palma de Mallorca, and Tenerife. Its winter destinations are Innsbruck and Salzburg. The general aviation airports in the province are Oostwold Airport in Oostwold and Stadskanaal Airfield in Stadskanaal.
The Hanze University of Applied Sciences, the NHL University of Applied Sciences, and the Stenden University of Applied Sciences in the city of Groningen are the province's publicly funded professional universities.
Dagblad van het Noorden is a regional daily newspaper based in the city of Groningen. It was founded in 2002 by merging Nieuwsblad van het Noorden, Groninger Dagblad, and Drentse Courant. In 2013, the newspaper had a circulation of 117,028.
People from the province of Groningen:
- (Dutch) Bodemgebruik; uitgebreide gebruiksvorm, per gemeente , Statistics Netherlands, 2013. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Bevolking; geslacht, leeftijd, burgerlijke staat en regio, 1 januari, Statistics Netherlands, 2013. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- Hanseatic city, Toerisms Groningen. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Aardbevingen door gaswinning in Noord-Nederland, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2013. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- The ports, Groningen Seaports. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- Jane Whaley, "The Groningen Gas Field", GEO ExPro Magazine, 2009. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- Provincial Council and Provincial Executive, Province of Groningen. Retrieved on 28 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Over Gedeputeerde Staten, Province of Groningen. Retrieved on 28 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Verkiezingsuitslagen Provinciale Staten 1918 - heden, Electoral Council. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Collegeprogramma 2011-2015, Province of Groningen. Retrieved on 28 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Henk Staghouwer nieuwe gedeputeerde in Groningen: ChristenUnie vervangt GroenLinks, Groninger Internet Courant, 2013. Retrieved on 27 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Leeuwarden - Groningen, Sporenplan. Retrieved on 8 March 2014.
- Destinations, Groningen Airport Eelde. Retrieved on 8 March 2014.
- Home, Oostwold Airport. Retrieved on 8 March 2014.
- (Dutch) Vliegveld Stadskanaal, Stadskanaal Airfield. Retrieved on 8 March 2014.
- Who are we?, University of Groningen, 2013. Retrieved on 28 January 2014.
- Key Figures, University of Groningen, 2014. Retrieved on 28 January 2014.
- (Dutch) Verspreide oplage uitgesplitst naar binnen- en buitenland per titel, NDP Nieuwsmedia, 2014. Retrieved on 24 Februari 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Groningen (province).|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Groningen (province).|
- Province of Groningen, official website
- Texts on Wikisource:
|Friesland||Lower Saxony (DE)|