Groom of the Stool
The physical intimacy of the role naturally led to his becoming a man in whom much confidence was placed by his royal master and with whom many royal secrets were shared as a matter of course. This secret information—while it would never have been revealed, for it would have led to the discredit of his honour—in turn led to his becoming feared and respected and therefore powerful within the royal court in his own right. The office developed gradually over decades and centuries into one of administration of the royal finances, and under Henry VII, the Groom of the Stool became a powerful official involved in setting national fiscal policy, under the "chamber system".
Later, the office was renamed Groom of the Stole. The Tudor historian David Starkey classes this change as classic Victorianism: "When the Victorians came to look at this office, they spelt it s-t-o-l-e, and imagined all kinds of fictions about elaborate robes draped around the neck of the monarch at the coronation;" however, the change is in fact seen as early as the 17th century.
The Groom of the Stool was a male servant in the household of the English monarch who was responsible for assisting the king in his toileting needs. It is a matter of some debate as to whether the duties involved cleaning the king's bottom, but the groom is known to have been responsible for supplying a bowl, water and towels and also for monitoring the king's diet and bowel movements and liaising with the Royal Doctor about the king's health. The appellation "Groom of the Close Stool" derived from the item of furniture used as a toilet. It also appears as "Grom of the Stole" as the word "Groom" comes from the Old Low Franconian word "Grom".
In the Tudor era
By the Tudor age, the role of Groom of the Stool was fulfilled by a substantial figure, such as Hugh Denys (d. 1511) who was a member of the Gloucestershire gentry, married to an aristocratic wife, and who died possessing at least four manors. The function was transformed into that of a virtual minister of the royal treasury, being then an essential figure in the king's management of fiscal policy.
In the early years of Henry VIII's reign, the title was awarded to court companions of the king who spent time with him in the privy chamber. These were generally the sons of noblemen or important members of the gentry. In time they came to act as virtual personal secretaries to the king, carrying out a variety of administrative tasks within his private rooms. The position was an especially prized one, as it allowed unobstructed access to the king.:42 David Starkey writes: "The Groom of the Stool had (to our eyes) the most menial tasks; his standing, though, was the highest ... Clearly then, the royal body service must have been seen as entirely honourable, without a trace of the demeaning or the humiliating." Further, "the mere word of the Gentleman of the Privy Chamber was sufficient evidence in itself of the king's will", and the Groom of the Stool bore "the indefinable charisma of the monarchy".
Evolution and discontinuation
The office was exclusively one serving male monarchs, so on the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, it was replaced by the First Lady of the Bedchamber, first held by Kat Ashley. The office effectively came to an end when it was "neutralised" in 1559.
On the accession of James I, the male office was revived as the senior Gentleman of the Bedchamber, who always was a great nobleman who had considerable power because of its intimate access to the king. During the reign of Charles I, the term "stool" appears to have lost its original signification of chair. From 1660 the office of Groom of the Stole (revived with the Restoration of the Monarchy) was invariably coupled with that of First Gentleman (or Lady) of the Bedchamber; as effective Head of the royal Bedchamber, the Groom of the Stole was a powerful individual who had the right to attend the monarch at all times and to regulate access to his or her private quarters. Incongruously, the office of Groom of the Stole continued in use during the reign of Queen Anne, when it was held by a duchess who combined its duties with those of Mistress of the Robes.
Under the Hanoverians the 'Groom of the Stole' began to be named in The London Gazette. In 1726, John Chamberlayne wrote that while the Lord Chamberlain has oversight of all Officers belonging to the King's Chamber, 'the Precinct of the King's Bed-Chamber […] is wholly under the Groom of the Stole'. Chamberlayne defines the Groom of the Stole as the first of the Gentlemen of the Bedchamber; translating his title ('from the Greek') as 'Groom or Servant of the Long-robe or Vestment', he explains that he has 'the Office and Honour to present and put on his Majesty's first Garment or Shirt every morning, and to order the Things of the Bed-Chamber'. By 1740 the Groom of the Stole is described as having 'the care of the king's wardrobe'.
The office again fell into abeyance with the accession of Queen Victoria, though her husband, Prince Albert, and their son, Edward, Prince of Wales employed similar courtiers; but when Edward, prince of Wales, acceded to the throne as King Edward VII in 1901, he discontinued the office.
List of Grooms of the Stool
Before the Tudors
- William Grymesby is mentioned as Yoman of the Stoole in 1455, in A collection of ordinances and regulations for the government of the royal household, printed in 1790 (cited OED. This may, or may not, be the Willielmus Grymesby who was MP for Great Grimsby.
Grooms of the Stool under Henry VII
- Sir Edward Burton (d. 23 Apr 1524) of Longnor, Shropshire, father of Sir John Burton, Groom of the Stool to King Henry VIII.
- ?–1509: Hugh Denys of Osterley, Middlesex. Hugh Denys controlled the private and secret finances of King Henry VII.
Grooms of the Stool under Henry VIII (1509–1547)
- 1509–1526: Sir William Compton :97
- 1526–1536: Sir Henry Norris 
- 1536–1546: Sir Thomas Heneage 
- 1546–1547: Sir Anthony Denny :486
Heneage and Denny, as servants "whom he used secretly about him", were privy to Henry VIII's most intimate confidences about Anne of Cleves. He told them he doubted her virginity, on account of "her brests so slacke".
Grooms of the Stool to Edward VI (1547–1553)
Neither Mary I nor Elizabeth I appointed a Groom of the Stole.
- 1625–1631: Sir James Fullerton 
- 1626–1643: Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland
- 1643–c.1649: William Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford
- c.1649: Thomas Blagge:4
Grooms of the Stool to Henrietta Maria of France
Grooms of the Stole to Charles II (1660–1685)
- 1685–1688: Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough
Grooms of the Stole to William III (1689–1702)
Grooms of the Stole to Queen Anne (1702–1714)
- 1702–1711: Sarah Churchill, Countess of Marlborough (later Duchess of Marlborough)
- 1711–1714: Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset
Grooms of the Stole to Prince George
- 1683–1685: John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton
- 1685–1687: Robert Leke, 3rd Earl of Scarsdale
- 1697–1708: John West, 6th Baron De La Warr
- 1714–1719: Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset
- 1719–1722: Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland
- 1722–1723: Vacant
- 1723–1727: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin
- 1727–1735: Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin
- 1735–1750: Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke
- 1751–1755: Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle
- 1755–1760: William Nassau de Zuylestein, 4th Earl of Rochford
Grooms of the Stole to George III
- 1760–1761: John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
- 1761–1770: Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon
- 1770–1775: George Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol
- 1775: Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth
- 1775–1782: John Ashburnham, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham
- 1782–1796: Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth (later Marquess of Bath)
- 1796–1804: John Ker, 3rd Duke of Roxburghe
- 1804–1812: George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea
- 1812–1820: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
- 1820–1830: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
Grooms of the Stole to William IV
- 1830–1837: Charles Paulet, 13th Marquess of Winchester
Victoria did not appoint a Groom of the Stole; appointments were made, however, in the households of her husband and eldest son.
Grooms of the Stole to Prince Albert
- 1840–1841: Lord Robert Grosvenor (later Lord Ebury)
- 1841–1846: Brownlow Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Exeter
- 1846–1859: James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn (later Duke of Abercorn)
- 1859–1861: John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer
Grooms of the Stole to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales
- 1862–1866: John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer
- 1866–1877: Vacant?
- 1877–1883: Sir William Knollys
- 1883–1901: James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn
- For the role of the Groom of the Stool on the fiscal policy of Henry VII see: Starkey, D. The Virtuous Prince, 2009.
- Re. the "Chamber System" and "Chamber Finance" see: Grummitt, D. "Henry VII, Chamber Finance and the 'New Monarchy': some New Evidence". Journal of the Institute of Historical Research, vol.72, no.179, pp.229-243. Published online 2003.
- Starkey, D. "Monarchy in all its Magnificence", Daily Telegraph 21/12/2004 
- The London Gazette, 23 July 1685
- Ridgway, Claire. "What is a Groom of the Stool?". the Tudor Society. Tudor Society. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Johnson, Ben. "Groom of the Stool". Historic UK. Historic UK. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- Brewer, E. Cobham. "Grom of the Stole" Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus, 1898; Page 369.
- A Dictionary of the English Language. By Noah Webster, Chauncey Allen Goodrich, John Walker. Page 466.
- Starkey, David. The Virtuous Prince, 2004, chap. 16 discusses the important fiscal role of Hugh Denys, Groom of the Stool to Henry VII; & an article in the Independent newspaper (28/6/2004) by the same author, who states that the position effectively became neutralised on the accession of Elizabeth I
- Bruce Boehrer. "The Privy and Its Double: Scatology and Satire in Shakespeare's Theatre". in Dutton, Richard, A Companion to Shakespeare's Works: Poems, Problem Comedies, Late Plays, 2003. "The Groom of the Stool presided over the office of royal excretion that is, he had the task of cleaning the monarch's anus after a bowel movement.
- Nicholls, Mark (1999). A History of the Modern British Isles, 1529–1603: The Two Kingdoms. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-631-19334-0.
- Weir, Alison (2002). Henry VIII: The King and His Court. Random House. ISBN 978-0-345-43708-2.
- Quoted in Patterson, Orlande (1982). Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Harvard UP. p. 330.
- Sharpe, Kevin M.; Steven N. Zwicker (2003). Reading, Society and Politics in Early Modern England. Cambridge UP. p. 51.
- Brimacombe, Peter (2000). All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-312-23251-1.
- Bucholz, R. O. "'The bedchamber: Groom of the Stole 1660-1837', in Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 11 (Revised), Court Officers, 1660-1837, ed. R O Bucholz (London, 2006), pp. 13-14. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/office-holders/vol11/pp13-14 [accessed 5 July 2019]". British History Online. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 5 July 2019. External link in
- Haydn, Joseph (1851). The Book of Dignities. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.
- The London Gazette, various.
- Chamberlayne, John (1726). Magnae Britaniae Notitia Or the Present State of Great Britain, Volume 1. pp. +100–104.
- Dyche, Thomas (1740). A New General English Dictionary. London: Richard Ware.
- Burke, John, "A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, Enjoying Territorial Possessions Or High Official Rank: But Univested with Heritable Honours", 1838. A genealogy of the Burton family of Shropshire by Burke's Peerage.
- Starkey, D., The Virtuous Prince, 2008. Discussion about Hugh Denys and his role in the chamber
- Starkey, D.
- Ives, Eric William (2004). The life and death of Anne Boleyn: 'the most happy'. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-631-23479-1.
- Strype, John, Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. 1 part 2, Oxford (1822), 458-9, depositions of Heneage and Denny.
- Stanhope, Michael (by 1508–1552), History of Parliament Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Neil Cuddy, 'The Revival of the Entourage' in David Starkey, The English Court (London, 1987), p. 185.
- "FULLERTON, Sir James (c.1563-1631), of Broad Street, London and Byfleet, Surr". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
- Clarendon, Edward Hyde (1888). William Dunn Macray (ed.). The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England: Begun in the Year 1641. Clarendon Press. p. 146.
- Evelyn, John (1907). The Life of Margaret Godolphin. Chatto and Windus. p. 4.
- O'Conor, Charles (1819). Bibliotheca Ms. Stowensis. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Stowe Library, Vol. II. Seeley. p. 527.
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