Groombridge 34

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Groombridge 34
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Andromeda
Right ascension 00h 18m 22.88532s[1]
Declination +44° 01′ 22.6282″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 8.119/11.007[2]
Spectral type M1.4V + M4.1V[2]
U−B color index +1.24/+1.40[3]
B−V color index +1.56/+1.80[3]
Variable type Flare stars
Radial velocity (Rv) +11.62±0.08[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +2890.43[1] mas/yr
Dec.: +411.32[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 280.74 ± 0.31[5] mas
Distance 11.62 ± 0.01 ly
(3.562 ± 0.004 pc)
Companion Groombridge 34 B
Period (P) 2,600 yr
Semi-major axis (a) 41.15″
Eccentricity (e) 0.00
Inclination (i) 61.4°
Longitude of the node (Ω) 45.3°
Periastron epoch (T) 1745
GX And
Mass 0.404[7] M
Radius 0.3863 ± 0.0021[8] R
Luminosity (bolometric) 0.02589[note 1] L
Luminosity (visual, LV) 0.00637[note 2] L
Habitable zone inner limit 0.112[9] AU
Habitable zone outer limit 0.239[9] AU
Surface gravity (log g) 4.89[7] cgs
Temperature 3,730 ± 49[7] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] -0.32 dex
GQ And
Mass 0.159[2] M
Radius 0.192[2] R
Luminosity (bolometric) ~0.00262[note 1] L
Luminosity (visual, LV) 0.00041[note 2] L
Habitable zone inner limit 0.048[9] AU
Habitable zone outer limit 0.103[9] AU
Temperature 3,218[2] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] −0.30[2] dex
Other designations
GX/GQ Andromedae, BD+43° 44, GCTP 49, GJ 15 A/B, G 171-047/171-048, HD 1326, HIP 1475, LHS 3/4, LTT 10108/10109, SAO 36248.[10]
Database references
GJ 15 Ab
GJ 15 B
GJ 15 B

Groombridge 34 is a binary star system in the northern constellation of Andromeda. It was listed as entry number 34 in A Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars, published posthumously in 1838 by British astronomer Stephen Groombridge.[11] Based upon parallax measurements taken by the Hipparcos spacecraft, the system is located about 11.7 light-years from the Sun. This positions the pair among the nearest stars to the Solar System.

Both components are small, dim red dwarf stars that are too faint to be seen with the naked eye. They orbit around their common barycenter in a nearly circular orbit with a separation of about 147 AU and a period of around 2,600 years.[6] Both stars exhibit random variation in luminosity due to flares and they have been given variable star designations: the brighter member Groombridge 34 A is designated GX And, while the smaller component is designated GQ And.[12]

The star system has a relatively high proper motion of 2.9 arc seconds per year,[13] and is moving away from the Solar System at a velocity of 11.6 km/s.[4] It achieved perihelion some 15,000 years ago when it came within 11 ly (3.5 pc) of the Sun.[13]

Planetary system[edit]

In August 2014, a planet orbiting around Groombridge 34 A was reported.[8] The planet's existence was deduced from analysis of the radial velocities of the parent Star by the Eta-Earth Survey using HIRES at Keck Observatory.

The planet is thought to have a minimum mass of 5.35 ± 0.75 Earth masses,[14] and at its discovery was the sixth-nearest known exoplanet.

The combination of the measurements of the spectrometer CARMENES with the measurements of the HARPS and HIRES spectrographs made it possible to detect in 2017 the planet Grumbridge 34 A c (GJ 15 A c) with a mass of 51.8+5.5
the mass of the Earth and greatest rotation period for the red dwarfs — 7025+972

The Groombridge 34 A planetary system
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
Orbital period
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b ≥ 5.35±0.75 M 0.0717±0.0034 11.4433±0.0017 0.12?

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b From , where is the luminosity, is the radius, is the effective surface temperature and is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant
  2. ^ a b Using the absolute visual magnitude of Gliese 15 A, , and Gliese 15 B, , with the absolute visual magnitude of the Sun, , the two visual luminosities of the stars can be calculated by


  1. ^ a b c d van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. arXiv:0708.1752Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357.  Vizier catalog entry
  2. ^ a b c d e f Mann, Andrew W.; et al. (May 2015), "How to Constrain Your M Dwarf: Measuring Effective Temperature, Bolometric Luminosity, Mass, and Radius", The Astrophysical Journal, 804 (1): 38, Bibcode:2015ApJ...804...64M, arXiv:1501.01635Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/64, 64. 
  3. ^ a b Mermilliod, J.-C. (1986), "Compilation of Eggen's UBV data, transformed to UBV (unpublished)", Catalogue of Eggen's UBV data. SIMBAD, Bibcode:1986EgUBV........0M. 
  4. ^ a b Nidever, David L.; et al. (August 2002), "Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars", The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 141 (2): 503–522, Bibcode:2002ApJS..141..503N, arXiv:astro-ph/0112477Freely accessible, doi:10.1086/340570. 
  5. ^ Martell, Sarah; et al. (2016). "The GALAH Survey: Observational Overview and Gaia DR1 companion". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 465 (3): 3203. Bibcode:2017MNRAS.465.3203M. arXiv:1609.02822Freely accessible. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw2835. 
  6. ^ a b Lippincott, S. L. (March 1972), "Parallax and orbital motion of the two nearby long period visual binaries Groombridge 34 and ADS 9090.", Astronomical Journal, 77: 165–168, Bibcode:1972AJ.....77..165L, doi:10.1086/111261. 
  7. ^ a b c Berger, D. H.; et al. (2006). "First Results from the CHARA Array. IV. The Interferometric Radii of Low-Mass Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 644 (1): 475–483. Bibcode:2006ApJ...644..475B. arXiv:astro-ph/0602105Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/503318. 
  8. ^ a b Howard, Andrew W.; et al. (October 2014), "The NASA-UC-UH ETA-Earth Program. IV. A Low-mass Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth", The Astrophysical Journal, 794 (1): 9, Bibcode:2014ApJ...794...51H, arXiv:1408.5645Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/51, 51. 
  9. ^ a b c d Cantrell, Justin R.; et al. (October 2013), "The Solar Neighborhood XXIX: The Habitable Real Estate of Our Nearest Stellar Neighbors", The Astronomical Journal, 146 (4): 99, Bibcode:2013AJ....146...99C, arXiv:1307.7038Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/146/4/99. 
  10. ^ "V* GX And -- Flare Star", SIMBAD Astronomical Database, Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, retrieved 2016-02-09. 
  11. ^ Groombridge, Stephen (1838), Airy, George Biddell, ed., A Catalogue of Circumpolar Stars, J. Murray, p. 2. 
  12. ^ Petit, M. (October 1990), "Catalogue des étoiles variables ou suspectes dans le voisinage du Soleil", Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement (in French), 85 (2): 971, Bibcode:1990A&AS...85..971P. 
  13. ^ a b Bailer-Jones, C. A. L. (March 2015). "Close encounters of the stellar kind". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 575: 13. Bibcode:2015A&A...575A..35B. arXiv:1412.3648Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425221. A35. 
  14. ^ Howard, Andrew; et al. (2014), "The NASA-UC-UH Eta-Earth Program: IV. A Low-mass Planet Orbiting an M Dwarf 3.6 PC from Earth", Astrophysics Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, 794: 51, Bibcode:2014ApJ...794...51H, arXiv:1408.5645Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/51. 
  15. ^ Trifonov T. et al. First results from CARMENES visual-channel radial-velocity measurements, 2017

External links[edit]