|Cultural origins||Early 1990s, United States and Brazil|
|Derivative forms||Nu metal|
Groove metal (also known as post-thrash or neo-thrash) is a subgenre of heavy metal music. Music journalists and fans have used groove metal to describe Pantera, Exhorder and Machine Head. At its core, groove metal takes the intensity and sonic qualities of thrash metal and plays them at mid-tempo, with most bands making only occasional forays into fast tempo.
Characteristics and origins
Pantera's Cowboys from Hell album from 1990 was described as "groundbreaking" and "blueprint-defining" for the groove metal genre. King's X has been called the progenitors of the genre and their 1988 debut album Out of the Silent Planet is often cited as one of the major influences for groove metal, with dropped open tuning and lower, even tempos. Ian Christe credits Sepultura's Chaos A.D. and Pantera for creating the death metal–derived music of groove metal influencing later groups in the genre during the 1990s. Exhorder's debut Slaughter in the Vatican is also considered one of the first groove metal albums, having been released in 1990, the same year as Cowboys. Groove metal bands have incorporated thrash metal, and crossover thrash. Tommy Victor of Prong claims that the attitude of groove metal came from Bad Brains.
The style has been associated with bands such as Machine Head, Pantera, Exhorder, White Zombie, Fear Factory, King's X, Lamb of God, Sepultura, Soulfly, Cavalera Conspiracy, Gojira, Throwdown, Slipknot, Nevermore, Byzantine, late-period John Bush-era Anthrax, Spiritual Beggars, Texas Hippie Coalition, and Five Finger Death Punch. Veteran thrash metal band Annihilator were let go by Roadrunner Records in 1993 when the groove metal trend began being promoted by the label. During the 1990s, the term was occasionally used to describe funk-influenced alternative metal acts such as Primus and Jane's Addiction.
Influence on other genres
Pioneering groove metal bands such as Pantera (originally a glam metal and speed metal band in the 1980s) and Sepultura (originally playing thrash metal and death metal) laid the foundations for nu metal in the 1990s and some development of metalcore in the 2000s. Nu metal is an alternative metal subgenre which utilizes downtuned riffs, a more hip hop influenced beat accessible to rapping and turntablism and groove metal rhythms, while frequently lacking guitar solos and complex picking. Metalcore emphasizes general heavy metal characteristics as well as breakdowns, which are slower, intense passages that are conducive to moshing.
- Jaffer, Dave (September 9, 2017). "Threat Signal, Vigilance". Hour. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
- Coyle, Doc. "Hidden Gems: Rediscovering The '90s Post-Thrash Groove Metal Scene". VH1. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Christe (2003), Sound of the Beast, p. 264,
As close to death metal as any other gold-selling record before it, Chaos A.D. stripped down Sepultura's sound into a coarse metallic loop. The CD sold half a million copies, and alongside Pantera the band forged a streetwise, death-derived groove metal that inspired an upcoming generation of mavens in the 1990s.
- Tompkins, Joseph (2009). "What's the Deal with Soundtrack Albums? Metal Music and the Customized Aesthetics of Contemporary Horror". Cinema Journal. 49 (1). doi:10.1353/cj.0.0155.
- Birchmeier, Jason. "Pantera biography". Allmusic. Retrieved February 11, 2009.
- Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches. Chicago Review Press. p. 535. ISBN 978-1-55652-754-8.
- "Best Pantera Albums". About.com. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Projects in the Jungle review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Ramirez, Carlos. "Rediscovered Steel - Prong's 'Beg to Differ' - Noisecreep". Noisecreep. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Face Down biography". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Freeman, Phil. "Terra Incognita review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Freeman, Phil. "Black Rivers Flow review". Allmusic. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Best Sepultura CDs - Best Sepultura Albums - Best Albums by Sepultura - About.com". About.com. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- Cooper, Lana. "Ankla: Steep Trails < PopMatters". PopMatters. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Conquer review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Gojira biography". Allmusic. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
- "Nevermore - Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives". www.metal-archives.com.
- Lee, Cosmo. "Oblivion Beckons review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Jurek, Thom. "Mantra III review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
- Mihai, Andrei. "Five Finger Death Punch – 'American Capitalist' review". Retrieved September 4, 2016.
- Sciarretto, Ami. "Annihilator Haven't Played North America Since 1993". Noisecreep. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
- "Primus To Tour U.S. In November". MTV.com. October 21, 1999. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- Mullen, Brendan (2005). Whores: An Oral Biography Of Perry Farrell And Jane's Addiction. Da Capo Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780306813474. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- "Alternative Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time: Pantera". MTV. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- "MTVNews.com: The Greatest Metal Bands of All Time". MTV. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- "Heavy Metal Genres". About.com. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- Pieslak, Jonathan (2008). "Sound, text and identity in Korn's 'Hey Daddy'". Popular Music. 27: 35–52. doi:10.1017/S0261143008001451.
- Breihan, Tom (October 11, 2006). "Live: Trivium, the Jackson 5 of Underground Metal". Village Voice. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010.
The best part of every metalcore song is the breakdown, the part where the drums drop out and the guitars slow their frantic gallop to a devastating, precise crunch-riff and everyone in the moshpit goes extra nuts.
- Blush (2006), American Hardcore, p. 193,
Howie Abrams (NYHC scene): Mosh style was slower, very tribal – like a Reggae beat adapted to Hardcore. (...) It was an outbreak of dancing with a mid-tempo beat driven by floor tom and snare.