Grossane

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Grossane
Olive (Olea europaea)
Color of the ripe fruitBlack
Also calledGroussan, Grossanne
OriginFrance
Notable regionsVallée des Baux, Bouches-du-Rhône
HazardsOlive fruit fly, Prays oleae, Sooty moulds
UseOil and table
Oil contentLow
FertilitySelf-sterile
Growth formSpreading
LeafLanceolate
WeightHigh
ShapeSpherical
SymmetrySlightly asymmetrical

The Grossane is a cultivar of olives grown primarily in the Vallée des Baux and Bouches-du-Rhône regions of southern France. Though it can be used to produce oil, it is primarily used as a black table olive. Vulnerable to certain biological pests, it is highly resistant to cold and drought.

Extent[edit]

The Grossane is particularly common in the Vallée des Baux and Bouches-du-Rhône regions of southern France. It can also be found as far away as China.[1]

Synonyms[edit]

This cultivar is not known under any synonyms, though the spelling differs somewhat locally (Groussan, Grossanne).[1]

Characteristics[edit]

It is a cultivar of middle strength, with a spreading growth form and leaves of lanceolate shape and medium length and width. The olives are of high weight, ovoid shape and slightly asymmetrical. The stone has a rounded apex and a pointed base, with a rough surface and a mucro.[2]

The Grossane an intermediate cultivar in terms of flowering and ripening.[3] When fully mature, the colour of the fruit is black.[4]

Processing[edit]

Though a dual use cultivar, the Grossane is primarily used as a table olive.[3] The black olives have a sweet taste, and the fruit is freestone—the stone does not cling to the flesh.[3] It can also be used for the extraction of oil, but it gives a poor yield, and the oil has a short shelf-life.[3] The oil is said to have a "delicate flavor with a citrus aroma and slight fruitiness",[5] while others compare it to tomatoes.[6]

Agronomy[edit]

Its productivity is only intermediate, but this can be improved by the use of irrigation and fertilization. The Grossane has poor rooting ability, and is often grafted.[3] It is self-sterile, and needs other pollinators. Cultivars used for pollination are the Boutellian and Aglandau.[3]

It has low resistance to certain biological pests, such as the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae and sooty moulds.[7] On the other hand, it has high tolerance to cold and drought.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Cultivar name: Grossane". OLEA Databases. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  2. ^ "Grossane" (PDF). International Olive Council. Retrieved 2009-01-20.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Grossane". Santa Cruz Olive Tree Nursery. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  4. ^ "Grossane Olives". Practically Edible. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  5. ^ "Chateau D'Estoublon 'Grossane' Olive Oil". World Harvest International & Gourmet Foods. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  6. ^ Courboulex, Michel (2002). Les oliviers (in French). Paris: Éditions Rustica. p. 43. ISBN 2-84038-635-6.
  7. ^ "Detailed information for cultivar: Grossane". Seed and Plant Genetic Resources Service - AGPS. 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-20.[dead link]