Group 10 element
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|Group 10 in the periodic table|
28 Transition metal
46 Transition metal
78 Transition metal
110 unknown chemical properties
Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds). All are d-block transition metals. All known isotopes of darmstadtium are radioactive with short half-lives, and are not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories.
Like other groups, the members of this group show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, although for this group they are particularly weak, with palladium being an exceptional case. The relativistic stabilization of the 7s orbital is the explanation to the predicted electron configuration of darmstadtium, which, unusually for this group, conforms to that predicted by the Aufbau principle.
|Z||Element||No. of electrons per shell|
|28||nickel||2, 8, 16, 2|
|46||palladium||2, 8, 18, 18|
|78||platinum||2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1|
|110||darmstadtium||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (predicted)|
Darmstadtium has not been isolated in pure form, and its properties have not been conclusively observed; only nickel, palladium, and platinum have had their properties experimentally confirmed. All three elements are typical silvery-white transition metals, hard, and refractory, with high melting and boiling points.
Group 10 metals are white to light grey in color, and possess a high luster, a resistance to tarnish (oxidation) at STP, are highly ductile, and enter into oxidation states of +2 and +4, with +1 being seen in special conditions. The existence of a +3 state is debated, as the state could be an illusory state created by +2 and +4 states. Theory suggests that group 10 metals may produce a +6 oxidation state under precise conditions, but this remains to be proven conclusively in the laboratory other than for platinum.
Occurrence and production
Nickel occurs naturally in ores, and it is the earth's 22nd most abundant element. Two prominent groups of ores from which it can be extracted are laterites and sulfide ores. Indonesia holds the world's largest nickel reserve, and is also its largest producer.
The group 10 metals share several uses. These include:
- Decorative purposes, in the form of jewelry and electroplating.
- Catalysts in a variety of chemical reactions.
- Metal alloys.
- Electrical components, due to their predictable changes in electrical resistivity with regard to temperature.
- Superconductors, as components in alloys with other metals.
Biological role and toxicity
Nickel has an important role in the biochemistry of organisms, as part of the active center of enzymes. None of the other group 10 elements have a known biological role, but platinum compounds have widely been used as anticancer drugs.
Notes and references
- Lancashire, Robert J. "Chemistry of Nickel". LibreTexts. LibreTexts. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
- "Reserves of nickel worldwide as of 2020, by country (in million metric tons)". Statista. Statista. Retrieved 16 January 2022.