Group of 77
|Named after||Number of founding Member States|
|Formation||15 June 1964|
|Founded at||Geneva, Switzerland|
|Type||Intergovernmental voting bloc|
|Purpose||To provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests|
|Headquarters||United Nations Headquarters|
|Methods||Collective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies|
|134 Member States|
Chair of the Group of 77
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations (UN) is a coalition of 134 developing countries, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization headquartered in Geneva, but it has since expanded to 134 member countries.[a] Cuba holds its chairmanship for 2023, succeeding Pakistan.
The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by 77 non-aligned nations in the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun under the leadership of Raul Prebisch who had previously worked at ECLA. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament. It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order. It has been subject to criticism for its lacklustre support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty eradication initiatives.
As of 2020, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:
- Members of the Council of Europe, except for Azerbaijan.
- Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
- Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for its three South American members.
- Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.
Current founding members
- Burkina Faso[c]
- Central African Republic
- DR Congo
- Costa Rica
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- Saudi Arabia
- Sierra Leone
- Sri Lanka[f]
- Trinidad and Tobago
Other current members
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Brunei Darussalam
- Cabo Verde
- Côte D'Ivoire
- Equatorial Guinea
- The Gambia
- Marshall Islands
- Federated States of Micronesia
- North Korea
- Papua New Guinea
- Saint Kitts and Nevis
- Saint Lucia
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- São Tomé and Príncipe
- Solomon Islands
- South Africa
- South Sudan
- East Timor
- United Arab Emirates
- New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963 but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
- Mexico was a founding member but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
- South Korea was a founding member but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
- Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s, it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group from 1985 to 1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina was the last former Yugoslavian state to be a member of the G77 and is no longer a member as of 2019.
- Cyprus was a founding member but was no longer listed on the official membership list after it acceded to the European Union in 2004.
- Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976 but was no longer listed on the official membership list after it acceded to the European Union in 2004.
- Palau joined the Group in 2002 but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
- Romania was classed as a Latin American country for the purposes of the G77, having joined in 1976. The G77 was divided into geographical regions, and because there was technically no European area, Romania was placed under the umbrella of Latin America. Romania left the G77 following its accession to the European Union.
The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China or G77+China.
The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:
|Antigua and Barbuda||2008|
Group of 24
The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77.
- Non-Aligned Movement
- Third World
- Global South
- North–South divide
- South–South cooperation
- G20 developing nations
- Politics of climate change
- List of country groupings
- List of multilateral free-trade agreements
- Nozipho Mxakato-Diseko
- ^ China is officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself.
- ^ Joined as Dahomey.
- ^ Joined as Upper Volta.
- ^ Joined as the United Arab Republic.
- ^ Joined as Burma.
- ^ Joined as Ceylon.
- ^ Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
- ^ Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
- ^ Joined as Swaziland.
- ^ About the Group of 77:Aims
- ^ a b "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
- ^ About the Group of 77:Establishment
- ^ Prebisch, Raúl; Prebisch, Raul (October 1986). "El desarrollo económico de la América Latina y algunos de sus principales problemas". Desarrollo Económico. 26 (103): 479. doi:10.2307/3466824. hdl:11362/10183. ISSN 0046-001X. JSTOR 3466824.
- ^ a b c Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
- ^ Fitzmaurice, Malgosia; Ong, David M.; Merkouris, Panos (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
- ^ Oosthoek, Jan; Gills, Barry K. (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
- ^ Schiffman, Howard S. (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
- ^ Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
- ^ James Mark, Bogdan C. Iacob, Tobias Rupprecht, Ljubica Spaskovska, Cambridge University Press, 29 aug. 2019, 1989 A Global History of Eastern Europe, p. 125
- ^ James Mark, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, Steffi Marung, Indiana University Press, 11 feb. 2020, Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World, p. 43
- ^ United Nations University Press, 1995, State, Society and the UN System: Changing Perspectives on Multilateralism, p. 152
- ^ Bertrand Badie, Springer, Aug 21, 2012, Diplomacy of Connivance
- ^ "七十七国集团（Group of 77, G77）". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016.
- ^ "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by HE Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org.
Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
- ^ "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.