For example, if a stone is thrown into the middle of a very still pond, a circular pattern of waves with a quiescent center appears in the water. The expanding ring of waves is the wave group, within which one can discern individual wavelets of differing wavelengths traveling at different speeds. The longer waves travel faster than the group as a whole, but their amplitudes diminish as they approach the leading edge. The shorter waves travel more slowly, and their amplitudes diminish as they emerge from the trailing boundary of the group.
Definition and interpretation
- If ω is directly proportional to k, then the group velocity is exactly equal to the phase velocity. A wave of any shape will travel undistorted at this velocity.
- If ω is a linear function of k, but not directly proportional (ω=ak+b), then the group velocity and phase velocity are different. The envelope of a wave packet (see figure on right) will travel at the group velocity, while the individual peaks and troughs within the envelope will move at the phase velocity.
- If ω is not a linear function of k, the envelope of a wave packet will become distorted as it travels. This distortion is directly related to group velocity, as follows. Since a wave packet contains a range of different frequencies, the group velocity ∂ω/∂k is a range of different values (because ω is not a linear function of k). Therefore, the envelope does not move at a single velocity, but a range of different velocities, so the envelope gets distorted. See further discussion below.
Consider a wave packet as a function of position x and time t: α(x,t). Let A(k) be its Fourier transform at time t=0:
By the superposition principle, the wavepacket at any time t is:
where ω is implicitly a function of k.
By calculating the mean position of a pulse in Fourier space, one can show that when the mean position of the pulse is given by weighted average of the (normalized) intensity, i.e.,
the velocity of this mean position can be expressed simply as:
When the wavepacket has a narrow enough frequency spectrum that is nearly constant over all the significant values of , the velocity of the mean position of the pulse is approximately .
where and (see next section for discussion of this step). Then, after some algebra,
There are two factors in this expression. The first factor, , describes a perfect monochromatic wave with wavevector , with peaks and troughs moving at the phase velocity within the envelope of the wavepacket. The other factor, , gives the envelope of the wavepacket. This envelope function depends on position and time only through the combination . Therefore, the envelope of the wavepacket travels at velocity . This explains the group velocity formula.
Higher-order terms in dispersion
Part of the previous derivation is the assumption:
If the wavepacket has a relatively large frequency spread, or if the dispersion has sharp variations (such as due to a resonance), or if the packet travels over very long distances, this assumption is not valid. As a result, the envelope of the wave packet not only moves, but also distorts. Loosely speaking, different frequency-components of the wavepacket travel at different speeds, with the faster components moving towards the front of the wavepacket and the slower moving towards the back. Eventually, the wave packet gets stretched out.
The next-higher term in the Taylor series (related to the second derivative of ) is called group velocity dispersion. This is an important effect in the propagation of signals through optical fibers and in the design of high-power, short-pulse lasers.
For light, the refractive index n, vacuum wavelength λ0, and wavelength in the medium λ, are related by
with vp = ω/k the phase velocity.
The group velocity, therefore, can be calculated by any of the following formulas:
In three dimensions
For waves traveling through three dimensions, such as light waves, sound waves, and matter waves, the formulas for phase and group velocity are generalized in a straightforward way:
- One dimension:
- Three dimensions:
If the waves are propagating through an anisotropic (i.e., not rotationally symmetric) medium, for example a crystal, then the phase velocity vector and group velocity vector may point in different directions.
In lossy or gainful media
The group velocity is often thought of as the velocity at which energy or information is conveyed along a wave. In most cases this is accurate, and the group velocity can be thought of as the signal velocity of the waveform. However, if the wave is travelling through an absorptive or gainful medium, this does not always hold. In these cases the group velocity may not be a well-defined quantity, or may not be a meaningful quantity.
In his text “Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures”, Brillouin argued that in a dissipative medium the group velocity ceases to have a clear physical meaning. An example concerning the transmission of electromagnetic waves through an atomic gas is given by Loudon. Another example is mechanical waves in the solar photosphere: The waves are damped (by radiative heat flow from the peaks to the troughs), and related to that, the energy velocity is often substantially lower than the waves' group velocity.
Despite this ambiguity, a common way to extend the concept of group velocity to complex media is to consider spatially damped plane wave solutions inside the medium, which are characterized by a complex-valued wavevector. Then, the imaginary part of the wavevector is arbitrarily discarded and the usual formula for group velocity is applied to the real part of wavevector, i.e.:
It can be shown that this generalization of group velocity continues to be related to the apparent speed of the peak of a wavepacket. The above definition is not universal, however: alternatively one may consider the time damping of standing waves (real , complex ), or, allow group velocity to be a complex-valued quantity. Different considerations yield distinct velocities, yet all definitions agree for the case of a lossless, gainless medium.
The above generalization of group velocity for complex media can behave strangely, and the example of anomalous dispersion serves as a good illustration. At the edges of a region of anomalous dispersion, becomes infinite (surpassing even the speed of light in vacuum), and may easily become negative (its sign opposes ) inside the band of anomalous dispersion.
Superluminal group velocities
Since the 1980s, various experiments have verified that it is possible for the group velocity (as defined above) of laser light pulses sent through lossy materials, or gainful materials, to significantly exceed the speed of light in vacuum c. The peaks of wavepackets were also seen to move faster than c. In all these cases, however, there is no possibility that signals could be carried faster than the speed of light in vacuum, since the high value of does not help to speed up the true motion of the sharp wavefront that would occur at the start of any real signal.
- Wave propagation
- Dispersion (optics) for a full discussion of wave velocities
- Phase velocity
- Front velocity
- Group delay -- "The group velocity of light in a medium is the inverse of the group delay per unit length."
- Phase delay
- Signal velocity
- Slow light
- Wave propagation speed
- Defining equation (physics)
- Matter wave#Group velocity
- Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Rechtsman, Mikael C; Segev, Mordechai (9 April 2012). "Negative radiation pressure and negative effective refractive index via dielectric birefringence" (PDF). Optics Express 20 (8): 8907–8914. Bibcode:2012OExpr..20.8907N. doi:10.1364/OE.20.008907. PMID 22513601.
- Brillouin, Léon (2003) , Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures: Electric Filters and Crystal Lattices, Dover, p. 75, ISBN 978-0-486-49556-9
- Lighthill, James (2001) , Waves in fluids, Cambridge University Press, p. 242, ISBN 978-0-521-01045-0
- Lighthill (1965)
- Hayes (1973)
- Griffiths, David J. (1995). Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Prentice Hall. p. 48.
- David K. Ferry (2001). Quantum Mechanics: An Introduction for Device Physicists and Electrical Engineers (2nd ed.). CRC Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-7503-0725-3.
- Brillouin, Léon (1960), Wave Propagation and Group Velocity, New York: Academic Press Inc., OCLC 537250
- Atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics: fundamentals and large-scale circulation, by Geoffrey K. Vallis, p239
- Brillouin, L. (1946). Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures. New York: McGraw Hill.
- Loudon, R. (1973). The Quantum Theory of Light. Oxford.
- Worrall, G. (2012). "On the Effect of Radiative Relaxation on the Flux of Mechanical-Wave Energy in the Solar Atmosphere". Solar Physics 279: 43–52. doi:10.1007/s11207-012-9982-z.
- Boyd, R. W.; Gauthier, D. J. (2009). "Controlling the velocity of light pulses". Science 326 (5956): 1074–7. doi:10.1126/science.1170885. PMID 19965419.
- Dolling, Gunnar; Enkrich, Christian; Wegener, Martin; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Linden, Stefan (2006), "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial", Science 312 (5775): 892–894, Bibcode:2006Sci...312..892D, doi:10.1126/science.1126021, PMID 16690860
- Bigelow, Matthew S.; Lepeshkin, Nick N.; Shin, Heedeuk; Boyd, Robert W. (2006), "Propagation of a smooth and discontinuous pulses through materials with very large or very small group velocities", Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 18 (11): 3117–3126, Bibcode:2006JPCM...18.3117B, doi:10.1088/0953-8984/18/11/017
- Withayachumnankul, W.; Fischer, B. M.; Ferguson, B.; Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D. (2010), "A Systemized View of Superluminal Wave Propagation", Proceedings of the IEEE 98 (10): 1775–1786, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2010.2052910
- Gehring, George M.; Schweinsberg, Aaron; Barsi, Christopher; Kostinski, Natalie; Boyd, Robert W. (2006), "Observation of a Backward Pulse Propagation Through a Medium with a Negative Group Velocity", Science 312 (5775): 895–897, Bibcode:2006Sci...312..895G, doi:10.1126/science.1124524, PMID 16690861
- Schweinsberg, A.; Lepeshkin, N. N.; Bigelow, M.S.; Boyd, R. W.; Jarabo, S. (2005), "Observation of superluminal and slow light propagation in erbium-doped optical fiber", Europhysics Letters 73 (2): 218–224, Bibcode:2006EL.....73..218S, doi:10.1209/epl/i2005-10371-0
- Tipler, Paul A.; Llewellyn, Ralph A. (2003), Modern Physics (4th ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, p. 223, ISBN 0-7167-4345-0.
- Biot, M. A. (1957), "General theorems on the equivalence of group velocity and energy transport", Physical Review 105 (4): 1129–1137, Bibcode:1957PhRv..105.1129B, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.105.1129
- Whitham, G. B. (1961), "Group velocity and energy propagation for three-dimensional waves", Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 14 (3): 675–691, doi:10.1002/cpa.3160140337
- Lighthill, M. J. (1965), "Group velocity", IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics 1 (1): 1–28, doi:10.1093/imamat/1.1.1
- Bretherton, F. P.; Garrett, C. J. R. (1968), "Wavetrains in inhomogeneous moving media", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 302 (1471): 529–554, Bibcode:1968RSPSA.302..529B, doi:10.1098/rspa.1968.0034
- Hayes, W. D. (1973), "Group velocity and nonlinear dispersive wave propagation", Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 332 (1589): 199–221, Bibcode:1973RSPSA.332..199H, doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0021
- Whitham, G. B. (1974), Linear and nonlinear waves, Wiley, ISBN 0471940909
- Greg Egan has an excellent Java applet on his web site that illustrates the apparent difference in group velocity from phase velocity.
- Maarten Ambaum has a webpage with movie demonstrating the importance of group velocity to downstream development of weather systems.
- Phase vs. Group Velocity – Various Phase- and Group-velocity relations (animation)
|Velocities of waves|
|Phase velocity • Group velocity • Front velocity • Signal velocity|