Grove City College v. Bell
|Grove City College v. Bell|
|Argued November 29, 1983
Decided February 28, 1984
|Full case name||Grove City College, et al.
Terrel Bell, Secretary of Education
|Citations||465 U.S. 555 (more)|
|Title IX, which applies only to educational institutions that receive federal funds, could be applied to a private school that refused direct federal funding but where a large number of students had received federally funded scholarships.|
|Majority||White, joined by Burger, Blackmun, Powell, Rehnquist, O'Connor|
|Concurrence||Brennan, joined by Marshall|
|Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, Pub. L. No. 100-259, 102 Stat. 28 (1988)|
Grove City College v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that Title IX, which applies only to colleges and universities that receive federal funds, could be applied to a private school that refused direct federal funding but where a large number of students had received federally funded scholarships. The Court also held that the federal government could require a statutorily mandated "assurance of compliance" with Title IX even though no evidence had been presented to suggest that Grove City College had discriminated in any way. However, the Court also held that the regulation would only apply to the institution's financial aid department, not to the school as a whole.
While Hillsdale College was not a party to this case, the result of this case directly influenced that institution to decline all federal aid starting with the fall 1984 semester, a practice that continues today. Grove City followed suit in 1988, establishing a loan program with PNC Bank instead.
Opinion of the Court
Justice White delivered the opinion of the Court, which was unanimous as to all but Part III.
Overturning of the Court's decision
The decision by the Supreme Court was effectively overturned when the United States Congress subsequently passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, which specified that recipients of federal funds must comply with civil rights laws in all areas, not just in the particular program or activity that received federal funding.
- Marks, Brian Andrew (1996). A Model of Judicial Influence on Congressional Policymaking: Grove City College v. Bell. Ann Arbor: UMI. OCLC 59620765.
- Pittsburgh Press analysis
- 465 U.S. 555 Full text of the opinion courtesy of Findlaw.com.
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