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Grover Cleveland Alexander

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Grover Cleveland Alexander
Alexander in 1915
Born: (1887-02-26)February 26, 1887
Elba, Nebraska, U.S.
Died: November 4, 1950(1950-11-04) (aged 63)
St. Paul, Nebraska, U.S.
Batted: Right
Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 15, 1911, for the Philadelphia Phillies
Last MLB appearance
May 28, 1930, for the Philadelphia Phillies
MLB statistics
Win–loss record373–208
Earned run average2.56
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Baseball Hall of Fame
Vote80.9% (third ballot)

Grover Cleveland Alexander (February 26, 1887 – November 4, 1950), nicknamed "Old Pete" and "Alexander the Great", was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. He played from 1911 through 1930 for the Philadelphia Phillies, Chicago Cubs, and St. Louis Cardinals. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.[1]

Early life[edit]

Alexander was born in Elba, Nebraska[2] One of eight children born to William Alexander and Martha "Maggie" Cootey.[3] His father was a Democrat, and Alexander was born during the first term of President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat, so his parents named him for Cleveland.[4] Alexander attended the schools of Elba and St. Paul, and graduated from St. Paul High School in 1909.[5] After completing his education, Alexander was employed digging postholes for the Howard County Telephone Company.[6]

Alexander played semi-professional baseball in his youth, signing his first professional contract at age 20 in 1907 for $50 per month ($1,635 in current dollar terms). In 1909, he played for the Galesburg Boosters in the Class D Illinois–Missouri League and went 15–8 that year with a 1.36 ERA. His career was almost ended when he was struck by a thrown ball while baserunning.[2] Although this ended his 1909 season, he recovered by 1910 to become a star pitcher again, finishing with a 29–11 record for the Syracuse Stars in the Class B New York State League, before being sold to the Philadelphia Phillies for $750 ($24,525 in current dollar terms).[7]

Major League Baseball career[edit]

Philadelphia Phillies[edit]

Alexander with the Philadelphia Phillies in 1915
Alexander with the Chicago Cubs in 1921

Alexander made his Philadelphia Phillies debut during the pre-season 1911 City Series, pitching five innings of no-hit, no-run baseball against the Athletics. He made his official Major League debut on April 15.[8] He was joined on the Phillies that year by catcher Bill Killefer, who went on to become Alexander's favorite battery mate, catching 250 of his games.[9][10]

In his rookie year, Alexander led the league with 28 wins (a modern-day rookie record), 31 complete games, 367 innings pitched, and seven shutouts, while finishing second in strikeouts and fourth in ERA.[2] From 1912 to 1921, Alexander led the league in ERA four times (1915–16, 1919, and 1920), wins five times (1914–17, 1920), innings six times (1912, 1914–17, 1920), strikeouts six times (1912, 1914–1917, 1920), complete games five times (1914–1917, 1920), and shutouts five times (1915, 1916 [a single-season record 16], 1917, 1919, 1921).[2] He won the National League pitching Triple Crown in 1915, 1916, and 1920, and is sometimes[2] credited with a fourth in 1917. In 1915, he was instrumental in leading the Phillies to their first pennant,[2] pitching a record five one-hitters and winning his only Major League triple crown. Along the way, Alexander began to have problems with alcohol, a struggle that would plague him the rest of his life. In 1915, he won his first World Series game (the opening game of that series), for the Phillies. It would be 65 years before the Phillies won another World Series game.

Chicago Cubs[edit]

After the 1917 season, the Phillies traded Alexander and catcher Bill Killefer to the Cubs for catcher Pickles Dillhoefer, pitcher Mike Prendergast, and $55,000.[11] Phillies owner William Baker later admitted, "I needed the money."[12]

After the United States entered World War I, Alexander was drafted into the Army, and one month before shipping out, he married Aimee Marie Arrant on May 31 in a courthouse ceremony in Manhattan, Kansas (the couple divorced in 1929, remarried in 1931, and divorced again in 1941).[13][14]

Alexander spent most of the 1918 season in France as a sergeant with the 342nd Field Artillery Regiment, 89th Division. While he was serving in France, he was exposed to German mustard gas and a shell exploded near him, causing partial hearing loss and triggering the onset of epilepsy. Alexander returned to the United States in April 1919 on the SS Rochambeau.[15] Following his return from the war, Alexander suffered from shell shock and was plagued with epileptic seizures, which people often misinterpreted as a sign of drunkenness; this only exacerbated his drinking problem.

St. Louis Cardinals[edit]

In spite of all this, Alexander gave Chicago several successful years and won another pitching triple crown in 1920. Tiring of his increasing drunkenness and insubordination that was often directly related to his epilepsy, the Cubs sold him to the Cardinals in the middle of the 1926 season for the waiver price.[2] The Cubs manager, Joe McCarthy, supposedly said that even with Alexander, the Cubs had finished last the previous season, "...and if they finished last again, I'd rather it was without him."

The Cardinals won the National League pennant that year and met the New York Yankees in the World Series, where Alexander pitched complete game victories in Games 2 and 6. According to teammate Bob O'Farrell in The Glory of Their Times, after the game six victory, Alexander got drunk that night and was still feeling the effects when he was sent out to pitch the next day in Game 7.[16] Alexander came to the game in the seventh inning after starter Jesse Haines developed a blister, with the Cardinals ahead 3–2, the bases loaded and two out. Facing Yankee slugger Tony Lazzeri, Alexander struck him out and then held the Yankees scoreless for two more innings to preserve the win and give St. Louis the championship. The final out of the 7th game was made when Babe Ruth tried to steal second base.[17]

Return to Phillies[edit]

He had one last 20-win season for the Cardinals in 1927, but his continued drinking ended his career. After a brief return to the Phillies in 1930, he left the major leagues.[18]

Alexander's 90 shutouts are a National League record and his 373 wins are tied with Christy Mathewson for first in the National League record book. He is also tied for third all time in wins, tenth in innings pitched (5190), second in shutouts, and eighth in hits allowed (4868). At the time of Alexander's final victory in August 1929, the news media reported that he had broken Mathewson's career victories record of 372. In the 1940s, Mathewson was discovered to have qualified for an additional victory (May 21, 1912) and his total was officially upped to 373 and into a tie with Alexander. Alexander posted a lifetime winning percentage of .642, compared to Mathewson's .665.[19] Alexander has the most career wins of any pitcher who never threw a no-hitter.

Alexander was a good fielding pitcher for his era, committing only 25 errors in 1,633 total chances for a career .985 fielding percentage. As a hitter, he accumulated 378 hits in 1,810 at-bats for a .209 batting average with 11 home runs, 163 runs batted in, 154 runs and 77 bases on balls in a 20-year career.[7]

Later life and legacy[edit]

Grover Cleveland Alexander was honored alongside the retired numbers of the Philadelphia Phillies in 2001.

During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Alexander continued to play baseball, touring as a player-coach for the Grover Cleveland Alexander's House of David Team.[18] The team's tour was managed by J. L. Wilkinson and often played against the Kansas City Monarchs. Alexander played with and against many of the Negro league stars of the day, including Satchel Paige,[18] John Donaldson, Newt Joseph,[18] Chet Brewer, and Andy Cooper.[citation needed] After the end of prohibition, Alexander operated a tavern in St. Louis with Hughie Miller as his partner.[20]

Alexander was elected to Baseball's Hall of Fame in 1938, the third year of the Hall. Alexander was the only player elected that year.[21]

Alexander attended Game 3 of the 1950 World Series at Yankee Stadium, where he saw the Phillies lose to the Yankees.[22] He died less than a month later, on November 4 in St. Paul, Nebraska, at the age of 63.[23] He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery in St Paul.[24]

Alexander was the subject of the 1952 biographical film The Winning Team, portrayed by Ronald Reagan, giving Alexander the unique distinction of being named for one U.S. president and being portrayed by another. The film earned an estimated $1.7 million at the North American box office in 1952.[25]

In 1999, he ranked number 12 on The Sporting News list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players,[26] and was a nominee for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Since he played before the Phillies adopted uniform numbers, the block-letter "P" from the 1915 season uniforms was retired by the team in 2001 to honor his career with them.

Alexander is the first player mentioned in the poem Line-Up for Yesterday by Ogden Nash:

Line-Up for Yesterday

A is for Alex
The great Alexander;
More Goose eggs he pitched
Than a popular gander.

Ogden Nash, Sport magazine (January 1949)[27]


Newspapers often mentioned Alexander's full name when writing about him, in addition to just "Grover". He was also sometimes called "Alec", and on occasions when he succeeded in grand fashion (as with the 1926 World Series), they would call him "Alexander the Great". He was so dominant during the 1910s that many players and writers of his era referred to him as "the best pitcher to ever put on a pair of shoes".[28]

The nickname of "Old Pete" began as "Alkali Pete", which was in itself a pastiche, based on a series of early silent film westerns based on characters named Alkali Ike and Mustang Pete. While on a hunting trip with Bill Killefer in Texas, Alexander's dusty appearance prompted Killefer to name him "Alkali Pete" and it stuck. Before going to war, he was given a watch engraved with the nickname, dating its origin to no later than 1918. By the late 1920s, it had morphed into "Old Pete."[29][30]

It is uncertain how frequently Alexander was publicly called by that nickname during his playing days. When he won his 373rd game on August 10, 1929, one newspaper had called him "old Pete", indicating that the nickname was in public circulation.[31] On his 1940 Playball baseball card he was referred to as "Ol' Pete." In The World Series and Highlights of Baseball, by Lamont Buchanan, published in 1951, the year after Alexander died, on pages 106–107 the author refers to "Pete Alexander" and "Ol' Pete" in a matter-of-fact way, suggesting the nickname was well known.

The Baseball-Reference.com website lists him as Grover Alexander with a name note and an AKA as Pete Alexander.[32]

His nickname among family friends in Nebraska was "Dode".[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Pete Alexander".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Fiero, John W (2002) [1992]. Dawson, Dawn P (ed.). Great Athletes. Vol. 1 (Revised ed.). Salem Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 1-58765-008-8.
  3. ^ "Mrs. Alexander Passes to Her Reward". The Phonograph. St. Paul, NE. November 9, 1932. pp. 1, 3 – via Newspapers.com.
  4. ^ "Learns St. Paul, Neb., Owes Name to Father". Omaha World-Herald. Omaha, NE. September 26, 1916. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  5. ^ Porter, David L. (2000). Biographical Dictionary of American Sports: A-F. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-3133-1174-1 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Skipper, John C. (2006). Wicked Curve: The Life and Troubled Times of Grover Cleveland Alexander. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7864-8178-1 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ a b Pete Alexander Statistics and History Baseball-Reference.com
  8. ^ Thomas P. Simon, ed. (2004). Deadball stars of the National League. Brassey's. p. 209. ISBN 9781574888607. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
  9. ^ Weatherby, Charlie. "The Baseball Biography Project: Bill Killefer". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved July 17, 2010.
  10. ^ Deadball stars of the National League, Thomas P. Simon, Brassey's, 2004, ISBN 1-57488-860-9, ISBN 978-1-57488-860-7
  11. ^ "Pickles Dillhoefer - Society for American Baseball Research". sabr.org. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  12. ^ Zolecki, Todd (February 1, 2010). The Good, the Bad, & the Ugly: Philadelphia Phillies: Heart-Pounding, Jaw-Dropping, and Gut-Wrenching Moments from Philadelphia Phillies History. Triumph Books. ISBN 9781600781643. Retrieved December 14, 2018 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ "Pennsylvania Author". Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  14. ^ "Grover Cleveland Alexander - Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com.
  15. ^ "Alex Due April 14, May Pitch Opener". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 4, 1919. p. 16.
  16. ^ Lawrence Ritter (March 19, 1992). The Glory of Their Times. Collier Books. p. 236. ISBN 0-688-11273-0.
  17. ^ Smelser, Marshall (1975). The Life That Ruth Built: A Biography. The New York Times Book Company.(p340)
  18. ^ a b c d "Satchel Paige to Take Slab Monday Against Ogden Club" Ogden Standard-Examiner, Ogden, Utah, August 18, 1940, Page 7, Column 1, 2, 4 and 5
  19. ^ "Christy Mathewson Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
  20. ^ "1 Oct 1936, 11". St. Louis Globe-Democrat. October 1, 1936. Retrieved May 3, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  21. ^ "The Hall of Fame members". Baseball Hall of Fame.
  22. ^ "Alexander Ignored At Yankee Stadium Where He Beat Great Bronx Bombers". Hartford Courant. October 7, 1950. p. 12. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  23. ^ "Sport: Old Pete". Time. November 13, 1950. Archived from the original on January 31, 2011.
  24. ^ Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14000 Famous Persons by Scott Wilson
  25. ^ 'Top Box-Office Hits of 1952', Variety, January 7, 1953
  26. ^ Baseball's 100 Greatest Players (The Sporting News). Baseball Almanac. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
  27. ^ "Baseball Almanac". Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  28. ^ Racing Redbirds: A Video History of the St. Louis Cardinals from 1882 to Present. 1983.
  29. ^ Mike Eisenbath (1999). The Cardinals Encyclopedia. Temple University Press. p. 125. ISBN 1-56639-703-0
  30. ^ DiFranza, Lenny. ""Old Pete:" How Grover Cleveland Alexander Got His Nickname". Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
  31. ^ Jordan A. Deutsch; Cohen, Johnson and Neft (1975). The Scrapbook History of Baseball. Bobbs-Merrill. p. 131. ISBN 9780672520280. ISBN 0-672-52028-1
  32. ^ "Pete Alexander". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  33. ^ "Grover Alexander and Bride Visit Home Folks". St. Paul Phonograph, St. Paul, Neb. April 24, 1919.

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