Growth differentiation factor-9

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Growth differentiation factor 9
Symbol GDF9
External IDs OMIM601918 MGI95692 HomoloGene3851 GeneCards: GDF9 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GDF9 221314 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2661 14566
Ensembl ENSG00000164404 ENSMUSG00000018238
UniProt O60383 Q07105
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001288824 NM_008110
RefSeq (protein) NP_001275753 NP_032136
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
132.86 – 132.87 Mb
Chr 11:
53.43 – 53.44 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Growth/differentiation factor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GDF9 gene.[1][2]

Growth factors synthesized by ovarian somatic cells directly affect oocyte growth and function. Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) is expressed in oocytes and is thought to be required for ovarian folliculogenesis. GDF9 is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily.[2]

GDF9 plays an important role in the development of primary follicles in the ovary.[3] It has a critical role in granulosa cell and theca cell growth, as well as in differentiation and maturation of the oocyte.[4][5]

GDF9 has been connected to differences in ovulation rate[6][7] and in premature cessation of ovary function,[8] therefore has a significant role in fertility.

The cell surface receptor through which GDF9 generates a signal is the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2).[9][10]


  1. ^ McGrath SA, Esquela AF, Lee SJ (Jun 1995). "Oocyte-specific expression of growth/differentiation factor-9". Mol Endocrinol 9 (1): 131–6. doi:10.1210/me.9.1.131. PMID 7760846. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GDF9 growth differentiation factor 9". 
  3. ^ Juengel J, Bodensteiner K, Heath D, Hudson N, Moeller C, Smith P, Galloway S, Davis G, Sawyer H, McNatty K (2004). "Physiology of GDF9 and BMP15 signalling molecules". Anim Reprod Sci. 82-83: 447–60. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.021. PMID 15271472. 
  4. ^ Hreinsson J, Scott J, Rasmussen C, Swahn M, Hsueh A, Hovatta O (2002). "Growth differentiation factor-9 promotes the growth, development, and survival of human ovarian follicles in organ culture". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 (1): 316–21. doi:10.1210/jc.87.1.316. PMID 11788667.  link
  5. ^ Su Y, Wu X, O'Brien M, Pendola F, Denegre J, Matzuk M, Eppig J (2004). "Synergistic roles of BMP15 and GDF9 in the development and function of the oocyte-cumulus cell complex in mice: genetic evidence for an oocyte-granulosa cell regulatory loop". Dev Biol 276 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.08.020. PMID 15531364. 
  6. ^ McNatty K, Hudson N, Whiting L, Reader K, Lun S, Western A, Heath D, Smith P, Moore L, Juengel J (2007). "The Effects of Immunizing Sheep with Different BMP15 or GDF9 Peptide Sequences on Ovarian Follicular Activity and Ovulation Rate". Biol Reprod 76 (4): 552–60. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.106.054361. PMID 17093201. 
  7. ^ Juengel J, Hudson N, Whiting L, McNatty K (2004). "Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 on ovulation rate, fertilization, and pregnancy in ewes". Biol Reprod 70 (3): 557–61. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.103.023333. PMID 14585806. 
  8. ^ Kovanci E, Rohozinski J, Simpson J, Heard M, Bishop C, Carson S (2007). "Growth differentiating factor-9 mutations may be associated with premature ovarian failure". Fertil Steril 87 (1): 143–6. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.05.079. PMID 17156781. 
  9. ^ Mazerbourg S, Hsueh A (2006). "Genomic analyses facilitate identification of receptors and signalling pathways for growth differentiation factor 9 and related orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ligands". Hum Reprod Update 12 (4): 373–83. doi:10.1093/humupd/dml014. PMID 16603567. 
  10. ^ Vitt U, Mazerbourg S, Klein C, Hsueh A (2002). "Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II is a receptor for growth differentiation factor-9". Biol Reprod 67 (2): 473–80. doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.2.473. PMID 12135884. 

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