Growth hormone 2

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Protein GH2 PDB 1a22.png
AliasesGH2, GH-V, GHL, GHV, hGH-V, GHB2, Growth hormone 2
External IDsOMIM: 139240 HomoloGene: 128757 GeneCards: GH2
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 17 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 17 (human)[1]
Chromosome 17 (human)
Genomic location for GH2
Genomic location for GH2
Band17q23.3Start63,880,215 bp[1]
End63,881,944 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GH2 211508 s at fs.png

PBB GE GH2 206195 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 17: 63.88 – 63.88 Mbn/a
PubMed search[2]n/a
View/Edit Human

Growth hormone 2 (GH2), also known more commonly as placental growth hormone (PGH) or as growth hormone variant (GH-V), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GH2 gene.[3][4] It is produced by and secreted from the placenta during pregnancy, and becomes the predominant form of growth hormone (GH) in the body during this time.[5][6] Its cogener is growth hormone 1 (GH1), or pituitary growth hormone.

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the somatotropin/prolactin family of hormones, playing an important role in growth control. The gene, along with four other related genes, is located at the growth hormone locus on chromosome 17 where they are interspersed in the same transcriptional orientation; an arrangement which is thought to have evolved by a series of gene duplications. The five genes share a remarkably high degree of sequence identity. Alternative splicing generates additional isoforms of each of the five growth hormones, leading to further diversity and potential for specialization. As in the case of its pituitary counterpart, growth hormone 1, the predominant isoform of this particular family member shows similar somatogenic activity, with reduced lactogenic activity. Mutations in this gene lead to placental growth hormone/lactogen deficiency.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136487 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. ^ Barsh GS, Seeburg PH, Gelinas RE (Aug 1983). "The human growth hormone gene family: structure and evolution of the chromosomal locus". Nucleic Acids Res. 11 (12): 3939–58. doi:10.1093/nar/11.12.3939. PMC 326017. PMID 6306568.
  4. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: GH2 growth hormone 2".
  5. ^ Handwerger S, Freemark M (2000). "The roles of placental growth hormone and placental lactogen in the regulation of human fetal growth and development". J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 13 (4): 343–56. doi:10.1515/jpem.2000.13.4.343. PMID 10776988. S2CID 28778529.
  6. ^ Lacroix MC, Guibourdenche J, Frendo JL, Muller F, Evain-Brion D (2002). "Human placental growth hormone--a review". Placenta. 23 Suppl A: S87–94. doi:10.1053/plac.2002.0811. PMID 11978064.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P01242 (Growth hormone variant) at the PDBe-KB.