Growth of wind power in the United States

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An animated map showing the installed wind power capacity in the United States from 1999 to 2014.

Wind power has been growing in the United States since the 1970s.

History[edit]

The growth of wind power in the United States has been enhanced by a production tax credit (PTC), which pays 2.3¢/kWh for the first 10 years. Development has been off and on again due to the expiration and late renewal of the PTC.[1] It expired at the end of 2013,[2][3] only to be restored in December 2014.[4] In 2015 it was renewed but is phased out over a five-year period.[5] One of the goals set by the Department of Energy is to increase the number of states which have over 1,000 MW of wind power to 15 by 2018. By the end of 2015 there were 17. Another goal was to increase the number of states with at least 100 MW to 30 by 2010. As of 2011, there are 29.[6] The 2015 vision for wind calls for 10% generation by wind by 2020 (113 GW), 30% by 2030 (224 GW), and 35% by 2050 (404 GW). It calls for 40 states to each have at least 1 GW, and wind power in all 50 states. Larger wind turbines has expanded the commercial viability of wind to all 50 states.[7] Analysts expect 25 GW more between 2016-18.[8] Wind power became the largest generating source of renewable electricity in the USA in 2019.[9]

Wind power by year[edit]

Cumulative wind power installations by year (MW)
State 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999
Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Alaska 64 64 63 62 62 62 62 62 59 11 8.7 8.5 3.7 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7
Arizona 618 268 268 268 268 268 238 238 238 139 128.1 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0
California 5,922 5,973 5,885 5,609 5,662 6,108 5,917 5,830 5,542 3,917 3,252.6 2,798 2,536.7 2,439.1 2,376.1 2,149.5 2,095 2,024.9 1,823.1 1,683.1 1,616 1,616
Colorado 4,692 3,762 3,706 3,104 3,026 2,992 2,593 2,332 2,301 1,805 1,298.6 1,244.3 1,067.7 1,066.8 290.8 230.8 230.7 223.2 61.2 61.2 21.6 21.6
Connecticut 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Delaware 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hawaii 233 206 206 206 203 203 206 206 206 92 63.1 63.1 63.1 63.1 42.1 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Idaho 973 973 973 973 973 973 973 973 973 618 353 146.8 75.6 75.3 75.3 75.2 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 0
Illinois 6,409 5,350 4,861 4,332 4,026 3,842 3,568 3,568 3,568 2,742 2,044.6 1,547.5 915.1 699.4 107.2 107.2 51.1 50.4 0 0 0 0
Indiana 2,968 2,317 2,317 2,117 1,895 1,895 1,745 1,544 1,543 1,340 1,339.2 1,036 130.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Iowa 11,660 10,190 8,422 7,308 6,917 6,212 5,688 5,178 5,133 4,322 3,674.9 3,603.9 2,791.2 1,272.9 932.2 836.3 634 471.8 422.7 324.2 242.4 242.4
Kansas 7,016 6,128 5,653 5,110 4,451 3,766 2,967 2,967 2,713 1,274 1,074 1,021 921 364.2 364.2 263.7 113.7 113.7 113.7 113.7 1.5 1.5
Kentucky 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Louisiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maine 996 923 923 923 901 613 440 431 431 397 266.2 174.7 46.6 42.1 9.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Maryland 191 191 191 191 190 190 160 120 120 120 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Massachusetts 120 120 113 115 115 107 107 106 103 47 17.7 15 5.7 5 3.5 1.1 1 1 1 1 0.3 0.3
Michigan 2,681 2,190 1,904 1,860 1,611 1,531 1,525 1,163 988 377 164.4 138.5 144.4 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 0.6 0.6
Minnesota 4,299 3,843 3,779 3,699 3,526 3,235 3,035 2,987 2,987 2,718 2,205.4 1,810 1,752.8 1,299.8 895.9 745.4 600.1 558.3 337.7 319.8 291.2 273.4
Mississippi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Missouri 1,987 959 959 959 959 659 459 459 459 458 459 457 308.5 162.5 61.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Montana 880 800 800 695 685 665 665 645 645 386 385.5 375 271.5 152.9 145.9 136.9 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1
Nebraska 2,531 2,142 1,972 1,426 1,328 890 812 534 459 337 212.9 152.9 116.9 71.9 73.4 73.4 14 14 14 2.8 2.8 2.8
Nevada 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 185 185 185 185 185 185 171 171 171 26 25.5 25.2 25.1 1.1 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
New Jersey 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Mexico 2,723 1,953 1,732 1,682 1,112 1,080 812 778 778 750 699.9 597.5 497.5 496 496 406 266 206 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
New York 1,987 1,987 1,987 1,829 1,827 1,749 1,748 1,722 1,638 1,403 1,274.3 1,274.3 831.8 424.8 370.3 185.5 48.5 48.5 48.5 48.2 18.2 0
North Carolina 208 208 208 208 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
North Dakota 3,989 3,628 3,155 2,996 2,746 2,143 1,886 1,681 1,680 1,445 1,423.6 1,202.6 714.5 344.8 178.3 97.8 66.3 66.3 4.8 0.4 0.4 0.4
Ohio 864 738 729 617 545 443 435 428 428 112 9.6 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.2 7.2 3.6 0 0 0 0
Oklahoma 9,048 8,172 8,072 7,495 6,645 5,184 3,782 3,134 3,134 2,007 1,481.8 1,031.2 708.1 689 534.5 474.5 176.3 176.3 0 0 0 0
Oregon 3,737 3,423 3,213 3,213 3,163 3,153 3,153 3,153 3,153 2,513 2,103.6 1,758.1 1,067.2 885.4 438.1 337.6 262.6 259.3 218.3 156.5 25.1 25.1
Pennsylvania 1,459 1,459 1,369 1,369 1,369 1,340 1,340 1,340 1,340 789 748.2 748.2 360.7 293.5 179 129 129 129 34.5 34.5 10.5 0.1
Rhode Island 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 2 2.4 2.4 0.7 0.7 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Dakota 2,305 1,525 1,019 977 977 977 803 783 783 784 709.2 313.2 186.8 98.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 3 2.6 0 0
Tennessee 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 2 2 2 2 0
Texas 33,133 28,843 24,899 22,637 20,321 17,713 14,098 12,355 12,214 10,394 10,089.4 9,403.4 7,112.7 4,353.4 2,735.8 1,992.1 1,290.3 1,290.3 1,095.8 1,095.8 183.5 183.5
Utah 391 391 391 391 391 327 325 325 325 325 223.3 223.3 19.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0
Vermont 149 149 149 149 119 119 119 119 119 46 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
Virginia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Washington 3,395 3,085 3,075 3,075 3,075 3,075 3,075 2,808 2,808 2,573 2,104.4 1,848.9 1,375 1,163.2 818.1 390 240.6 243.9 228.3 180.2 0 0
West Virginia 742 686 686 686 686 583 583 583 583 564 430.5 330 330 146 66 66 66 66 66 0 0 0
Wisconsin 746 737 737 746 648 648 648 648 648 648 631 468.9 449.1 449 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 23
Wyoming 2,738 1,589 1,489 1,489 1,490 1,410 1,410 1,410 1,410 1,412 1,412.3 1,099.3 676.3 288.5 288.5 288.5 284.6 284.6 140.6 140.6 0.6 72.5
U.S. total 122,465 105,583 96,487 89,078 82,171 74,471 65,880 61,107 60,005 46,916 40,267 34,863 25,410 16,907 11,575 9,147 6,723 6,350 4,687 4,232 2,539 2,472

Source:[10]

Generation[edit]

Annual wind power generation (GWh)
State 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
Alaska 158.2 153.6 145.3 37.39 12.45 12.61 7.027 0.068 1.012 0.788 0.589 0.950 0
Arizona 445.5 472.5 449.8 531.6 255.6 134.9 29.54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
California 12,228 13,776 12,822 9,754 7,752 6,079 5,840 5,385 5,585 4,883 4,262 4,306 3,895 3,803 3,500 3,518
Colorado 7,441 7,351 7,204 5,969 5,200 3,452 3,164 3,221 1,292 865.5 776.2 220.1 147.1 139.0 48.64 0
Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Delaware 4.923 4.705 4.458 3.638 4.825 2.556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hawaii 601.3 585.3 503.3 378.2 340.8 261.1 251.4 240.0 238.2 79.674 6.632 7.495 1.572 1.614 2.122 17.003
Idaho 2,457 2,778 2,460 1,891 1,307 440.7 313.4 207.5 172.3 169.6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Illinois 10,733 10,077 9,625 7,727 6,213 4,454 2,820 2,337 664.4 254.6 141.15 78.073 18.024 0 0 0
Indiana 4,516 3,495 3,481 3,210 3,285 2,934 1,403 238.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Iowa 17,878 16,295 15,568 14,032 10,709 9,170 7,421 4,084 2,757 2,318 1,647 1,050 982.0 918.8 487.9 493.8
Kansas 10,927 10,844 9,433 5,195 3,720 3,405 2,863 1,759 1,153 991.9 425.8 358.6 365.9 466.7 39.83
Maine 1,273 1,095 1,048 886.9 706.6 499.2 298.6 131.6 99.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maryland 433.5 323.5 321.7 321.7 270.7 1.494 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Massachusetts 220.1 224.0 204.9 89.67 61.38 22.07 5.956 3.672 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Michigan 4,778 3,875 2,800 1,132 456.5 360.3 300.2 141.2 2.723 2.212 1.848 1.875 2.660 0.329 0.280 0
Minnesota 9,797 9,060 8,259 7,615 6,726 4,792 5,053 4,355 2,639 2,055 1,582 812.4 977.8 905.8 897.0 724.5
Missouri 1,034 1,131 1,167 1,245 1,178 925.5 499.4 203.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Montana 1,962 1,966 1,755 1,262 1,265 930.2 820.9 593.1 495.8 436.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nebraska 3,154 2,736 1,802 1,284 1,051 421.6 382.6 214.2 216.8 261.2 96.61 38.43 38.22 8.078 2.630 0
Nevada 309.7 300.1 250.5 128.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 419.2 416.8 389.2 208.7 66.09 75.69 62.48 10.32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Jersey 22.14 11.90 10.88 11.57 10.52 12.65 20.92 20.89 20.41 15.99 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Mexico 2,067 2,263 2,193 2,226 2,104 1,832 1,547 1,643 1,393 1,255 794.6 513.5 182.7 0 0 0
New York 3,956 3,971 3,539 2,680 2,828 2,596 2,266 1,251 833.5 655.4 103.0 116.4 41.20 81.63 20.54 10.34
North Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
North Dakota 6,530 6,349 5,519 5,275 5,236 4,096 2,998 1,693 620.8 369.5 220.3 214.5 58.88 0 0 0
Ohio 1,206 1,152 1,146 985.5 198.4 12.58 14.11 15.08 14.75 14.40 13.27 0 0 0 0 0
Oklahoma 14,018 11,862 11,162 8,158 5,605 3,808 2,698 2,358 1,849 1,712 847.8 572.7 54.47 0 0 0
Oregon 6,675 7,580 7,456 6,343 4,775 3,920 3,470 2,575 1,247 931.2 734.3 619.0 443.6 376.16 88.59 66.70
Pennsylvania 3,352 3,584 3,352 2,129 1,794 1,854 1,075 729.4 470.0 361.1 284.2 306.3 111.5 57.77 11.18 9.813
Rhode Island 14.77 7.025 2.590 1.380 2.912 3.124 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Dakota 2,481 2,916 2,688 2,915 2,668 1,372 421.0 145.1 150.0 149.0 158.1 157.7 44.25 6.043 0.871 0
Tennessee 45.84 51.14 46.74 47.49 53.14 40.57 51.75 50.12 49.94 54.60 3.339 3.813 3.933 4.068 0 0
Texas 44,959 39,371 35,874 32,214 30,548 26,251 20,026 16,225 9,006 6,671 4,237 3,138 2,570 2,656 1,188 492.1
Utah 621.4 664.8 539.8 703.9 572.8 447.7 159.5 23.90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vermont 322.7 305.6 236.0 106.9 33.18 13.89 11.59 10.24 10.51 10.69 11.49 11.36 10.83 10.37 12.13 12.25
Washington 7,101 7,264 7,004 6,600 6,262 4,745 3,572 3,657 2,438 1,038 498.5 736.6 603.7 416.6 0 0
West Virginia 1,376 1,451 1,387 1,286 1,103 939.2 742.4 391.9 167.6 173.8 153.9 161.2 169.8 9.023 0 0
Wisconsin 1,641 1,609 1,558 1,558 1,188 1,088 1,052 487.1 109.3 101.4 92.54 103.6 97.58 46.18 72.284 2.728
Wyoming 3,768 4,420 4,433 4,369 4,612 3,247 2,226 962.5 754.9 759.1 717.3 616.5 366.5 447.3 365.2 245.9
U.S. total 190,927 181,791 167,840 140,822 120,177 94,652 73,886 55,363 34,450 26,589 17,811 14,144 11,187 10,354 6,737 5,593

Source:[11]

The United States uses approximately 4 million GWh/year.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit (PTC)
  2. ^ Dead Air: End of Tax Credit Deflates Wind Power
  3. ^ United States
  4. ^ Update: US Senate approves one-year wind PTC extension
  5. ^ Renewables Boom Expected Thanks to Tax Credit
  6. ^ Mission, Vision, and Goals
  7. ^ Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States
  8. ^ Corina Rivera Linares. "While investment may slow in coming years, plenty of transmission construction, investment happening". Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  9. ^ "Wind has surpassed hydro as most-used renewable electricity generation source in U.S. - Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 16 October 2020.
  10. ^ "U.S. Installed and Potential Wind Power Capacity and Generation". U.S. Department of Energy.
  11. ^ "Detailed State Data". U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 5 September 2016.