Growth of wind power in the United States

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Installed wind power capacity

Wind power has been growing in the United States since the 1970s.[weasel words]

History[edit]

The growth of wind power in the United States has been enhanced by a production tax credit (PTC), which pays 2.3¢/kWh for the first 10 years. Development has been off and on again due to the expiration and late renewal of the PTC.[1] It expired at the end of 2013,[2][3] only to be restored in December 2014.[4] In 2015 it was renewed but is phased out over a five-year period.[5] One of the goals set by the Department of Energy is to increase the number of states which have over 1,000 MW of wind power to 15 by 2018. By the end of 2015 there were 17. Another goal was to increase the number of states with at least 100 MW to 30 by 2010. As of 2011, there are 29.[6] The 2015 vision for wind calls for 10% generation by wind by 2020 (113 GW), 30% by 2030 (224 GW), and 35% by 2050 (404 GW). It calls for 40 states to each have at least 1 GW, and wind power in all 50 states. Larger wind turbines has expanded the commercial viability of wind to all 50 states.[7] Analysts expect 25 GW more between 2016-18.[8]

Wind power by year[edit]

Cumulative Installed Wind Power (MW)
State 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Alaska 62 62 62 59 10 9 9 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Arizona 268 238 238 238 138 128 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
California 6,108 5,917 5,830 5,549 3,927 3,253 2,798 2,537 2,439 2,376 2,149 2,095 2,025 1,823 1,683 1,616
Colorado 2,992 2,593 2,332 2,301 1,800 1,299 1,244 1,068 1,067 291 231 231 223 61 61 22
Connecticut 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Delaware 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hawaii 203 206 206 206 93 63 63 63 63 42 9 9 9 9 2 2
Idaho 973 973 973 973 618 353 147 76 75 75 75 0 0 0 0 0
Illinois 3,842 3,568 3,568 3,568 2,743 2,045 1,547 915 699 107 107 51 0 0 0 0
Indiana 1,895 1,744 1,544 1,543 1,340 1,339 1,036 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Iowa 6,212 5,688 5,178 5,137 4,322 3,675 3,604 2,791 1,273 932 836 634 472 423 324 242
Kansas 3,766 2,967 2,967 2,712 1,274 1,074 1,021 921 364 364 264 114 114 114 114 2
Kentucky 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Louisiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maine 613 440 431 431 397 266 175 47 42 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maryland 190 160 120 120 120 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Massachusetts 107 107 106 100 46 18 15 6 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
Michigan 1,531 1,525 1,163 988 377 164 138 144 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1
Minnesota 3,235 3,035 2,987 2,986 2,733 2,205 1,810 1,753 1,300 896 745 600 558 338 320 291
Mississippi 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Missouri 459 459 459 459 459 457 309 163 62 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Montana 665 665 645 645 386 386 375 271 153 146 137 1 1 0 0 0
Nebraska 890 812 534 459 337 213 153 117 72 73 73 14 14 14 3 3
Nevada 152 152 152 152 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 185 171 171 171 26 25 25 25 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Jersey 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 0 0 0 0 0
New Mexico 1,080 812 778 778 750 700 597 497 496 496 406 266 206 1 1 1
New York 1,749 1,748 1,722 1,638 1,403 1,274 1,274 832 425 370 186 48 48 48 48 18
North Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
North Dakota 2,143 1,886 1,681 1,679 1,445 1,424 1,203 714 345 178 98 66 5 0 0 0
Ohio 443 435 428 426 112 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 4 0 0 0
Oklahoma 5,184 3,782 3,134 3,134 2,007 1,482 1,031 708 689 535 475 176 176 0 0 0
Oregon 3,153 3,153 3,153 3,153 2,513 2,104 1,758 1,067 885 438 338 263 259 218 157 25
Pennsylvania 1,340 1,340 1,340 1,340 789 748 748 361 294 179 129 129 129 35 35 11
Rhode Island 9 9 9 9 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Dakota 977 803 783 784 785 709 313 187 98 44 44 44 44 3 3 0
Tennessee 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 2 2 2 2
Texas 17,713 14,098 12,355 12,212 10,377 10,089 9,403 7,113 4,353 2,736 1,992 1,290 1,290 1,096 1,096 184
Utah 327 325 325 325 325 223 223 20 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Vermont 119 119 119 119 46 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Virginia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Washington 3,075 3,075 2,808 2,808 2,573 2,104 1,849 1,375 1,163 818 390 241 244 228 180 0
West Virginia 583 583 583 583 564 431 330 330 146 66 66 66 66 66 0 0
Wisconsin 648 648 648 649 631 469 449 449 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 23
Wyoming 1,410 1,410 1,410 1,410 1,412 1,412 1,099 676 288 288 288 285 285 141 141 91
U.S. Total 74,347 65,754 61,108 60,007 46,919 40,267 34,863 25,410 16,907 11,575 9,147 6,723 6,350 4,687 4,232 2,539

Source:[9]

Generation[edit]

Annual Wind Power Generation (GWh)
State 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000
Alaska 158.2 153.6 145.3 37.39 12.45 12.61 7.027 0.068 1.012 0.788 0.589 0.950 0
Arizona 445.5 472.5 449.8 531.6 255.6 134.9 29.54 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
California 12,228 13,776 12,822 9,754 7,752 6,079 5,840 5,385 5,585 4,883 4,262 4,306 3,895 3,803 3,500 3,518
Colorado 7,441 7,351 7,204 5,969 5,200 3,452 3,164 3,221 1,292 865.5 776.2 220.1 147.1 139.0 48.64 0
Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Delaware 4.923 4.705 4.458 3.638 4.825 2.556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hawaii 601.3 585.3 503.3 378.2 340.8 261.1 251.4 240.0 238.2 79.674 6.632 7.495 1.572 1.614 2.122 17.003
Idaho 2,457 2,778 2,460 1,891 1,307 440.7 313.4 207.5 172.3 169.6 0 0 0 0 0 0
Illinois 10,733 10,077 9,625 7,727 6,213 4,454 2,820 2,337 664.4 254.6 141.15 78.073 18.024 0 0 0
Indiana 4,516 3,495 3,481 3,210 3,285 2,934 1,403 238.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Iowa 17,878 16,295 15,568 14,032 10,709 9,170 7,421 4,084 2,757 2,318 1,647 1,050 982.0 918.8 487.9 493.8
Kansas 10,927 10,844 9,433 5,195 3,720 3,405 2,863 1,759 1,153 991.9 425.8 358.6 365.9 466.7 39.83
Maine 1,273 1,095 1,048 886.9 706.6 499.2 298.6 131.6 99.07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maryland 433.5 323.5 321.7 321.7 270.7 1.494 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Massachusetts 220.1 224.0 204.9 89.67 61.38 22.07 5.956 3.672 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Michigan 4,778 3,875 2,800 1,132 456.5 360.3 300.2 141.2 2.723 2.212 1.848 1.875 2.660 0.329 0.280 0
Minnesota 9,797 9,060 8,259 7,615 6,726 4,792 5,053 4,355 2,639 2,055 1,582 812.4 977.8 905.8 897.0 724.5
Missouri 1,034 1,131 1,167 1,245 1,178 925.5 499.4 203.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Montana 1,962 1,966 1,755 1,262 1,265 930.2 820.9 593.1 495.8 436.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nebraska 3,154 2,736 1,802 1,284 1,051 421.6 382.6 214.2 216.8 261.2 96.61 38.43 38.22 8.078 2.630 0
Nevada 309.7 300.1 250.5 128.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 419.2 416.8 389.2 208.7 66.09 75.69 62.48 10.32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Jersey 22.14 11.90 10.88 11.57 10.52 12.65 20.92 20.89 20.41 15.99 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Mexico 2,067 2,263 2,193 2,226 2,104 1,832 1,547 1,643 1,393 1,255 794.6 513.5 182.7 0 0 0
New York 3,956 3,971 3,539 2,680 2,828 2,596 2,266 1,251 833.5 655.4 103.0 116.4 41.20 81.63 20.54 10.34
North Carolina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
North Dakota 6,530 6,349 5,519 5,275 5,236 4,096 2,998 1,693 620.8 369.5 220.3 214.5 58.88 0 0 0
Ohio 1,206 1,152 1,146 985.5 198.4 12.58 14.11 15.08 14.75 14.40 13.27 0 0 0 0 0
Oklahoma 14,018 11,862 11,162 8,158 5,605 3,808 2,698 2,358 1,849 1,712 847.8 572.7 54.47 0 0 0
Oregon 6,675 7,580 7,456 6,343 4,775 3,920 3,470 2,575 1,247 931.2 734.3 619.0 443.6 376.16 88.59 66.70
Pennsylvania 3,352 3,584 3,352 2,129 1,794 1,854 1,075 729.4 470.0 361.1 284.2 306.3 111.5 57.77 11.18 9.813
Rhode Island 14.77 7.025 2.590 1.380 2.912 3.124 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Dakota 2,481 2,916 2,688 2,915 2,668 1,372 421.0 145.1 150.0 149.0 158.1 157.7 44.25 6.043 0.871 0
Tennessee 45.84 51.14 46.74 47.49 53.14 40.57 51.75 50.12 49.94 54.60 3.339 3.813 3.933 4.068 0 0
Texas 44,959 39,371 35,874 32,214 30,548 26,251 20,026 16,225 9,006 6,671 4,237 3,138 2,570 2,656 1,188 492.1
Utah 621.4 664.8 539.8 703.9 572.8 447.7 159.5 23.90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vermont 322.7 305.6 236.0 106.9 33.18 13.89 11.59 10.24 10.51 10.69 11.49 11.36 10.83 10.37 12.13 12.25
Washington 7,101 7,264 7,004 6,600 6,262 4,745 3,572 3,657 2,438 1,038 498.5 736.6 603.7 416.6 0 0
West Virginia 1,376 1,451 1,387 1,286 1,103 939.2 742.4 391.9 167.6 173.8 153.9 161.2 169.8 9.023 0 0
Wisconsin 1,641 1,609 1,558 1,558 1,188 1,088 1,052 487.1 109.3 101.4 92.54 103.6 97.58 46.18 72.284 2.728
Wyoming 3,768 4,420 4,433 4,369 4,612 3,247 2,226 962.5 754.9 759.1 717.3 616.5 366.5 447.3 365.2 245.9
U.S. Total 190,927 181,791 167,840 140,822 120,177 94,652 73,886 55,363 34,450 26,589 17,811 14,144 11,187 10,354 6,737 5,593

Source:[10]

The United States uses approximately 4 million GWh/year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit (PTC)
  2. ^ Dead Air: End of Tax Credit Deflates Wind Power
  3. ^ United States
  4. ^ Update: US Senate approves one-year wind PTC extension
  5. ^ Renewables Boom Expected Thanks to Tax Credit
  6. ^ Mission, Vision, and Goals
  7. ^ Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States
  8. ^ Corina Rivera Linares. "While investment may slow in coming years, plenty of transmission construction, investment happening". Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  9. ^ "U.S. Installed Wind Capacity". U.S. Department of Energy. February 10, 2016. Archived from the original on March 14, 2014.
  10. ^ "Detailed State Data". U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 5 September 2016.