In shopping mall design, the Gruen transfer (also known as the Gruen effect) is the moment when consumers enter a shopping mall or store and, surrounded by an intentionally confusing layout, lose track of their original intentions, making consumers more susceptible to make impulse buys. It is named for Austrian architect Victor Gruen, who disavowed such manipulative techniques.
The Gruen transfer is a psychological phenomenon in which an idealized hyper-reality is realized by deliberate reconstruction, providing a sense of safety and calm through exceptional familiarity.
References in other media
1960s onwards – Shopping malls became very popular as they were in many cases the only air-conditioned place in town. Many more shopping malls started opening using similar designs and were very popular until the 1990s.
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- Hardwick, M. Jeffrey (2015-08-18). Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812292992.
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- Byrnes, Mark. "Victor Gruen Wanted to Make Our Suburbs More Urban. Instead, He Invented the Mall". The Atlantic Cities. The Atlantic Media Company. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
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