Grumman C-1 Trader
|A C-1A Trader from Naval Air Station, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania in 1987|
|Role||Carrier onboard delivery|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||19 January 1955|
|Primary user||United States Navy|
|Developed from||Grumman S-2 Tracker|
|Developed into||Grumman E-1 Tracer|
Design and development
The C-1 Trader grew out of a need by the United States Navy for a new anti-submarine airplane. In response to this Grumman began development on a prototype twin-engine, high-wing aircraft which it designated the G-89. In 1952 the Navy designated this aircraft the XS2F-1 and flew it for the first time on December 4 that year. During the rest of the 1950s three major variants emerged, the C-1 Trader being one of them. The C-1 (originally the TF-1) was outfitted to carry nine passengers or 3,500 pounds (1,600 kg) of cargo and first flew in January 1955.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s the C-1 Trader carried mail and supplies to aircraft carriers on station in the Pacific Ocean during the Vietnam War and also served as a trainer for all-weather carrier operations. Over its production life 87 C-1 Traders were built, of which four were converted into EC-1A Tracer electronic countermeasures aircraft. The last C-1 was retired from USN service in 1988; it was the second-to-last radial-engine aircraft in U.S military service (The last C-131 wasn't retired until 1990). As of 2010, approximately ten were still airworthy in civil hands, operating as warbirds.
In 1956 the U.S. Marine Corps Test Unit Number 1 (MCTU #1) tested the concept of using the TF-1 variant as a vehicle for inserting reconnaissance teams behind enemy lines. “On 9 July 1956 MCTU Recon Marines became the first to parachute from a TF-1. Less than three weeks later, four recon parachutists launched from the USS Bennington, which was 70 miles at sea, and jumped on a desert drop zone near El Centro California, some 100 miles inland. For the first time in Marine Corps and Naval Aviation history, the technique of introducing recon personnel off a carrier sea base to an inland objective had successfully been tested.”
In August 2010, Brazilian Naval Aviation announced that it will buy and modernize eight C-1 airframes to serve in carrier onboard delivery (COD) and aerial refueling roles for use on its aircraft carrier São Paulo.
In 2011 contract was signed with Marsh Aviation to convert four ex-US Navy C-1A Trader airframes into KC-2 Turbo Traders. The first KC-2 prototype flight is expected for November 2017 and the delivery of the first operational aircraft is scheduled for December 2018.
- Carrier Onboard Delivery version of the S-2 Tracker with enlarged fuselage for nine passengers, redesignated C-1A in 1962, 87 built.
- Electronic Countermeasures conversion of the TF-1, redesignated EC-1A in 1962, four conversions.
- Airborne Early Warning project that was developed in the WF-2 Tracer.
- TF-1 redesignated in 1962.
- TF-1Q redesignated in 1962.
- KC-2 Turbo Trader
- Marsh Aviation modernization project for Air-to-Air Refueling, requested for the Brazilian Navy.
- proposed 10-12 seat passenger variant
- proposed tanker variant
- BuNo 136752 - privately owned in Phoenix, Arizona.
- BuNo 136766 - privately owned in Carson City, Nevada.
- BuNo 136773 - privately owned in Wilmington, Delaware.
- BuNo 136778 - based at Champaign Aviation Museum Urbana, Ohio.
- BuNo 136781 - based at Pacific Coast Air Museum, Santa Rosa, California.
- BuNo 146044 - privately owned in Topeka, Kansas.
- BuNo 146048 - privately owned in Saint Cloud, Minnesota.
- BuNo 146049 - privately owned in St. Louis, Missouri.
- BuNo 146052 - based at Lone Star Flight Museum in Galveston, Texas.
- On display
- BuNo 136754 - National Museum of Naval Aviation, NAS Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida.
- BuNo 136790 - Grissom Air Museum, Grissom ARB (former Grissom AFB), Kokomo, Indiana.
- BuNo 136792 - Quonset Air Museum, (former NAS Quonset Point), North Kingston, Rhode Island. This aircraft was modified with the Grumman E-1 Tracer-type radome assembly (but no radar) and twin tails and served (under the designation XTF-1W) as the aerodynamic prototype for the E-1. After testing, it reverted to the transport role, (as C-1A) with radome removed but retaining the twin tails. Throughout, this aircraft retained the S-2/C-1 upward folding wings, not the E-1 wing fold which were necessitated (by the radome atop the fuselage) to fold wings back along the sides of the fuselage.
- BuNo 146034 - Wings of Freedom Aviation Museum, former NAS Willow Grove, Horsham, Pennsylvania.
- BuNo 146036 - USS Midway Museum, San Diego, California.
- BuNo 146045 - Beaufort MCAS (West Side), Beaufort, South Carolina.
- BuNo 136788 - Beverly Regional Airport (IATA: BVY, ICAO: KBVY, FAA LID: BVY) Beverly, MA
Data from Grumman aircraft since 1929
- Crew: 1
- Capacity: 9 pax / 8,500 lb (3,856 kg) payload
- Length: 42 ft (13 m)
- Wingspan: 69 ft 8 in (21.23 m)
- Height: 16 ft 3.5 in (4.966 m)
- Wing area: 485 sq ft (45.1 m2)
- Airfoil: root: NACA 63A420; tip: NACA 63A415
- Empty weight: 16,631 lb (7,544 kg)
- Gross weight: 23,031 lb (10,447 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 24,600 lb (11,158 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Wright R-1820-82WA Cyclone 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,525 hp (1,137 kW) each
- Propellers: 3-bladed constant-speed fully-feathering reversible-pitch propellers
- Maximum speed: 280 mph (450 km/h, 240 kn) at 4,000 ft (1,219 m)
- Cruise speed: 167 mph (269 km/h, 145 kn)
- Range: 1,110 mi (1,790 km, 960 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 24,800 ft (7,600 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,950 ft/min (9.9 m/s)
- Wing loading: 47.5 lb/sq ft (232 kg/m2)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Donald, David; Daniel J. March (2001). Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory. Norwalk, CT: AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-43-9.
- Lanning and Stubbe, Michael, Ray (1989). Inside Force Recon. Ivy Books. p. 34. ISBN -08041-0301-1.
- Brazilian navy buys Traders
- "Brazilian Traders set for modernisation" Fight Global, 14 Dec 2011 Retrieved: 23 December 2011
- "FAA Registry/N71456." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N6193Z." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N6193N." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N778SR." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/136781." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/136781." Archived 2016-04-25 at the Wayback Machine Pacific Coast Air Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N189G." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N7171M." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N81389." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "FAA Registry/N81193." faa.gov Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/136754." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/136790." Grissom Air Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/136792." Archived 2016-10-26 at the Wayback Machine Quonset Air Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/146034." Wings of Freedom Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/146034." Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine USS Midway Museum. Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- "Grumman C-1A Trader/146045." aerialvisuals.ca Retrieved: 27 April 2016.
- Francillon, René Jacquet (1989). Grumman aircraft since 1929 (1st ed.). London: Putnam. pp. 387–393. ISBN 0851778356.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
Media related to Grumman C-1 Trader at Wikimedia Commons