Grumman F7F Tigercat
|An F7F-3P preserved in United States Marine Corps markings in flight|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||2 November 1943|
|Primary users||United States Navy|
United States Marine Corps
|Developed into||Grumman XTSF|
The Grumman F7F Tigercat is a heavy fighter aircraft that served with the United States Navy (USN) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) from late in World War II until 1954. It was the first twin-engine fighter to be deployed by the USN. While the Tigercat was delivered too late to see combat in World War II, it saw action as a night fighter and attack aircraft during the Korean War.
Designed initially for service on Midway-class aircraft carriers, early production F7Fs were land-based variants. The type was too large to operate from older and smaller carriers, and only a late variant (F7F-4N) was certified for carrier service.
Design & development
Based on the earlier Grumman XP-50 that was eventually canceled, the company developed the XP-65 (Model 51) further for a future "convoy fighter" concept. In 1943, work on the XP-65 was terminated in favor of the design that would eventually become the F7F. The contract for the prototype XF7F-1 was signed on 30 June 1941. Grumman's aim was to produce a fighter that outperformed and outgunned all existing fighter aircraft, and that had an auxiliary ground attack capability.
Performance of the prototype and initial production aircraft met expectations; the F7F was one of the fastest piston-engine fighters, with a top speed significantly greater than single-engine USN aircraft — 71 mph faster than a Grumman F6F Hellcat at sea level. Captain Fred Trapnell, one of the premier USN test pilots of the era, stated: "It's the best damn fighter I've ever flown." The F7F was to be heavily-armed — four 20 mm cannon and four 50 caliber (0.50 in; 12.7 mm) machine guns, as well as underwing and under-fuselage hardpoints for bombs and torpedoes. This speed and firepower was bought at the cost of heavy weight and a high landing speed, but what caused the aircraft to fail carrier suitability trials was poor directional stability with only one engine operational, as well as problems with the tailhook design. The initial production series was, therefore, used only from land bases by the USMC, as night fighters with APS-6 radar.
While the F7F was initially also known as the Grumman Tomcat, this name was abandoned, because it was considered at the time to have excessively sexual overtones; (from the 1970s, the name Tomcat became commonly associated with, and officially used by the Navy for, another Grumman design, the F-14 twin-jet carrier-based interceptor). The first production variant was the single-seat F7F-1N aircraft; after the 34th production aircraft, a second seat for a radar operator was added and these aircraft were designated F7F-2N.
A second production version, the F7F-3, was modified to correct the issues that caused the aircraft to fail carrier acceptance, and this version was again trialled on the USS Shangri-La. A wing failure on a heavy landing caused the failure of this carrier qualification as well. F7F-3 aircraft were produced in day fighter, night fighter, and photo-reconnaissance versions.
The final production version, the F7F-4N, was extensively rebuilt for additional strength and stability, and did pass carrier qualification, but only 12 were built.
Marine Corps night fighter squadron VMF(N)-513 flying F7F-3N Tigercats saw action in the early stages of the Korean War, flying night interdiction and fighter missions and shooting down two Polikarpov Po-2 biplanes. This was the only combat use of the aircraft.
Most F7F-2Ns were modified to control drones for combat training, and these gained bubble canopies over the rear cockpit for the drone controller. An F7F-2D used for pilot transitioning also had a rear sliding, bubble canopy.
- Proposed United States Army Air Forces pursuit fighter.
- Prototype aircraft, two built.
- F7F-1 Tigercat
- Twin-engine fighter-bomber aircraft, powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-22W radial piston engines. First production version, 34 built.
- F7F-1N Tigercat
- Single-seat night fighter aircraft, fitted with an APS-6 radar.
- Night-fighter prototype, one built.
- F7F-2N Tigercat
- Two-seat night fighter, 65 built.
- Small numbers of F7F-2Ns converted into drone control aircraft. The aircraft were fitted with a Grumman F8F Bearcat windshield behind the cockpit.
- F7F-3 Tigercat
- Single-seat fighter-bomber aircraft, powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-34W radial piston engines and featuring an enlarged tailfin for improved stability at high altitudes, 189 built.
- F7F-3N Tigercat
- Two-seat night fighter aircraft, 60 built.
- F7F-3E Tigercat
- Small numbers of F7F-3s were converted into electronic warfare aircraft.
- F7F-3P Tigercat
- Small numbers of F7F-3s were converted into photo-reconnaissance aircraft.
- F7F-4N Tigercat
- Two-seat night-fighter aircraft, fitted with a tailhook and other naval equipment, 12 built.
Beginning in 1949, F7Fs were flown to the then-U.S. Navy storage facility at Naval Air Station Litchfield Park, Arizona. Although the vast majority of the airframes were eventually scrapped, a number of examples were purchased as surplus. The surviving Tigercats were primarily used as water bombers to fight wildfires in the 1960s and 1970s and Sis-Q Flying Services of Santa Rosa, California, operated an F7F-3N tanker in this role until retirement in the late 1980s.
- 80374: based at the National Museum of World War II Aviation in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
- 80375: based at the National Museum of World War II Aviation in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
- 80390: based at Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas.
- 80411: based at Palm Springs Air Museum in Palm Springs, California.
- 80425: privately owned in Seattle, Washington.
- 80483: privately owned in Houston, Texas.
- 80503: based at Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas.
- 80532: privately owned in Bentonville, Arkansas.
- On display
- 80373: National Naval Aviation Museum in Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.
- 80382: Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California.
- 80410: Pima Air & Space Museum, adjacent to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base, in Tucson, Arizona.
- Under restoration or in storage
Specifications (F7F-4N Tigercat)
Data from Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II
- Crew: 2
- Length: 45 ft 4 in (13.82 m)
- Wingspan: 51 ft 6 in (15.70 m)
- Height: 16 ft 7 in (5.05 m)
- Wing area: 455 sq ft (42.3 m2)
- Airfoil: root: NACA 23015; tip: NACA 23012
- Empty weight: 16,270 lb (7,380 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 25,720 lb (11,666 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800-34W Double Wasp 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 2,100 hp (1,600 kW) each
- Propellers: 3-bladed constant-speed fully-feathering propellers
- Maximum speed: 460 mph (740 km/h, 400 kn)
- Range: 1,200 mi (1,900 km, 1,000 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 40,400 ft (12,300 m)
- Rate of climb: 4,530 ft/min (23.0 m/s)
- AN/APS-19 radar
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- de Havilland Hornet
- FMA I.Ae. 30 Ñancú
- Focke-Wulf Ta 154
- Kawasaki Ki-102
- Mitsubishi Ki-83
- Northrop P-61 Black Widow
- Rikugun Ki-93
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- List of United States Navy aircraft designations (pre-1962)
- Dorr and Donald 1990, p. 119.
- Thruelsen 1976, p. 204.
- Meyer 2002, p. 51.
- Meyer 2002, p. 54.
- Meyer 2002, p. 55.
- Thruelsen 1976, p. 205.
- Meyer 2002, p. 50
- Taylor 1969, p. 504.
- Grossnick and Armstrong 1997
- Gault 1973, p. 25.
- Zuk 2004, p. 129.
- Legg 1991, p. 26.
- "FAA Registry: N7629C". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80374." Grumman F7F Tigercat. Retrieved: 14 July 2021.
- "FAA Registry: N379AK". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80375." Grumman F7F Tigercat. Retrieved: 14 July 2021.
- "FAA Registry: N700F". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80390". Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 13 January 2020.
- "FAA Registry: N207F." FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80411". Palm Springs Air Museum. Retrieved: 23 February 2014.
- "FAA Registry: N909TC". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "FAA Registry: N6178C". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "FAA Registry: N747MX". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80503". Lewis Air Legends. Retrieved: 13 January 2020.
- "FAA Registry: N7195C". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80373". National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 23 March 2020.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80382". Planes of Fame Museum. Retrieved: 23 March 2020.
- "Grumman F7F Tigercat/Bu. 80410". Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 23 March 2020.
- "FAA Registry: N7626C". FAA.gov. Retrieved: 15 July 2021.
- Bridgman 1946, p. 233.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
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- Carlson, Ted. "Semper Fi Tigercat". Flight Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, April 2008.
- Carr, Orrin I. "Fire 'Cat!" Air Classics, Vol. 12, No. 9, Sept. 1976. Canoga Park, CA: Challenge Publications, pp. 38–47.
- Dorr, Robert F. and David Donald. Fighters of the United States Air Force. London: Temple, 1990. ISBN 0-600-55094-X.
- Gault, Owen. "Grumman's Tiger Twins: The Skyrocket & Tigercat". Air Classics, Vol. 9, No. 8, Aug. 1973. Canoga Park, CA: Challenge Publications, pp. 22–27.
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- Grossnick, Roy A. and William J. Armstrong. United States Naval Aviation: 1910–1995. Annapolis, MA: Naval Historical Center, 1997. ISBN 0-16-049124-X.
- Legg, David. "Tigercat on camera". Aircraft Illustrated, Volume 24, no. 1, January 1991.
- Meyer, Corwin ("Corky") H. "F7F Tigercat: The Untold Story". Flight Journal, August 2002. Ridgefield, CT: AirAge Publications. pp. 48–56, 58.
- Morgan, Eric B. "Grumman F7F Tigercat F.7/30". Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 1, No. 11. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd. ISSN 0961-8120.
- Morgan, Eric B. "The Grumman Twins". Twentyfirst Profile, Volume 2, No. 15. New Milton, Hants, UK: 21st Profile Ltd. ISSN 0961-8120.
- O'Leary, Michael. "Tigercat Restoration". Air Classics, Vol. 38, No. 11, Nov. 2002. Canoga Park, CA: Challenge Publications.
- O'Leary, Michael. United States Naval Fighters of World War II in Action. Poole, Dorset, UK: Blandford Press, 1980. ISBN 0-7137-0956-1.
- Taylor, John W.R. "Grumman F7F Tigercat". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
- Thruelsen, Richard. The Grumman Story. New York: Praeger Publishers, Inc., 1976. ISBN 0-275-54260-2.
- Zuk, Bill. Janusz Zurakowski: Legends in the Sky. St. Catharine's, Ontario: Vanwell, 2004. ISBN 1-55125-083-7.
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