Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (Груня Ефимовна Сухарева, alternative transliteration Suchareva) (November 11, 1891 – April 26, 1981) was a Soviet child psychiatrist. She was the first to publish a detailed description of autistic symptoms in 1925. The original paper was in Russian and published in German a year later. Sula Wolff translated it in 1996 for the English-speaking world.
She initially used the term "schizoid psychopathy", "schizoid" meaning "eccentric" at the time, but later replaced it with "autistic (pathological avoidant) psychopathy" to describe the clinical picture of autism. The article was created almost two decades before the case reports of Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner, which were published while Sukhareva's pioneering work remained unnoticed.
Sukhareva was born in Kiev to the Jewish family of Chaim Faitelevich and Rachil Iosifovna Sukhareva. Between 1917 and 1921, she worked in a psychiatric hospital in Kiev. From 1921, she worked in Moscow, and from 1933 to 1935 she was leading the department of Psychiatry in Kharkov University (Kharkov Psychoneurological Institute).
In 1935, Sukhareva founded a Faculty of Pediatric Psychiatry in the Central Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education. In 1938, she led a clinic of childhood psychosis under the Russian SFSR Ministry of Agriculture and Food. For many years, she worked as a councillor and leader of the Psychiatric Hospital of Kashchenko in Moscow.
- "Сухарева Груня Ефимовна, Москва, Востряковское — еврейские кладбища | Иудаизм и евреи на Toldot.ru". Toldot.ru — Иудаизм и евреи (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- Manouilenko, Irina; Bejerot, Susanne (31 March 2015). "Sukhareva—Prior to Asperger and Kanner". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry (Report). Taylor & Francis. 69 (6): 1761–4. doi:10.3109/08039488.2015.1005022. ISSN 1502-4725. PMID 25826582.
- Wolff, S. (September 1996). "The first account of the syndrome Asperger described? Translation of a paper entitled "Die schizoiden Psychopathien im Kindesalter" by Dr. G. E. Ssucharewa; scientific assistant, which appeared in 1926 in the Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie 60:235-261". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 5 (3): 119–132. doi:10.1007/bf00571671. PMID 8908418.
- "Сухарева Рахиль Иосифовна, Москва, Востряковское — еврейские кладбища | Иудаизм и евреи на Toldot.ru". toldot.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-08-05.
- M_d_nwrote, 2009-05-07 15:19:00 M_d_n M_d_n 2009-05-07 15:19:00. "Пять языков психодиагностики об ММД Часть 2/5" (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-08-05.