|Location||Yeni Şakran, Izmir Province, Turkey|
Gryneium or Gryneion (Ancient Greek: Γρύνειον), also Grynium or Grynion (Γρύνιον) and Grynia or Gryneia (Γρύνεια), was a city of ancient Aeolis. It was located 40 stadia from Myrina and 70 from Elaea. In early times it was independent, one of the 12 important cities of Aeolis, but afterwards became subject to Myrina. It contained a sanctuary of Apollo with an ancient oracle and a splendid temple of white marble.
Xenophon mentions Gryneium as belonging to Gongylus of Eretria; and it is possible that the castrum Grunium in Phrygia, from which Alcibiades derived an income of 50 talents was the town of Grynium. In 334 BC, Parmenion, who was one of the commanders of Alexander the Great, came to the region before Alexander's invasion took the town by assault, burned it, and sold its inhabitants as slaves, to prevent the resistance of the people around. The city then declined.
The first excavations were made by the French in 1883 and lasted several days. With a few pieces of vase, bronze objects were found. The next excavation was carried out by the Bergama Museum in 1959. During the expansion of Izmir-Çanakkale highway, a beautiful mosaic and necropolis area was found with sarcophagi. Today there has been no construction in the local area and the ruins can easily seen from a great distance.
- Herodotus. Histories. 1.149.
- Strabo. Geographica. xiii. p. 622. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
- Virgil, Ecl. 6.72, Aen. 4.345; Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.32, 32.21.
- Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Γρύνοι.
- Pausanias. Description of Greece. 1.21.9.
- Xenophon. Hellenica. 3.1.6.
- Nep. Alcib. 9.
- Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 17.7.