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Guacamole IMGP1265.jpg
Guacamole, avocado, lime and herbs
Type Dip
Place of origin Mexico
Main ingredients Avocados, sea salt, lime juice
Variations Mantequilla de pobre
Cookbook: Guacamole  Media: Guacamole
Homemade guacamole
Guacamole with tortilla chips

Guacamole (Spanish: [wakaˈmole]; or [ɡwakaˈmole]; can informally be referred to as "guac" in North America [1]) is an avocado-based dip or salad first created by the Aztecs in what is now Mexico.[2] In addition to its use in modern Mexican cuisine it has also become part of American cuisine as a dip, condiment and salad ingredient.[3][4]


Guacamole dip is traditionally made by mashing ripe avocados and sea salt with a molcajete (mortar and pestle). Some recipes call for tomato, onion, garlic, lemon or lime juice, chili or cayenne pepper, cilantro or basil, jalapeño, and/or additional seasonings. Some recipes call for sour cream as the main ingredient. Guacamole is also a word for avocado in some areas in Latin America.[citation needed]

On July 2, 2013, the New York Times published a guacamole recipe that included the addition of English peas.[5] Two years later, on July 1, 2015, the newspaper posted a link to the article on Twitter account with the caption, "Add green peas to your guacamole. Trust us."[6] The post sparked overwhelmingly negative feedback from their readers and followers, which prompted the media to pick-up on the story,[7] calling the incident "Guacamolegate."[8] Even President Barack Obama weighed in, tweeting that—while he respected the newspaper—peas didn't belong in guacamole.[9]

Due to the presence of polyphenol oxidase in the cells of avocado, exposure to the oxygen in the air causes an enzymatic reaction develops melanoidin pigment, turning the sauce brown.[10]This result is generally considered unappetizing, and there are several methods (some anecdotal) that are used to counter this effect.[10]


Aztecs made Guacamole dip by at least the 16th century.[2] A Spanish-English pronunciation guide from 1900 lists guacamole as a "salad of alligator pear".[11]

Later marketing tried to create a "luau" or Pacific Island image of the avocado in the 1960s, and a Spanish or Mediterranean image in the 1970s.[citation needed] Guacamole has pushed avocado sales in the US to 30 million pounds on two days a year: Super Bowl Sunday and Cinco de Mayo.[12][citation needed][dubious ]

Etymology and pronunciation[edit]

The name comes from an Aztec dialect via Nahuatl āhuacamolli [aːwakaˈmolːi], which literally translates to "avocado sauce", from āhuacatl [aːˈwakat͡ɬ] ("avocado") + molli [ˈmolːi] ("sauce", literally "concoction").[2] In Mexican Spanish it is pronounced [wakaˈmole], in American English it is sometimes pronounced /ɡwɑːkəˈml/, and in British English sometimes /ˌwækəˈml/. The name of the Guatemalan version has the final "e" omitted (Spanish: [wakaˈmol]).[citation needed] Early recipes from the California Avocado Advisory Board (Calavo), published in the 1940s, were accompanied with a pronunciation suggestion: "say huakamole".[citation needed]

Nutritional content[edit]

Similar foods[edit]

Mantequilla de pobre[edit]

Mantequilla de pobre (Spanish for "poor-man's butter") is a mixture of avocado, tomato, oil, and citrus juice. Despite its name, it predates the arrival of dairy cattle in the Americas, and thus was not originally made as a butter substitute.[3]


Thinner and more acidic,[13] or thick and chunky,[14] guasacaca is a Venezuelan avocado-based sauce; it is made with vinegar,[15] and is served over parrillas (grilled food), arepas, empanadas, and various other dishes. It is common to make the guasacaca with a little hot sauce instead of jalapeño, but like a guacamole, it is not usually served as a hot sauce itself.

Salat avocado[edit]

Salat avocado (Hebrew: סלט אבוקדו‎) is a rural Israeli avocado salad, with lemon juice and chopped scallions (spring onions) with salt and black pepper added, was introduced by farmers who planted avocado trees on the coastal plain in the 1920s. Avocados have since become a winter delicacy and are cut into salads as well as being spread on bread today also with pita and flat bread.[16] usually eaten in the villages of the coastal plain. It is also common today to add cumin before adding the lemon juice as well as feta cheese or safed cheese.

Commercial products[edit]

Prepared guacamoles are available in stores, often available refrigerated, frozen, or in high pressure packaging.[citation needed]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Oxford Dictionary". 
  2. ^ a b c Zeldes, Leah A. (November 4, 2009). "Eat this! Guacamole, a singing sauce, on its day". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Beard, James; Bittman, Mark (September 4, 2007). Beard on Food: The Best Recipes and Kitchen Wisdom from the Dean of American Cooking. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-1-59691-446-9. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  4. ^ Smith, Andrew F. (May 1, 2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  5. ^ CLARK, MELISSA (July 2, 2013), "Green Pea Guacamole", The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  6. ^
  7. ^ Lo Dico, Joy (July 2, 2015), "Mind your peas and Qs over guacamole." Evening Standard. :16
  8. ^ Zillman, Claire (July 14, 2015). "Adding peas to guacamole is actually terrible for the environment," Fortune p. 1.
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Hartel, 2009, p. 43
  11. ^ Edward Gray, A New Pronouncing Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, Part 1 (D. Appleton, 1900) 349.
  12. ^ Charles, Jeffrey (2002). "8. Searching for gold in Guacamole: California growers market the avocado, 1910–1994". In Belasco, Warren; Scranton, Philip. Food nations: selling taste in consumer societies. Routledge. pp. 131–154. ISBN 0-415-93077-4. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Caracas Calling". New York Press (Manhattan Media). July 13, 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Guasacaca — Venezuelan-style Guacamole". July 2, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  15. ^ Serpa, Diego (1968). "Avocado Culture in Venezuela" (PDF). California Avocado Society 1968 Yearbook 52: 153–168. ISSN 0096-5960. Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
  16. ^ Ansky, pg. 50


  • Hartel, Richard W and Hartel, AnnaKate (Mar 1, 2009), Springer Science & Business Media, ISBN 0387758453