Guan Daosheng (Chinese: 管道昇; Wade–Giles: Kuan Tao-sheng; 1262–1319) was a Chinese poet and painter who was active during the early Yuan Dynasty. She is credited with being "the most famous female painter in Chinese history...remembered not only as a talented woman, but also as a prominent figure in the history of bamboo painting."
She was born in Huzhou and was the wife of Zhao Mengfu, a renowned scholar-official and artist often considered the greatest artist of the earlier Yuan period. Likely a descendant of the high-ranking Wu Xing official Guan Zhong, she was well-educated in her youth, where she grew up on her family's ancestral lands, nicknamed "The Roost of the Esteemed."
Guan and Zhao were married in 1286 and established a home in Wuxing "with the purchase of a town house with gardens in Huzhou, and a country retreat at Dongheng village near Deqing," where they were later buried. While married to Zhao, Guan gave birth to two sons and two daughters, who she raised alongside the one son and four daughters Zhao had with his previous wife, who died prior to his marriage to Guan. Because of Zhao's important position within the Yuan bureaucratic hierarchy, Guan was able to accompany him on long trips around the nation, a luxury most citizens, especially women, would not have enjoyed. She especially often joined him on trips between the northern capital at Dadu and the southern cultural center of Huangzhou. In the year of their marriage, they embarked on a three-year trip from their home in Wuxing to Dadu.
Both Guan Daosheng and her prominent husband Zhao Mengfu "harboured deep Chan Buddhist faith and enjoyed friendship with monks, such as their teacher Zhongfeng Mingben and others residing in the monasteries on the Tianmu Mountains, close to their homes in Wuxing and Deqing in northern Zhejiang...." All in all, she and her husband had six daughters and three sons.
Guan Daosheng died in 1319 at the age of 58 after a long illness. She died "on board the official boat in Shandong on the way home"; her husband had sought permission to return due to his wife's illness. "The text of his letter informing [a relative] of her death and his painful journey home with her coffin, known as 'Zuimeng tie' ('Alcoholic delirium'), portrays a man devastated by the loss." Because some of her husband's writings focused on his dislike of northern China's climate where they lived, "it may even [have] been that a meagre northern diet contributed to [her] death...possibly of beriberi brought on by malnutrition." In the three years he lived after her death, it is said that he painted mainly bamboo, one of her favourite subjects, in her memory. Today, their "town house and garden in Huzhou, Lianhuazhuang,and their tomb in the country at Dongheng have been restored" and a small museum has been built in her husband's honour.
Artistic career and style
Guan appears to have become active as a painter around 1296 and as a calligrapher in 1299. She was talented in calligraphy and painting ink bamboo and plum with delicate and elegant strokes. It is believed that she and her husband did paintings together. The calligraphy of herself, her husband and one of their three sons, Zhao Yong, were collected in a scroll by the Yuan Emperor Ayurbarwada (better known as the Emperor Ren). He commented that it was a rare thing for a husband, wife and son to all be talented in calligraphy. "The imperial seal was applied to these works and they became part of the Imperial Archives collection."
The focus of Guan's work on bamboo painting is atypical for a female artist, as the subject was thought to be imbued with highly desirable masculine qualities, namely its ability to bend without breaking and greenness through the winter, symbolic of steadfast companionship. Guan's paintings of bamboo garnered extensive praise, most notably among critics who noted their surprise at their strong, masculine brushstrokes that, according to such critics, did not betray the fact that a woman had made them. Praise such as this undoubtedly helped lead to Guan's 1317 reception of the title "Madam of the Wei Kingdom" from the imperial court in the capital. Indeed, some of Guan's works received the imperial seal of Emperor Renzong and his sister, Grand Princess Sengge Ragi, and were housed in the collection of the imperial archives.
The greatest contribution of Guan Daosheng to the genre of bamboo painting was her tendency to paint it as part of a landscape, as opposed to isolated branches that were pressed close to the picture plane. As seen in Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain, attributed to Guan, the bamboo itself is painted as part of the thickets in which it naturally grows, and it is seen as subject to the effects of the landscape and atmosphere in which it is located. This style followed the tradition of an artist of the early Yuan whose name goes unrecorded in China but who is called Tan Zhirui in Japan, where his paintings were brought by Chan Buddhist monks. The ink tonality does not vary much in these works by Guan, as the entirety of the subject matter is affected by the misty atmosphere in which it is portrayed.
She inscribed poems on her paintings and used a style of poetry that was used rarely by women. In her poems she shows concern for her husband and children, but does this in a humoristic way. When her husband once considered taking a concubine, and wrote a short poem assuring her that he was just contemplating what his friends were doing and she would still be the official wife, she wrote a short poem in response ("Song of You and Me") and left it where he could find it. The subject was reportedly never raised again and after her death, he did not remarry.
It is likely that many of Guan’s works were dedicated to high-ranking female patrons. Beyond her association with Sengge Ragi, it is known that Guan dedicated Bamboo Groves in Mist and Rain to a "Lady Chuguo." By commonly directing her works to female recipients, Guan may have been promoting the influence of women at the imperial court.
She is referred to "in the nineteenth century compilation of information on woman painters drawn from many earlier sources by T'ang Sou-yu, the wife of the Hangchow scholar and book collector Wang Yuan-sun" and is "one of the few women who is mentioned in early Western surveys of Chinese painting and whose work has been studied by modern Chinese scholars." Few of her paintings remain but one example in the National Palace Museum in Taipei is believed to have a "plausible claim to authenticity"; it is a monochrome handscroll painted in 1308 entitled Bamboo Clumps in Mist and Rain. "Most of Guan Daosheng's scroll paintings appear to have been done for other women of roughly equal status--either her relatives or the wives of her husband's colleagues...."
In 2006, Guan's poetry served as the inspiration for a series of paintings by contemporary artist Au Hoi Lam, which were displayed at the Hong Kong Central Library in an exhibition entitled When Words are Sweet...Paintings by Au Hoi-lam.
- Marsha Weidner, ed. Flowering in the Shadows: Women in the History of Chinese and Japanese Painting. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990, p. 14.
- Weidner, Marsha; Johnston Laing, Ellen; Yucheng Lo, Irving; Chu, Christina; Robinson, James, eds. (1988). Views from Jade Terrace: Chinese Women Artists 1300-1912. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art. p. 66.
- McCausland, Zhao Mengfu: Calligraphy and Painting for Khubilai's China. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2011,p. 40.
- Views from Jade Terrace. pp. 66–67.
- McCausland, 17.
- McCausland, p. 22.
- McCausland, p. 104
- McCausland, p. 19.
- McCausland, p. 7.
- Osvald Siren. Chinese Painting, as quoted in Weidner, p. 97.
- Weidner, p. 59.
- Cahill, James (1997). Three Thousand Years of Chinese Painting. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 189–190.
- View from Jade Terrace, catalogue numbers 1, 2 and Cahill, p.190
- Purtle, Jennifer. "The Icon of the Woman Artist: Guan Daosheng (1262-1319) and the Power of Painting at the Ming Court c. 1500." A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture. Rebecca M. Brown and Deborah S. Hutton, eds. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
- Weidner, p. 104
- Ch'en Pao-chen, "Kuan Tao-sheng ho t'a te chu-shih t'u" (Kuan Tao-sheng and her painting of bamboo and rock), National Palace Museum Quarterly II, No. 4 (1977): 51-84 as quoted in Weidner, p. 14.
- McCausland, p. 281.
- "Exhibition displays paintings depicting sweet love". Leisure and Cultural Services Department. Retrieved March 14, 2014.