Guanabara Bay

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Guanabara Bay
Rio deJaneiro LE2002059 lrg.jpg
Satellite image of Guanabara Bay
LocationRio de Janeiro, Brazil
Coordinates22°47′25″S 43°9′20″W / 22.79028°S 43.15556°W / -22.79028; -43.15556Coordinates: 22°47′25″S 43°9′20″W / 22.79028°S 43.15556°W / -22.79028; -43.15556
TypeBay
Native nameBaía de Guanabara  (Portuguese)
River sources
Ocean/sea sourcesSouth Atlantic
Max. length31 km (19 mi)
Max. width28 km (17 mi)
Surface area412 km2 (159 sq mi)
IslandsIlha do Governador, Paquetá, Freguesia
SettlementsRio de Janeiro, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo

Guanabara Bay (Portuguese: Baía de Guanabara, IPA: [ɡwanaˈbaɾɐ]) is an oceanic bay located in Southeast Brazil in the state of Rio de Janeiro. On its western shore lies the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias, and on its eastern shore the cities of Niterói and São Gonçalo. Four other municipalities surround the bay's shores. Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in area in Brazil (after the All Saints' Bay), at 412 square kilometres (159 sq mi), with a perimeter of 143 kilometres (89 mi).

Guanabara Bay is 31 kilometres (19 mi) long and 28 kilometres (17 mi) wide at its maximum. Its 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) wide mouth is flanked at the eastern tip by the Pico do Papagaio (Parrot's Peak) and the western tip by Pão de Açúcar (Sugar Loaf).

The name Guanabara comes from the Tupi language, goanã-pará, from gwa "bay", plus "similar to" and ba'ra "sea". Traditionally, it is also translated as "the bosom of sea".

History[edit]

View of Rio de Janeiro from Guanabara Bay (early 20th-century picture).

Guanabara Bay was first encountered by Europeans on January 1, 1502, when one of the Portuguese explorers Gaspar de Lemos and Gonçalo Coelho[1] arrived on its shores. According to some historians,[2] the name given by the exploration team to the bay was originally Ria de Janeiro "January's Lagoon", then a confusion took place between the word ria "lagoon" and rio "river". As a result, the name of the bay was soon fixed as Rio de Janeiro. Later, the city was named after the bay. Natives of the Tamoio and Tupiniquim tribes inhabited the shores of the bay.

After the initial arrival of the Portuguese, no significant European settlements were established until French colonists and soldiers, under the Huguenot Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon invaded the region in 1555 to establish the France Antarctique. They stayed briefly on Lajes Island, then moved to Serigipe Island, near the shore, where they built Fort Coligny. After they were expelled by Portuguese military expeditions in 1563, the colonial government built fortifications in several points of Guanabara Bay, rendering it almost impregnable against a naval attack from the sea. They were the Santa Cruz, São João, Lajes and Villegaignon forts, forming a fearsome crossfire rectangle of big naval guns. Other islands were adapted by the Navy to host naval storehouses, hospitals, drydocks, oil reservoirs and the National Naval Academy.

Unsolved Historical Mystery[edit]

These days it is not unusual to find junk in the bay but what Robert Marx, a professional treasure hunter, discovered there in 1982 was an unusual kind of foreign matter. After hearing rumours of a sort of sunken treasure in the bay, Robert Marx - using a sonargraph - made an unusual find. At a depth of about 100 feet in an underwater field the size of three tennis courts located 15 miles from shore, he found a cache of ancient pottery. They were the remains of 200 amphorae (Roman ceramic jars), a few still fully intact and dating from the third century. That raised several thorny questions. How did the amphorae get there? The first Europeans didn't reach Brazil until 1500. Did the Romans somehow cross the Atlantic to Brazil 1,000 years before the Portuguese? It is unlikely that more evidence will be uncovered since the Brazilian Government closed the bay in 1983 to further research in an effort to deter looters.[3]

Description[edit]

Guanabara Bay with the statue of Christ the Redemeer at the foreground

There are more than 130 islands dotting the bay, including:

The bay is crossed by the Rio-Niterói Bridge (13.29 kilometres (8.26 mi) long and with a central span 72 metres (236 ft) high) and there is heavy boat and ship traffic, including regular ferryboat lines. The Port of Rio de Janeiro, as well as the city's two airports, Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport (on Governador Island) and Santos Dumont Airport (on reclaimed land next to downtown Rio), are located on its shores. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro main campus is located on the artificial Fundão Island. A maze of smaller bridges interconnect the two largest islands, Fundão and Governador, to the mainland.

There is an Environmental Protection Area (APA), which is located mostly in the municipality of Guapimirim and given the name of Guapimirim APA.

Sunrise over Guanabara Bay from central Rio de Janeiro—the cities of Niterói and São Gonçalo are opposite on the Bay's eastern shore

Environment[edit]

Guanabara Bay's once rich and diversified ecosystem has suffered extensive damage in recent decades, particularly along its mangrove areas.[4] The bay has been heavily impacted by urbanization, deforestation, and pollution of its waters with sewage, garbage, and oil spills. As of 2014, more than 70% of the sewage from 12 million inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro now flows into the bay untreated.[5]

There have been three major oil spills in Guanabara Bay. The most recent was in 2000 when a leaking Petrobras underwater pipeline released 1,300,000 litres (340,000 US gal) of oil into the bay, destroying large swaths of the mangrove ecosystem.[citation needed] Recovery measures are currently[when?] being attempted, but more than a decade after the incident, the mangrove areas have not returned to life.[citation needed]

One of the world's largest landfills is located at Jardim Gramacho adjacent to Guanabara Bay. It was closed in 2012 after 34 years of operation. The landfill attracted attention from environmentalists and it supported 1700 people scavenging for recyclable materials.[6]

View of Rio de Janeiro from Guanabara Bay

In June 2014 Dutch windsurfer and former Olympic and world champion Dorian van Rijsselberghe made an urgent appeal to government and industry in the Netherlands to collaborate in cleaning up the bay, together with the Plastic Soup Foundation.[7][8] The Dutch government picked up the message and formulated a Clean Urban Delta Initiative Rio de Janeiro together with a consortium of Dutch industry, knowledge institutes and NGOs which will be presented to the Brazilian authorities in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

As part of the preparations for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio, the government was supposed to improve the conditions, but progress has been slow. There have been concerns that the efforts may only be short-term and abandoned following the Games, as there would be little political incentive to continue with them.[9]

Marine ecosystem of Guanabara bay was severely damaged[10]; the bay was once a whaling ground[11][12][13], and today whales no longer or rarely seen while Bryde's whales can be seen around the bay entrance.[14][15][16][17] The bay is also a home to a population of Botos[18][19] and this population faces severe risks of population decline.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Jorge Couto, 1995, A Construção do Brasil, Lisbon: Cosmos.
  2. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Vasco Mariz, 2006, "Os Fundadores do Rio de Janeiro: Vespucci, Villegagnon ou Estácio de Sá?", in Brasil-França. Relações históricas no período colonial, Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército, p. 80.
  3. ^ Reader's Digest magazine: April 2019 issue (Pages 60-61)
  4. ^ "Grassroot efforts lead the clean-up of Brazil's Guanabara Bay ahead of Rio 2016". The Guardian. 1 June 2015.
  5. ^ "'Super bacteria' found in Rio's Olympic waters". The Big Story.
  6. ^ Barchfield, Jenny (5 June 2012). "Rio closes massive Jardim Gramacho dump". TV3. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  7. ^ "Een baai vol shit opruimen die hap - Life of Dorian". Dorian van Rijsselberghe.
  8. ^ http://plasticsoupfoundation.org/eng/
  9. ^ Carneiro, Julia (10 January 2014). "Rio's Olympic waters blighted by heavy pollution". BBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  10. ^ Ruback C.. 2009. Saiba mais sobre a Baía de Guanabara. R7 (pt). Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  11. ^ HISTÓRICO - A PONTA DA ARMAÇÃO. Casa d’Armas da Ponta da Armação. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  12. ^ Jorge S.. 2013. Baleias na Baía da Guanabara. Primeira Leitura. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  13. ^ Barata C. . 2010. Rio Antigo - Pesca da Baleia 1790c LJ. YouTube. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  14. ^ Machado M.. 2014. Final de verão do Rio tem 'rolezinho' de baleias em busca de comida. Globo.com (pt). Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  15. ^ Lodi L.. 2016. Baleia-de-bryde: Navegando com as gigantes. Blog ECONSERV – Ecologia, Conservação e Serviços. Retrieved on September 18, 2017
  16. ^ Lima D. L.. 2016. Frequentes na orla do Rio neste verão, baleias-de-bryde despertam curiosidade.Globo.com. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  17. ^ Lodi L.. Tardin H. R.. Hetzel B.. Maciel S. I.. Figueiredo D. L.. Simão M. S.. 2015. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae) occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil. Zoologia (Curitiba) vol.32 no.2 Curitiba Mar./Apr. 2015. SciELO. Retrieved on September 19, 2017
  18. ^ Ruback C.. 2009. Botos lutam para sobreviver na Baía de Guanabara. R7. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  19. ^ ESPECIAL CETÁCEOS - BALEIAS: POR QUE PROTEGÊ-LAS?. Pick-upau. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017
  20. ^ Dale J.. 2016. População de golfinhos da Baía de Guanabara sofre redução de 90% em três décadas. Globo.com. Retrieved on Septem8er 18, 2017

Further reading[edit]

Media related to
Guanabara Bay
at Wikimedia Commons