"Guantanamera" ([ɡwantanaˈmeɾa]; Spanish: (the woman) from Guantánamo) is perhaps the best-known Cuban song and that country's most-noted patriotic song, especially when using a poem by the Cuban poet José Martí for the lyrics. The official writing credits have been given to Joseíto Fernández, who first popularized the song on radio as early as 1929 (although it is unclear when the first release as a record occurred). In 1966, a version by American vocal group the Sandpipers, based on an arrangement by the Weavers from their May 1963 Carnegie Hall Reunion concert, became an international hit.
By José Martí
|Spanish Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
The better known "official" lyrics are based on selections from the poetry collection Versos Sencillos (Simple Verses) by Cuban poet and independence hero José Martí, as adapted by Julián Orbón. The four verses of the song were adapted from four stanzas of Versos Sencillos, each from a different poem. They are presented here in the original Spanish (poem:stanza).
By Joseíto Fernández
Given the song's musical structure, which fits A–B–A–B (sometimes A–B–B–A) octosyllabic verses, "Guantanamera" lent itself from the beginning to impromptu verses, improvised on the spot, similar to what happens with the Mexican folk song "La Bamba". Joseíto Fernández first used the tune to comment on daily events on his radio program by adapting the lyrics to the song's melody, and then using the song to conclude his show. Through this use, "Guantanamera" became a popular vehicle for romantic, patriotic, humorous, or social commentary in Cuba and elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world.
The lyrics often sung by Fernández are about a peasant woman or country girl from Guantánamo ("guajira Guantanamera"), with whom he once had a romantic relationship, and who eventually left him. Fernández provided several explanations during his lifetime, including that she did not have a romantic interest in him, but merely a platonic one.
By other artists
Various other versions have combined lyrics based on the José Martí poem. Additional verses commonly sung are:
- Y para el cruel que me arranca
- el corazón con que vivo
- cardo ni oruga cultivo
- cultivo la rosa blanca.
- Yo sé de un pesar profundo
- entre las penas sin nombre:
- la esclavitud de los hombres
- es la gran pena del mundo.
- No me pongan en lo oscuro
- A morir como un traidor
- Yo soy bueno y como bueno
- Moriré de cara al sol
The music for the song is sometimes also attributed to Joseíto Fernández, who claimed to have written it at various dates (consensus puts 1929 as its year of origin), and who used it regularly in one of his radio programs. Some[who?] claim that the song's structure actually came from Herminio "El Diablo" García Wilson, who could be credited as a co-composer. García's heirs took the matter to court decades later, but lost the case; the People's Supreme Court of Cuba credited Fernández as the sole composer of the music in 1993. Regardless of either claim, Fernández can safely be claimed as being the first to promote the song widely through his radio programs.
Recorded in the 1930s.
Recorded in the late 1940s.
Shortly after the Weavers’ Carnegie Hall reunion concert recording in May 1963, Pete Seeger included the song on his album We Shall Overcome, which was also performed live at Carnegie Hall. Seeger's recording is described by Stewart Mason at Allmusic as the "definitive version" of the song.
The version of the song created by Martí and Orbón was used by Seeger as the basis of his reworked version, which he based on a performance of the song by Héctor Angulo. Seeger combined Martí's verse with the tune, with the intention that it be used by the peace movement at the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He urged that people sing the song as a symbol of unity between the American and Cuban peoples, and called for it to be sung in Spanish to "hasten the day [that] the USA... is some sort of bilingual country."
|Single by The Sandpipers|
|B-side||"What Makes You Dream, Pretty Girl?"|
|Genre||Pop, easy listening, Latin, Folk|
|Songwriter(s)||Héctor Angulo, José Martí, Pete Seeger|
|The Sandpipers singles chronology|
The most commercially successful version of "Guantanamera" in the English-speaking world was recorded by the easy listening vocal group, The Sandpipers, in 1966. Their recording was based on the Weavers' 1963 Carnegie Hall reunion concert rendition and was arranged by Mort Garson and produced by Tommy LiPuma. In addition to the group's vocals, the version includes Robie Lester on background vocals and narration by producer LiPuma. It reached No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No. 7 on the UK Singles Chart.
"Guantanamera" is one of the songs most commonly identified with Cuban singer Celia Cruz (1925–2003). It appears on at least 241 different records or compilations of hers, her earliest commercial recording of it being on the Mexican label Tico Records in 1968. She mentions her special memories of singing "Guantanamera" nine times in her posthumous 2004 autobiography.
- The Sandpipers
|Canadian RPM Top Tracks||10|
|Netherlands (Single Top 100)||3|
|New Zealand (Listener)||7|
|South Africa (Springbok Radio)||2|
|UK Singles (OCC)||7|
|US Billboard Hot 100||9|
|US Adult Contemporary (Billboard)||3|
|West Germany (Official German Charts)||22|
- Celia Cruz
|US Billboard World Digital Songs Sales||2|
It has been recorded by many other solo artists, notably by Willy Chirino, Julio Iglesias, Joan Baez, Albita, Jimmy Buffett, Celia Cruz, Bobby Darin, Raul Malo, Joe Dassin, Muslim Magomayev, José Feliciano, Tony Mottola, Biser Kirov, Wyclef Jean, Puerto Plata, Trini Lopez, La Lupe, Nana Mouskouri, Tito Puente, Raulín Rodríguez, Andy Russell, Gloria Estefan, Pete Seeger, Robert Wyatt (under the title "Caimanera"), and by such groups as The Mavericks, Buena Vista Social Club, Los Lobos, Pozo-Seco Singers, Todos Tus Muertos, The Spinners and the Gipsy Kings.
In popular culture
- The tune of this song is a commonly used in British football chant, such as "There's only one [insert player/manager name]". For example, it was used for Paul Gascoigne ("There's only one Paul Gascoigne"), but modified for Gary Stevens ("There's only two Gary Stevens") since there were two players of the same name active at the same time. Other chants using the same tune include "You only sing when you're winning", and "You're getting sacked in the morning". It is also used on the soundtrack of Pro Evolution Soccer 2014, a football video game developed and published by Konami. Captain Morgan Original Spiced Rum's 2019 television commercial campaign also features this chant. Real Madrid also use this tune to sing “Reyes de Europa”.
- Comedy by Paul Kelly and the Messengers features a hidden song, fading to silence, singing "there's only one David Gower".
- Tony Lockett, a player in the Australian Football League, was praised in the song "One Tony Lockett", using the tune of "Guantanamera", performed by James Freud and the Reserves.
- Wyclef Jean presents The Carnival featuring the Refugee Camp Allstars released a song titled “Guantanamera” in 1997. Their song is not a cover of the original, but an incorporation with additional lyrics/music. The album version also featured Celia Cruz, Lauryn Hill, and Jeni Fujita. This version was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group. The song peaked at number 23 on the Billboard R&B/Hip-Hop airplay chart, number 29 on the Billboard Rhythmic Airplay chart, and number 38 on the Billboard Mainstream Hip-Hop/R&B airplay chart.
- The song is famously played in The Godfather Part II, at the New Year's Eve party in Cuba where Michael Corleone tells his brother Fredo Corleone that he knows that he betrayed him.
- Richard Stallman wrote and sang a version titled Guantanamero, an ironic commentary on the Guantanamo prison and the War on Terror.
- On the Saturday Night Live episode of October 27, 1990, Patrick Swayze and Dana Carvey perform a fake ad about a fake compilation album called "Super Feud" show in which two famous singers, Valendez and Montenero, brag about how much fan mail they receive - starting with "one ton of fan mail," followed by "two tons of fan mail" - to the tune of Guantanamera. 
- Cheal, David (March 13, 2015). "The Life of a Song: 'Guantanamera'". Financial Times. Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
His chorus sings the praises of a guajira (peasant woman) from Guantánamo (the Guantanamera of the title)
- Martí, José (2005). Versos Sencillos (Dual-language ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-2386-2. OCLC 61151508.
- Hamilton, Valerie (March 24, 2016). "How 'Guantanamera' went from Cuba's unofficial anthem to a Swedish recycling jingle". Public Radio International. Public Radio International. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
The song's refrain, “guajira Guantanamera,” means “country girl from Guantanamo.
- "Define gua-ji-ra". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
literally, peasant woman
- "Playing For Change - Guantanamera lyrics". lyricstranslate.com. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Vizcaíno, María Argelia, Aspectos de la Guantanamera, La Página de José Martí Archived July 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Part 1, and Manuel, Peter (2006), "The Saga of a Song: Authorship and Ownership in the Case of 'Guantanamera'". Latin American Music Review 27/2, pp. 1–47
- "Jose Marti. La Guantanamera por María Argelia Vizcaíno #2-2". Josemarti.org. Archived from the original on December 19, 2003. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Stewart Mason, Review of Pete Seeger at Carnegie Hall, Allmusic.com. Retrieved May 24, 2013
- Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 34 – Revolt of the Fat Angel: American musicians respond to the British invaders. [Part 2]: UNT Digital Library" (audio). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Josh Kun (November 2005). Audiotopia: Music, Race, and America. p. 6. ISBN 9780520938649. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- Michael Bourne (1995). "The Billboard Interview: Tommy LiPuma" (PDF). Billboard magazine. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955–2002 (1st ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 618. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
- Betts, Graham (2004). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952–2004 (1st ed.). London: Collins. p. 92. ISBN 0-00-717931-6.
- "Searching for "guantanamera celia cruz"on Discogs". DISCOGS. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- "Celia Cruz - Guantanamera". Discogs. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "Celia Cruz, My Life, an autobiography". June 24, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Guantanamera". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "The Sandpipers – Guantanamera" (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
- Flavour of New Zealand, 25 November 1966
- "SA Charts 1965–March 1989". Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- "Sandpipers: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company.
- "The Sandpipers Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard.
- "The Sandpipers Chart History (Adult Contemporary)". Billboard.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – The Sandpipers – Guantanamera". GfK Entertainment Charts. To see peak chart position, click "TITEL VON The Sandpipers"
- "Celia Cruz Chart History - Billboard World Digital Songs Sales". Billboard. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
- Rushdie, Salman (December 26, 2008). "The People's Game". Step Across This Line. ISBN 9781407021379.
- Tom Lamont. "Tom Lamont on the chant-makers of British football". The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- King, Bill. "Getting to the root of my love of ginger," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Wednesday, August 7, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019
- "James Freud and the Reserves - One Tony Lockett (CD)". Discogs. Retrieved September 29, 2016.
- "Wyclef Jean :: The Carnival :: Ruffhouse/Columbia Records". www.rapreviews.com. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- Bonita (March 30, 2017). "Wyclef Jean & Lauryn Hill's Collabo From The Carnival Was 1 Of Their Last And Best (Audio)". Ambrosia For Heads. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- "Wyclef Jean". GRAMMY.com. November 23, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- "Celia Cruz Chart History - R&B/Hip-Hop Airplay". Billboard. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
- "Celia Cruz Chart History - Rhythmic Airplay". Billboard. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
- "Celia Cruz Chart History - Mainstream Hip-Hop/R&B Airplay". Billboard. Retrieved June 3, 2021.
- Movie Port. "Godfather Part 2:"I know it was you Fredo" and Cuban Revolution". YouTube. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
- "Guantanamero - Richard Stallman". stallman.org.
- "Saturday Night Live "Feud"". www.nbc.com.
- José Martí's poem Versos Sencillos, from which the verses of Guantanamera were taken.