Guardians of the directions
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In Hinduism the Guardians of the Directions (Sanskrit: दिक्पाल, Dikpāla) are the deities who rule the specific directions of space according to Hinduism, Jainism and Vajrayāna Buddhism—especially Kālacakra. As a group of eight deities, they are called Aṣṭa-Dikpāla (अष्ट-दिक्पाल), literally meaning guardians of eight directions. They are often augmented with two extra deities for the ten directions (the two extra directions being zenith and nadir), when they are known as the Daśa-Dikpāla. In Hinduism it is traditional to represent their images on the walls and ceilings of Hindu temples. They are also often portrayed in Jain temples, with the exception that Nāga usually takes the place of Vishnu in the nadir. Ancient Java and Bali Hinduism recognize Nava-Dikpāla, literally meaning guardians of nine directions, that consist of eight directions with one addition in the center. The nine guardian gods of directions is called Dewata Nawa Sanga (Nine guardian devata). The diagram of these guardian gods of directions is featured in Surya Majapahit, the emblem of Majapahit empire.
There are strong similarities between the concept of the guardians of the directions and the lore surrounding the Chinese four symbols, four ancestral spirits who are responsible for four of the cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West).
The names of the Dikpālas vary slightly, but generally include the following:
|Kubera||North||Oṃ Śaṃ Kuberāya Namaḥ||Gada (mace)||Bhadrā||Budha (Mercury)||Ila|
|Yama||South||Oṃ Maṃ Yamāya Namaḥ||Pasam (Ropes)||Urmila||Maṅgala (Mars)||Mangalaa|
|Indra||East||Oṃ Laṃ Indrāya Namaḥ||Vajra (thunderbolt)||Śacī||Surya (Sun)||Suryā|
|Varuṇa||West||Oṃ Vaṃ Varuṇāya Namaḥ||Pāśa (noose)||Varuni||Śani (Saturn)||Shaninī|
|Ishana||Northeast||Oṃ Haṃ Īśānāya Namaḥ||Triśūla (trident)||Ishani (form of parvati)||Brahspati (Jupiter)||Taraka|
|Agni||Southeast||Om Aam Agniaaya Namah||Danda(Staff)||Svaha||Shukra(Venus)||Shukrā|
|Vāyu||Northwest||Oṃ Yaṃ Vāyave Namaḥ||Ankusha (goad)||Lehari||Chandra (Moon)||Chandrikā|
|Nirrti (form of Parvati)||Southwest||Oṃ Kṣaṃ Rakṣasāya Namaḥ||Khaḍga (sword)||Shiva||Rahu||Shivani|
|Brahmā||Zenith||Oṃ Hriṃ Brahmaṇe Namaḥ||Padma (lotus)||Sarasvatī||Ketu||Brahmani|
|Viṣṇu||Nadir||Oṃ Kliṃ Viṣṇave Namaḥ||Chakra (discus)||Lakṣmī||Lagna||[[Vaishnavi (deity)|Va
Directions in Hindu tradition
Directions in Hindu tradition are called as Diśā, or Dik. There are four primary directions and a total of 10 directions.
Aṣṭa-Dikpāla ("Guardians of Eight Directions")
Daśa-Dikpāla ("Guardians of Ten Directions")
Besides the eight guardians, the following are added: