Guayabo de Turrialba
|Guayabo National Monument|
Archaeological site within Guayabo
|Nearest city||Turrialba, Cartago|
|Area||550 acres (2.2 km²)|
|Established||13 August 1973|
|Governing body||National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC)|
Guayabo de Turrialba is an archeological site located in Turrialba, within the Central Volcanic Conservation Area in the Cartago Province, Costa Rica. It is protected within the Guayabo National Monument.
The site is of great archeological and cultural importance even though only a very small portion of the city has been uncovered and studied. The monument covers 540 acres (218 ha) and is located on the forested southern slope of Turrialba Volcano. The settlement was occupied between 1000 BC and 1400 AD after which it was mysteriously abandoned. The reason is still unclear and the Spanish Conquistadors and settlers did not leave any record as to whether they found the ruins.
The pre-history and significance of the site are still unclear, however it seems to have been inhabited since 1000 BC. Guayabo's development peaked c. 800 AD with approximately 10,000 people living there. Abandoned by 1400 AD, Guayabo is believed to be an important cultural, political and religious center but specific details have yet to be discovered.
The site contains a wide array of stone paved streets, round platforms which were the base for wooden structures, aqueducts, ponds, carved stone designs and drawings of animals.
Following an 1891 excavation of a cemetery here over 100 relics were displayed at the 1892 Historical American Exposition in Madrid and then much of the display was taken to the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
- Watters, D.R. & Zamora, O.F., (2005). "World's Fairs and Latin American Archaeology: Costa Rica at the 1892 Madrid Exposition". Bulletin of the History of Archaeology. 15(1), pp.4–11. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/bha.15102
- "History and Heritage". American Society of Civil Engineers. Retrieved 2009-09-14.