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Coordinates: 02°11′24″S 79°53′15″W / 2.19000°S 79.88750°W / -2.19000; -79.88750
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Santiago de Guayaquil
Santiago of Guayaquil
Skyline of Guayaquil
Ninth of October Avenue (Avenida Nueve de Octubre)
Guayaquil, with the Guayas River in the foreground
La Perla del Pacífico
English: The Pearl of the Pacific
Por Guayaquil Independiente
English: For Independent Guayaquil
Guayaquil is located in Ecuador
Guayaquil is located in South America
Coordinates: 02°11′24″S 79°53′15″W / 2.19000°S 79.88750°W / -2.19000; -79.88750
Country Ecuador
Province Guayas
Spanish foundation(1535-07-25)25 July 1535
Independence(1820-10-09)9 October 1820
Founded byFrancisco de Orellana
Named forGuayas and Quil
Urban parishes16 urban parishes
 • TypeMayor and council
 • Governing bodyMunicipality of Guayaquil
 • MayorAquiles Álvarez
 • Vice-MayorBlanca López
 • City344.5 km2 (133.01 sq mi)
 • Land316.42 km2 (122.17 sq mi)
 • Water28.08 km2 (10.84 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,493.86 km2 (962.88 sq mi)
4 m (13.2 ft)
 • City2,650,288
 • Density7,700/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
GDP (PPP, constant 2015 values)
 • Year2023
 • Total$42.9 billion[2]
 • Per capita$17,300
Time zoneUTC−5 (ECT)
Postal code
Area code(0)4
Vehicle registrationG
WebsiteMunicipality of Guayaquil

Guayaquil (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡwaʝaˈkil] ; Quechua: Wayakil), officially Santiago de Guayaquil, is the largest city[contradictory] in Ecuador and also the nation's economic capital and main port. The city is the capital of Guayas Province and the seat of Guayaquil Canton. The city is located on the west bank of the Guayas River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Guayaquil.



The origin of the name Santiago de Guayaquil has been much discussed, although that 'Guayaquil' is pre-Hispanic. Since the founding of the city by the Spanish in 1534, it has been linked to the name of Santiago in memory of its patron saint, Santiago, apostle of Christ. He is also designated as patron saint of several other Spanish American colonial cities, such as Santiago de Chile, as he is of Spain.[3]

A theory based on a romantic legend, transmitted orally, attributes the name Guayaquil to the joining of the name of a leader named Guayas and of his wife Quil. They are symbols of the local resistance that—according to local tradition—chose to fight to the death (and as a final act, set fire to the town), rather than surrender to the Spanish conquerors.[4]

A town with a name similar to Guayaquil is located near the city of Durán (Autopista Durán-Boliche km. 23). Investigations by archeologists and historians has led them to conclude that when the town was conquered by the Spanish, it was ruled by a man named Guayaquile.[5]

They have not determined if the man or the town was first to receive that name. But researcher Ángel Véliz Mendoza, in his book on the man Guayaquile, says that there at least seven references to the toponym in pre-1543 documents.[6] It is believed that the name Guayaquil is taken from the population's final home, in lands of the chief Guayaquile. This region was occupied by the chonos, people whose archeological name (in Spanish) is Cultura Milagro-Quevedo.[5]

After several location changes and fires, the city was founded in 1547, and named the "Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil" ("Very noble and very loyal city of Santiago de Guayaquil"). After the city's independence in 1820, the words "very noble and very loyal" disappeared from use, as the city was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. Today, the official name of Santiago de Guayaquil is seldom used outside of official contexts.[citation needed]


Engraving depicting a map of Guayaquil in 1741.

Guayaquil was founded on 25 July 1538[7] by Spanish conqueror Francisco de Orellana in the location of a native village. He named it as Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil ("Most Noble and Most Loyal City of Santiago de Guayaquil").[8]

On 20 April 1687, Guayaquil was attacked and looted by English and French pirates under the command of George d'Hout (English), and Picard and Groniet (French).[9] Of more than 260 pirates, 35 were killed and 46 were wounded; 75 defenders of the city died and more than 100 were wounded.[citation needed]

In 1709, English captains including Woodes Rogers and William Dampier, along with a crew of 110, looted Guayaquil and demanded ransom. But they departed suddenly and without collecting the ransom after an epidemic of yellow fever broke out.[citation needed]

In colonial times Guayaquil was the chief Spanish shipyard in the Pacific, although some navigators considered that Valdivia (now in Chile) had better conditions.[10][11]

Guayaquil was a stopover point in the commerce between Asia and Latin America conducted via Philippines-based Manila galleons. The trade route had links to Acapulco in present-day Mexico and terminated with a node in Callao, Peru.[12]

In the late eighteenth century, the majority of slaves in the region were located in Guayaquil. Their lives and work were conditioned by a practice called jornal. The owners held them legally but the jornalado slaves had "considerable independence"[13] in exchange for paying their owners a fee (the jornal) every day. Such enslaved Native Americans, such as María Chiquinquirá, would work inside urban homes. (She was a local hero because she successfully went to court in 1794 to argue for her freedom.) Other jornalado enslaved men worked alongside free workers in the shipyards.

the turn of the nineteenth century, slaves had fought for their freedom in increasing numbers. Together they formed a social group known as the plebe.[13]

On 9 October 1820, almost without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva" battalion quartered in Guayaquil, led by the Peruvian Colonel Gregorio Escobedo, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities. Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming the "Provincia Libre de Guayaquil". José Joaquín de Olmedo was named Jefe Civil of Guayaquil.

Departing from Guayaquil, General Antonio José de Sucre, sent by Simón Bolivar and supported by a division promised by José de San Martín, led the allied independence army in the Battle of Pichincha. His victory confirmed the independence of the Gran Colombia and also what would become the future Republic of Ecuador.[citation needed]

On 26 July 1822, generals José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar held a meeting in Guayaquil to plan how to complete achieving the independence of Perú and, with it, all of Spanish South America. In 1829, the city was invaded by the Peruvian Army, which occupied it for seven months.[citation needed]

In 1860, the city was the site of the Battle of Guayaquil, the last of a series of military conflicts between the forces of the Provisional Government, led by Gabriel García Moreno and General Juan José Flores, and the forces of the Supreme Chief of Guayas, General Guillermo Franco, whose government was recognized as possessing sovereignty over the Ecuadorian territory by Peruvian president Ramón Castilla. Moreno's forces were victorious, countering Peruvian influence over Ecuador.[citation needed]

In 1896, large portions of the city were destroyed by a fire.[14]

On 8 July 1898, the Guayaquil City Hall Muy Ilustre Municipalidad de Guayaquil officially recognized the anthem written by José Joaquín de Olmedo in 1821, with the music composed by Ana Villamil Ycaza in 1895, as the Himno al 9 de Octubre or Canción al Nueve de Octubre, most widely known now as the Himno a Guayaquil (Guayaquil Anthem).

In 1922, workers in the city went on a general strike lasting three days, ending after at least 300 people were killed by military and police.[citation needed]

In 2020, the city was hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. Its medical and mortuary services were overwhelmed to the point where bodies lay in the streets.[15] Almost 6,000 more deaths were recorded in the first two weeks of April than the average for the same period in other years.[16]


Aerial view of Guayaquil

Guayaquileños' main sources of income are formal and informal trade, business, agriculture and aquaculture. Most commerce consists of small and medium businesses, adding an important informal economy occupation that gives thousands of guayaquileños employment.[17]

The Port of Guayaquil is Ecuador's most important commercial port; most international import and export merchandise passes through the Gulf of Guayaquil. As the largest city in the country,[18] most industries are located either in the city or its peripheral areas.



Guayaquil plays an important role in Ecuador's economy as the commercial heart of the country, and is also a vibrant, sprawling city, urban, cultural and touristic. In recent years, the city has become a business and convention destination. Half a dozen skyscrapers give it the profile of a major city that continues to expand to the north and west.[19]

Here are some of the tourist attractions in Guayaquil that you should not miss to visit:

  • Torre Morisca. [20]
  • Malecon 2000. [21]
  • Seminario Park or Iguana Park. [22]
  • Las Peñas neighbourhood. [23]
  • Guayaquil Cathedral. [24]
  • La Rotonda hemicycle. [25]
  • Puerto Santa Ana. [26]
  • MAAC. [27]
  • Nahim Isaias Museum. [28]

Latin Trade magazine, in its "Best of Latin America" cover story, named the city of Guayaquil as the most outstanding city in 5 categories: Best Hotel for Executives, Best Outlet (Entertainment), Best Car Rental, Best Travel Agency and Best Restaurant for Executives.

Its geographical location makes it the gateway to the Galapagos Islands and it has won several World Travel Awards. These include: South America's Leading City Break Destination and South America's Leading Meetings and Conferences Destination. [29]

There are several agencies that offer day trips in Guayaquil: shopping tours in the malls, gastronomic tours, religious tours or tours to agritourism haciendas. [30] A good alternative to get to know the city are the free tours offered by Guayaquil City Council. [31] Or one of the self-guided tours offered to get to know the city of Guayaquil. [32]



As of 2020 Guayaquil's mayor was Cynthia Viteri, the second elected female mayor in the city's history, the first being Elsa Bucaram in 1988. The previous mayor, Jaime Nebot, endorsed her. A campaign of construction projects for the city began in the early 2000s to attract tourism. The "urban regeneration" plan reconstructed the city's main tourist streets' sidewalks and upgraded the city's chaotic transit system with multiple infrastructure projects (speedways, bridges, overhead passages, tunnels, etc.).[33]

In August 2006, the city's first rapid transit bus system, Metrovía, opened to provide a quicker, high-capacity service. One of the main projects was called Malecón 2000 [maleˈkon dos ˈmil], the renovation of the waterfront promenade (malecón) along the Guayas River. Another project was the creation of the Nuevo Parque Histórico, a park in a housing development area that is called Entre Ríos because it lies between the Daule and Babahoyo rivers (which merge to form the Guayas River) in a mangrove wetland area. The park cost the city about US$7 million.

In 2013, the national government led by Rafael Correa built two pedestrian bridges connecting downtown Guayaquil, Santay Island, and the town of Durán, to allow people to make ecotourism trips and return the same day.



Guayaquil is the nation's largest city[34] and the capital of Guayas Province. It is on the Guayas River about 60 km (40 mi) north of the Gulf of Guayaquil, near the Equator.

Guayaquil faces major earthquake threats due to its soil stratigraphy and location on the ring of fire and the south of the North-Andean subduction zone.[35]

The city can be easily damaged by earthquakes as its weak and compressible soil is composed of deep soft sediments over hard rocks and deposits in a brackish environment. Also, the city itself is strongly affected by the subduction of the active Ecuadorian margin, an intraplate region where active faults locate; and the Guayaquil-Babahoyo strike-slip fault system, formed as the North Andean Block drifts northward.[36]

The tsunami threat is caused by the nearby Gulf of Guayaquil which also is one of the major locations on the Earth where earthquakes tend to happen all the time. It has complex tectonic features such as the Posorja and the Jambeli – two major east–west trending detachment systems; the Puna-Santa Clara northeast-southwest trending fault system; and the Domito north-south trending fault system; that have developed since the Pleistocene times. Tsunami threats are only predicted for coastal farming zones, not the main populated areas.[37][38]

Guayaquil, along with most of the coastal region, was impacted by the 16 April 2016 earthquake of 7.8 magnitude. A bridge that was above a major artery, Avenida de las Americas, collapsed in the early evening on that day, killing two people.[citation needed]



Guayaquil features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen: Aw). Between January and April, the climate is hot and humid with heavy rainfall, especially during El Niño years when it increases dramatically and flooding usually occurs. The rest of the year (from May through December), however, rainfall is minimal due to the cooling influence of the Humboldt Current, with usually cloudy mornings and afternoons, and evening breezes.

Climate data for Guayaquil (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.2
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.0
Record low °C (°F) 20.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 200.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 14 15 10 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 59
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[39]
Source 2: NOAA[40]

Guayaquil city sectors

Guayaquil's waterfront around 1920.
Gulf of Guayaquil.
Buildings in Puerto Santa Ana.
Historic buildings in the Parque Histórico.
Las Peñas neighborhood.
Guayaquil City Territorial Organization
Number of the sector in reference with the City Map
# Sectors # Sectors # Sectors
1 9 de Octubre Este 25 Febres Cordero 49 Prosperina
2 9 de Octubre Oeste 26 Floresta 50 Puerto Azul Norte
3 Abel Gilbert 27 La Florida 51 Puerto Azul Sur
4 Acuarela 28 García Moreno 52 Puerto Lisa
5 Los Álamos 29 Garzota 53 Quinto Guayas Este
6 Alborada Este 30 Guangala 54 Quinto Guayas Oeste
7 Alborada Oeste 31 Guasmo Este 55 Río Guayas
8 Los Almendros 32 Guasmo Oeste 56 Roca
9 Las Américas 33 Huancavilca 57 Rocafuerte
10 Atarazana 34 Isla Trinitaria 58 La Saiba
11 Ayacucho 35 Kennedy 59 Samanes
12 Bastión Popular 36 Letamendi 60 San Eduardo
13 Batallón del Suburbio 37 Luz del Guayas 61 Los Sauces
14 Bellavista 38 Mapasingue 62 Simón Bolívar
15 Bolívar 39 Miraflores 63 Sopeña
16 Los Ceibos 40 Monte Bello 64 Sucre
17 Centenario 41 Olmedo 65 Tarqui
18 Cerro del Carmen 42 Las Orquídeas Este 66 Unión
19 Cóndor 43 Las Orquídeas Oeste 67 Urdenor
20 Cuba 44 Paraíso 68 Urdaneta
21 Del Astillero 45 Pascuales 69 Urdesa
22 Estero Salado 46 Pedro Carbo 70 Los Vergeles
23 Los Esteros 47 Las Peñas 71 Ximena
24 La FAE 48 La Pradera 72 Mirador Norte

Here you can find the list of Neighborhoods and Parishes of Guayaquil


Historical Populations Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City[41]
Census Guayas Province Canton of Guayaquil Guayaquil City
1950 582.144 331.942 258.966
1962 979.223 567.895 510.804
1974 1,512,333 907.013 823.219
1982 2.038.454 1.328.005 1.199.344
1990 2,515,146 1,570,396 1,508,444
2001 3,309,034 2,039,781 1,985,379
2010 3,645,483 2,350,915 2,291,158
Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos
Percentage Population Growth of Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City.[41]
Census Guayas Province Canton of Guayaquil Guayaquil City
1950–1962 4.34% 4.49% 5.67%
1962–1974 3.77% 4.06% 4.14%
1974–1982 3.52% 4.50% 4.44%
1982–1990 2.63% 2.10% 2.87%
1990–2001 2.49% 2.38% 2.50%
2001–2010 1.12% 1.69% 1.71%
Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos


Ecuadorian ceviche, made of shrimp and lemon, onions, tomatoes and some herbs. Tomato sauce, mustard and orange are used at some places, but does not form a part of the basic recipe.

Typical Guayaquil cuisine includes mostly seafood dishes such as encebollado, ceviche, cazuela, and encocado (shrimp or tuna with a coconut sauce and rice).

During breakfast, patacones and bolon (fried plantain with cheese mashed and given a rounded shape) play a big role. These plantain dishes are often accompanied with bistec de carne or encebollado de pescado.

Another prominent breakfast dish are empanadas "de viento" made with wheat flour and stretchy cheese or empanadas "de verde" plantain based with mozzarella cheese.

Pan de yuca similar to pão de queijo usually served with "yogur persa" is a typical snack in Guayaquil. With the rise in middle eastern migration, shawarma shops dot the city.

Chifa or Chinese-Ecuadorian dishes like arroz chaufa, tallarin saltado, and sopa Fui Chi Fu are common fast food options.

Some other original dishes of Guayaquil are the plantain ball soup (based on peanuts and green plantains creating a green plantain ball filled with meat and other ingredients). Bollo, analogous to hallaca, is another typical dish of this city that also the main ingredient is the green plantain and seafood. Just to mention others are the biche, sango de mariscos, and arroz con pescado frito (rice with fried fish)

Arroz con menestra y carne asada (rice with stew and roast meat), churrasco, Guatita, Caldo de mondongo, Humitas, Maduro lampriado, Maduro con queso, Tripita, are some more dishes included in the great and diverse gastronomy of the city.

Notable people


Arts and literature





Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil

Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil (Municipal Library of Guayaquil) serves as the public library of Guayaquil.[43] The city has several universities, including the University of Guayaquil (founded in 1867), the Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, the Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (ESPOL), and the Universidad de Especialidades Espiritu Santo.



The largest religion in Guayaquil is Christianity.


Barcelona's Stadium Monumental, the 12th largest stadium in South America.

There are two major association football clubs; the Barcelona Sporting Club and the Club Sport Emelec. Each club has its own stadium; the Estadio Monumental Banco Pichincha is the home of the "Barcelonistas" while the Estadio George Capwell is the home of the "Emelecistas". These two teams have a long history of rivalry in Guayaquil and when these two teams play against each other the game is called "El Clásico del Astillero".

The city is the birthplace of Francisco Segura Cano; and Andrés Gómez and Nicolás Lapentti, Ecuador's two most successful tennis players, now both retired. The "Abierto de Tenis Ciudad de Guayaquil" is a tennis tournament organised in Guayaquil by Gómez and Luis Morejon, and held annually in November.

Another major event in the city is the Guayaquil Marathon, which has been held every year on the first weekend of October since 2005. These race is certified by the (AIMS) Association of International Marathons and Distance Races.

The sports & Ecological Park called Parque Samanes de Guayaquil is a park with courts for soccer, tennis, volleyball, and basketball, two lakes, a soccer stadium and an amphi theatre for open air concerts and events. It is connected to a forest reserve with trails for cycling and walking, as well as installations for climbing and zip-lining.


ESPOL offices at night.

Some of Guayaquil's main universities are:



Guayaquil is located along national Highway 40 and is near Highway 25.

Among Guayaquil's major trading points are the seaport, the largest in Ecuador and one of the biggest handlers of shipping on the shores of the Pacific; and José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport.

José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport, though using the same runways, had its passenger terminal completely rebuilt in 2006 and was renamed. The old passenger terminal is now a convention centre.[44]

Guayaquil is served by a bus rapid transit system, Metrovia, which opened in 2006. The system has three lines and is supplemented by 35 feeder routes, carrying a total of 400,000 daily passengers.[45]

The Empresa de Ferrocarriles Ecuatorianos offers tourist rail service to Quito from the neighboring city of Durán, Ecuador, located across the Guayas River from Guayaquil.[46]

Port of Guayaquil


The Port of Guayaquil is the most important one in Ecuador and one of the major ports in Latin America. The port provides capacities for handling cargo, but is also a hub for transshipment for other countries in the pacific region.[47]

Since the decrease of the Colombian FARC drug gang business and the raise of Ecuadorian cartels, the harbor of Guayaquil is one of the most important spots of drug trafficking to Columbia, Mexico and the US.[48][49]

Responsible for port operation is the state Guayaquil Port Authority.[47]

Twin towns – sister cities


Guayaquil is twinned with:

See also



  1. ^ "Citypopulation.de Population and area of Guayaquil." Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. Retrieved on December 31, 2023.
  2. ^ "TelluBase—Ecuador Fact Sheet (Tellusant Public Service Series)" (PDF). Tellusant. Retrieved January 11, 2024.
  3. ^ Avilés Pino; Hoyos Galarza, Historia de Guayaquil, p. 11.
  4. ^ Correa Bustamante, p. 120.
  5. ^ a b Rodolfo Pérez Pimentel (ed.). "Guayaquile". Diccionario Biográfico Ecuador. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  6. ^ "El nombre de Guayaquil". Fundación Malecón 2000. Archived from the original on February 8, 2004. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  7. ^ 25 July is an official holiday in Guayaquil. Historians have not yet reached a consensus about the date of Guayaquil's foundation or founder. The city might have been founded more than once. Another possible founder might be Diego de Almagro.
  8. ^ 25 July 1538, OnThisDay.com. Accessed 6 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Intercolonial Friction (1660—1700)", in Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere (ABC-CLIO, 2008) p. 308
  10. ^ Guarda, Gabriel (1973). La economía de Chile Austral antes de la colonización alemana. Valdivia: Universidad Austral de Chile. pp. 45–47.
  11. ^ León Sáenz, Jorge (2009), "Los astilleros y la industria marítima en el Pacífico americano: Siglos XVI a XIX", Diálogos, Revista Electrónica de Historia, 10 (1): 44–90
  12. ^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2019), "Connecting China with the Pacific World?", Orientierungen: Zeitschrift zur Kultur Asiens, 31: 111–170, p. 144
  13. ^ a b Dore, Elizabeth; Molyneux, Maxine (2000). Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8223-2469-0.
  14. ^ "Sacramento Daily Union 28 November 1896 — California Digital Newspaper Collection".
  15. ^ "Ecuador coronavirus: Bodies are being left in the streets in an overwhelmed city". msn.com. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  16. ^ "Coronavirus nightmare in Ecuador's main city Guayaquil – pictures". BBC. April 17, 2020.
  17. ^ "Guayaquil y como el mercado siempre aparece: El retorno de los 'informales'", Diario Expreso. Accessed 6 August 2023.
  18. ^ Carvajal, Ana María (10 de enero de 2019). «Quito se convirtió en la ciudad más poblada del Ecuador con más de 3 millones de habitantes en el 2018». El Comercio. Consultado el 11 de enero de 2019.
  19. ^ "Guayaquil, Ecuador, South America".
  20. ^ "Torre Morisca, landmark and symbol of Guayaquil". Trail Forth Journal. January 2022.
  21. ^ "Malecon 2000, a place to walk along the Guayas River". Trail Forth Journal, Malecon 2000, a place to walk along the Guayas River.
  22. ^ "The enchantment of Seminario or iguana park". Trail Forth Journal, The enchantment of Seminario or iguana park. May 7, 2022.
  23. ^ "Barrio Las Peñas, the traditional neighbourhood of Guayaquil". Trail Forth Journal, Barrio Las Peñas, the traditional neighbourhood of Guayaquil. January 15, 2023.
  24. ^ "Guayaquil Cathedral, a legacy of faith in the city". Trail Forth Journal, Guayaquil Cathedral, a legacy of faith in the city. January 8, 2022.
  25. ^ "The Rotonda brings to life the meeting between Bolívar and San Martín". January 27, 2023.
  26. ^ "Puerto Santa Ana and its pulsating rhythm in Guayaquil". January 17, 2023.
  27. ^ "Museum of Anthropological and Contemporary Art – MAAC". Trail Forth Journal, Museum of Anthropological and Contemporary Art – MAAC. January 27, 2023.
  28. ^ "Nahím Isaías Museum and its valuable collection". Trail Forth Journal, Nahím Isaías Museum and its valuable collection. January 28, 2023.
  29. ^ "Things to see and do in Guayaquil". Trail Forth Journal. December 20, 2023.
  30. ^ "Things to see and do in Guayaquil". Trail Forth Journal. December 20, 2023.
  31. ^ "Walking Tour contó con la participación de 150 turistas". Alcaldía de Guayaquil (in Spanish). July 29, 2023.
  32. ^ "Self-guided walking tour of Guayaquil's landmarks". Trail Forth Journal - Self Guided Tour Guayaquil.
  33. ^ Pheiffer, Evan (November 12, 2018). "E-Ecuador". The Business Year. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  34. ^ «Quito es ahora la ciudad más poblada de Ecuador». El Telégrafo. 12 de enero de 2019. Archivado desde el original el 27 de marzo de 2019. Consultado el 12 de enero de 2019.
  35. ^ Ioualalen, M.; Monfret, T.; Béthoux, N.; Chlieh, M.; Adams, G. Ponce; Collot, J.-Y.; Bustamante, C. Martillo; Chunga, K.; Navarrete, E. (May 9, 2014). "Tsunami mapping in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador, due to local seismicity". Marine Geophysical Research. 35 (4): 361–378. Bibcode:2014MarGR..35..361I. doi:10.1007/s11001-014-9225-9. ISSN 0025-3235. S2CID 128481376.
  36. ^ Vera-Grunauer, X.; J.D., Bray; Pestana, J.M.; Kayen, R.; Tandazo, E.; Ramire, J.; Vera-Grunauer, J.G.; Mera-Ortiz, W. (2006). "Site Characterization and Seismic Zonation of Guayaquil City, Ecuador" (PDF). 8th US National Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2006, v 16, p 9672-9681. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  37. ^ Witt, César; Bourgois, Jacques; Michaud, François; Ordoñez, Martha; Jiménez, Nelson; Sosson, Marc (June 1, 2006). "Development of the Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) during the Quaternary as an effect of the North Andean block tectonic escape". Tectonics. 25 (3): TC3017. Bibcode:2006Tecto..25.3017W. doi:10.1029/2004TC001723. ISSN 1944-9194. S2CID 134409407.
  38. ^ Witt, César; Bourgois, Jacques (January 1, 2010). "Forearc basin formation in the tectonic wake of a collision-driven, coastwise migrating crustal block: The example of the North Andean block and the extensional Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes Basin (Ecuador-Peru border area)". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 122 (1–2): 89–108. Bibcode:2010GSAB..122...89W. doi:10.1130/B26386.1. ISSN 0016-7606.
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  40. ^ "WMO Normals – Guayaquil". NOAA. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  41. ^ a b Evolución de la población de la provincia, Cantón Guayaquil, y de la Ciudad de Guayaquil – Guayas, Censo 2001, Según el Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos[permanent dead link]
  42. ^ "ÉSE, SU GUAYAQUIL VIEJO" (PDF). Karinagalvez.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 13, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  43. ^ "Inicio Archived March 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
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