List of Sword Stained with Royal Blood characters

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The following is a list of characters from the novel Sword Stained with Royal Blood by Jin Yong (Louis Cha). Some of these characters also appear in The Deer and the Cauldron, another of Jin Yong's works.

Main characters[edit]

  • Yuan Chengzhi (袁承志; Yuán Chéngzhì; Jyun4 Sing4-zi3), Yuan Chonghuan's son is the protagonist of the novel. Originally tutored in martial arts by Mu Renqing, he later inherits the skills of Xia Xueyi by chance. One of the most powerful martial artists of his age and a fine young hero, he strives to uphold justice and defend the Han Chinese nation from internal and external threats. At the end of the novel, he leaves China for good and sails to a distant land with his companions.
  • Xia Xueyi (夏雪宜; Xià Xuěyí; Haa6 Suet3-ji4), nicknamed "Golden Serpent Gentleman" (金蛇郎君), is a powerful swordsman with extraordinary skills. His charming good looks and chivalrous personality make him highly attractive to women. He becomes involved in two separate romantic relationships with He Hongyao and Wen Yi. He is only mentioned by name in the novel because he is already dead before the events of the novel take place.
  • Xia Qingqing (夏青青; Xià Qīngqīng; Haa6 Cing1-cing1), also known as Wen Qingqing (溫青青; 温青青; Wēn Qīngqīng; Wan1 Cing1-cing1), is the daughter of Xia Xueyi and Wen Yi. She is first introduced as a member of the Wen family, a clan of brigands. After getting into conflict with the Wen elders, she leaves the Wen family and follows Yuan Chengzhi in pursuit of a new life.
  • A'jiu (阿九; Ā'jǐu; Aa3-gau2) is actually Princess Changping (長平公主; 长平公主; Chángpíng Gōngzhǔ; Coeng4-ping4 Gung1-zyu2), the second and favourite daughter of the Chongzhen Emperor. She is introduced as a beautiful and elegant young lady who frequently associates herself with martial artists in the jianghu. She meets Yuan Chengzhi and they develop a romantic relationship, much to Xia Qingqing's jealousy and hostility. When Li Zicheng's rebels overrun the Forbidden City, her despaired father attacks her with a sword and cuts off her left arm in a desperate attempt to spare her from any humiliation if she were to be captured by the rebels. Fortunately, Yuan Chengzhi appears in time and saves her and she survives. At the end of the novel, she feels disillusioned with the world and decides to detach herself from worldly attachments, so she becomes a Buddhist nun and renames herself Jiunan (九難; 九难; Jǐunàn; Gau2-naan4).
  • He Tieshou (何鐵手; 何铁手; Hé Tiéshǒu; Ho4 Tit3-sau2) is the leader of the Five Poisons Cult. She has a hook for her right hand, as implied by her name Tieshou (literally "iron hand"). She is recruited by Prince Hui to assist him in seizing the throne from the Chongzhen Emperor. During this time, she meets Yuan Chengzhi and his friends, and plays evil pranks on them to hinder their missions. She has a crush on Xia Qingqing, who is disguised as a young male scholar, and decides to betray her cult and break ties with Prince Hui. Yuan Chengzhi succeeds in reforming her, accepts her as an apprentice, and renames her He Tishou (何惕守; Hé Tìshǒu; Ho4 Tik1-sau2). (Tishou means "vigilance and safeguard".)

Yuan Chengzhi's allies[edit]

  • Jiao Wan'er (焦婉兒; 焦婉儿; Jiāo Wǎn'ér; Ziu1 Jyun2-ji4) is Jiao Gongli's daughter. She seeks vengeance on Min Zihua after mistakenly believing that he murdered her father. With Yuan Chengzhi's help, she discovers that the Taibai Sanying are actually the ones responsible and kills them in revenge. She marries Luo Liru.
  • Luo Liru (羅立如; 罗立如; Luó Lìrú; Lo4 Lap6-jyu4) is one of Jiao Gongli's students. Sun Zhongjun sliced off his right arm in a heated misunderstanding. Yuan Chengzhi helps him overcome his disability by teaching him a set of left-handed saber movements.
  • Hong Shenghai (洪勝海; 洪胜海; Hóng Shènghǎi; Hung4 Sing3-hoi2) is a member of the Bohai Sect (渤海派). He has a serious misunderstanding with Gui Xinshu and his wife, who want to kill him. He meets Yuan Chengzhi and decides to follow him for protection. Yuan helps him resolve his conflict with the Gui couple.
  • Cheng Qingzhu (程青竹; Chéng Qīngzhú; Cing4 Cing1-zuk1) is the chief of the Green Bamboo Gang (青竹幫) and the martial arts teacher of A'jiu.
  • Sha Tianguang (沙天廣; 沙天广; Shā Tiānguǎng; Saa1 Tin1-gwong2) is the leader of a group of bandits who attempted to rob Yuan Chengzhi and his friends of their treasure. They are ambushed by Ming soldiers while scuffling for the treasure. Yuan befriends them and fights alongside them against the soldiers. Sha is so impressed with Yuan's heroism that he pledges allegiance to him.
  • Hu Guinan (胡桂南; Hú Guìnán; Wu4 Gwai3-naam4), nicknamed "Divine Thief" (聖手神偷), is a martial artist highly skilled in the art of thieving.
  • Yisheng (義生; 义生; Yìshēng; Ji6-sang1) is a monk nicknamed "Iron Arhat" (鐵羅漢).
  • Shui Jian (水鑒; 水鉴; Shuǐ Jiàn; Seoi2 Gaam3) is a military officer in charge of escorting some prisoners. He and his men are attacked and defeated by Yuan Chengzhi and his followers. After he is captured, he pledges allegiance to Yuan, who spares his life. He helps Yuan organise his followers to form a militia and train them in warfare.


  • Li Zicheng (李自成; Lǐ Zìchéng; Lei5 Zi6-sing4), nicknamed "Dashing King" (闖王), is the leader of the rebel forces that overthrew the corrupt Ming government. After his victory, he gradually loses popularity and he not only fails to deliver his promises to restore peace and stability, but also condones his followers' brutality towards the common people. The short-lived Shun dynasty he set up to replace the Ming dynasty is eventually conquered by the Manchus, who establish the Qing Empire.
  • Li Yan (李岩; Lǐ Yán; Lei5 Ngaam4) is a trusted adviser of Li Zicheng and a general of the rebel army. He befriends Yuan Chengzhi. A righteous individual, Li Yan tries to stop the moral corruption of the rebels after their success in overthrowing the Ming Empire but fails. Li Zicheng believes slanderous rumours that Li Yan is plotting against him and forces Li Yan to commit suicide.
  • The Red Maiden (紅娘子; 红娘子; Hóngniángzǐ; Hung4-noeng4-zi2) is Li Yan's wife who is famous for her bravery and selfless acts. She commits suicide with her husband.
  • An Daniang (安大娘; Ān Dàniáng; On1 Daai6-noeng4) is An Jianqing's wife. She takes care of Yuan Chengzhi for a brief period of time when he was still a child. She serves the rebel army as a spy and messenger.
  • An Xiaohui (安小彗; Ān Xiǎohuì; On1 Siu2-wai6) is An Jianqing and An Daniang's daughter and a childhood friend of Yuan Chengzhi. Like her mother, she works as a spy for the rebel army. Yuan Chengzhi helps her recover the lost gold from the Wen family. She marries Cui Ximin.
  • Shanzong (山宗) is an organisation formed by Yuan Chonghuan's former subordinates. They take care of Yuan Chengzhi after his father's death and send him to the Mount Hua Sect. They initially insisted on writing a petition to the Chongzhen Emperor to seek redress for Yuan Chonghuan but decide to join Li Zicheng's rebel army after seeing that the Ming government is too corrupt and already on the brink of collapse. Its members include:
    • Ying Song (應松; 应松; Yìng Sōng; Jing3 Cung4)
    • Luo Daqian (羅大千; 罗大千; Luó Dàqiān; Lo4 Daai6-cin1)
    • Zhu Anguo (朱安國; 朱安国; Zhū Ānguó; Zyu1 On1-gwok3)
    • Sun Zhongshou (孫仲壽; 孙仲寿; Sūn Zhòngshòu; Syun1 Zung6-sau6)
    • Tian Jianxiu (田見秀; 田见秀; Tián Jiànxìu; Tin4 Gin3-sau3)
    • Cui Qiushan (崔秋山; Cuī Qīushān; Ceoi1 Cau1-saan1)

Mount Hua Sect and associates[edit]

  • Mu Renqing (穆人清; Mù Rénqīng; Muk6 Jan4-cing1), nicknamed "Divine Sword, Immortal Ape" (神劍仙猿), is the leader of the Mount Hua Sect and Yuan Chengzhi's master. His prowess in martial arts and swordplay is legendary.
  • Huang Zhen (黃真; 黄真; Huáng Zhēn; Wong4 Zan1), nicknamed "Copper Brush and Iron Abacus" (銅筆鐵算盤), is Mu Renqing's most senior apprentice.
  • Huang Zhen's apprentices:
    • Feng Nandi (馮難敵; 冯难敌; Féng Nándí; Fung4 Naan4-dik6)
    • Cui Ximin (崔希敏; Cuī Xīmǐn; Ceoi1 Hei1-man5)
  • Gui Xinshu (歸辛樹; 归辛树; Guī Xīnshù; Gwai1 San1-syu6), nicknamed "Invincible Divine Fists" (神拳無敵), is Mu Renqing's second apprentice.
  • Gui Erniang (歸二娘; 归二娘; Guī Èrniáng; Gwai1 Ji6-noeng4) is Gui Xinshu's wife. She is extremely protective of their son, a sickly infant. The couple roam the jianghu in search of a cure for their son.
  • Gui Xinshu's apprentices:
    • Mei Jianhe (梅劍和; 梅剑和; Méi Jiànhé; Mui4 Gim3-wo4)
    • Liu Peisheng (劉培生; 刘培生; Líu Péishēng; Lau4 Pui4-sang1)
    • Sun Zhongjun (孫仲君; 孙仲君; Sūn Zhòngjūn; Syun1 Zung6-gwan1)
  • Taoist Musang (木桑道長; 木桑道长; Mùsāng Dàozhǎng; Muk6-song1 Dou3-zoeng2) is the leader of the Iron Sword Sect (鐵劍門) and a close friend of Mu Renqing. He also instructed Yuan Chengzhi in martial arts before. He is obsessed with weiqi and willing to spend an entire day playing with someone. He accepts A'jiu as his apprentice at the end of the novel.
  • Yuzhenzi (玉真子; Yùzhēnzǐ; Juk6-zan1-zi2) is Musang's junior. Tempted by wealth and fame, he decides to betray his sect and serve the Manchus. He aids the Manchus in sabotaging the Ming forces. Yuan Chengzhi runs into trouble with him on several different occasions. He is eventually slain by the combined efforts of Yuan, A'jiu, Sun Zhongjun and He Tishou.

Manchu forces[edit]

  • Nurhaci (努爾哈赤; 努尔哈赤; Núěrhāchì; Nou5-ji5-haa1-cek3) was the chief of the Manchu tribes. He led his forces to attack the declining Ming Empire. During the Battle of Ningyuan against a Ming army led by Yuan Chonghuan, he was severely injured and eventually died from his wounds.
  • Huangtaiji (皇太極; 皇太极; Huángtàijí; Wong4-taai3-gik6) is Nurhaci's successor and the emperor of the Manchus. An shrewd military leader, he used a tactic to trick the Chongzhen Emperor into believing that Yuan Chonghuan was a traitor, causing the emperor to order Yuan's execution. Yuan Chengzhi once attempted to assassinate him in Mukden but failed. He was later assassinated by his half-brother, Dorgon.
  • Dorgon (多爾袞; 多尔衮; Duōérgǔn; Do1-ji5-gwan2) is a younger half-brother of Huangtaiji and a charismatic general of the Manchu army. He has an affair with Huangtaiji's concubine and commits fratricide/regicide when his brother becomes suspicious of him.

Ming forces[edit]

  • Yuan Chonghuan (袁崇煥; 袁崇焕; Yuán Chónghuàn; Jyun4 Sung4-wun6) is Yuan Chengzhi's father. He was a military commander commissioned by the Ming government to defend the northern border from the Manchu invaders. He is wrongly accused of treason and put to death by the Chongzhen Emperor. He is only mentioned by name in the novel.
  • The Chongzhen Emperor (崇禎皇帝; 崇祯皇帝; Chóngzhēn Huángdì; Sung4-zing1 Wong4-dai3) is the last ruler of the Ming dynasty. He suspected Yuan Chonghuan of treason and ordered his execution. When the Forbidden City is overrun by Li Zicheng's rebels, he refuses to surrender or flee, attempts to honour-kill his family, and ends up slicing off A'jiu's left arm. Accompanied by a loyal eunuch, he eventually commits suicide by hanging himself from a tree.
  • An Jianqing (安劍清; 安剑清; Ān Jiànqīng; On1 Gim3-cing1) is An Daniang's husband and An Xiaohui's father. Tempted by wealth and greed, he decides to serve the Ming government and becomes a Jinyiwei commander. His wife leaves him in anger and joins the rebel army. They have remained on opposing sides before eventually reconciling.
  • Prince Hui (惠王; Huì Wáng; Wai6 Wong4) is a noble who attempts to usurp the throne as Li Zicheng's rebel army closes in on the capital. He hires various martial artists in the jianghu to help him overthrow the Chongzhen Emperor.
  • Wu Sangui (吳三桂; 吴三桂; Wú Sānguì; Ng4 Saam1-gwai3) is a Ming general in charge of guarding the crucial Shanhai Pass on the northeastern border. His concubine, Chen Yuanyuan, is seized by Li Zicheng when the rebels occupied the capital. In anger, Wu defects to the Manchu side and opens Shanhai Pass for the Manchus to enter former Ming territory and help him defeat Li Zicheng.
  • Chen Yuanyuan (陳圓圓; 陈圆圆; Chén Yuányuán; Can4 Jyun4-jyun4) is Wu Sangui's concubine and is regarded as the most beautiful woman in the Ming Empire at the time. Li Zicheng seizes her as a trophy after occupying Beijing, causing Wu Sangui to defect to the Manchus.
  • The "Taibai Sanying" (太白三英) are three treacherous swordsmen who serve as spies for the Manchus. They murder Jiao Gongli and attempt to push the blame to Min Zihua. They are eventually slain by Jiao Wan'er after she uncovers the truth with Yuan Chengzhi's help. The three are:
    • Shi Bingguang (史秉光; Shí Bǐngguāng; Si2 Bing2-gwong1)
    • Shi Bingwen (史秉文; Shí Bǐngwén; Si2 Bing2-man4)
    • Li Gang (黎剛; 黎刚; Lí Gāng; Lai4 Gong1)

Five Poisons Cult[edit]

The Five Poisons Cult (五毒教) is a martial arts sect founded by a group of Miao people. They specialise in using poisons and venoms against their enemies; the "Five Poisons" refers to the five sacred venomous species (snake, scorpion, toad, centipede and spider) in their sect. They are led by He Tieshou, who is recruited by Prince Hui to help him overthrow the Chongzhen Emperor and seize the Ming throne.

  • He Hongyao (何紅藥; 何红药; Hé Hóngyào; Ho4 Hung4-joek6) is He Tieshou's aunt and one of the cult's elders. She has a past romantic affair with Xia Xueyi and seeks vengeance on him after he betrays her love. She vents her anger on Xia Qingqing when she learns that the latter is Xia Xueyi's daughter. She is killed in a toxic explosion in the cave where Xia Xueyi was buried.
  • Qi Yun'ao (齊雲璈; 齐云璈; Qí Yún'áo; Cai4 Wan4-ngou4) is an elder of the cult who specialises in using snake venom. He often disguises himself as a beggar. He is killed by He Hongyao during the cult's internal conflict.

Wen family and associates[edit]

  • The Five Wen Elders (溫家五佬) are the five patriarchs of the Wen family. They are martial arts experts and command a group of brigands. Previously notorious local bandits with a hideous history, they have a blood feud with Xia Xueyi because they murdered his family. Their battle formation, known as the Five Elements Formation (五行陣), proves a challenge to Yuan Chengzhi. The five are:
    • Wen Fangda (溫方達; 温方达; Wēn Fāngdá; Wan1 Fong1-daat6)
    • Wen Fangyi (溫方義; 温方义; Wēn Fāngyì; Wan1 Fong1-ji6)
    • Wen Fangshan (溫方山; 温方山; Wēn Fāngshān; Wan1 Fong1-saan1)
    • Wen Fangshi (溫方施; 温方施; Wēn Fāngshī; Wan1 Fong1-si1)
    • Wen Fangwu (溫方悟; 温方悟; Wēn Fāngwù; Wan1 Fong1-ng6)
  • Wen Yi (溫儀; 温仪; Wēn Yí; Wan1 Ji4) is Wen Fangshan's daughter and Xia Qingqing's mother. She falls in love with Xia Xueyi even though he has a history of bad blood with her family. Her father and uncles used her as bait to lure Xia Xueyi into a trap and cripple him, but she aided him in escaping. Her family treats her and her daughter coldly after Xia Xueyi's disappearance.

Miscellaneous characters[edit]

  • Min Zihua (閔子華; 闵子华; Mín Zǐhuá; Man5 Zi2-waa4) is a member of the Xiandu Sect (仙都派). He was misled into believing that Jiao Gongli killed his brother so he rallies a group of martial artists to join him in confronting Jiao. Yuan Chengzhi helps to defuse the conflict and clear Jiao's name. As part of an earlier agreement, Min hands over his villa to Yuan and promises never to bother Jiao again.
  • Jiao Gongli (焦公禮; 焦公礼; Jiāo Gōnglǐ; Ziu1 Gung1-lai5) is the chief of the Golden Dragon Gang (金龍幫). He is murdered by the Taibai Sanying, who attempt to push the blame to his former rival, Min Zihua.
  • Meng Bofei (孟伯飛; 孟伯飞; Mèng Bófēi; Maang6 Baak3-fei1) is a reputable elderly martial artist who was nominated to lead a group of martial artists gathered on Mount Tai. He loses the position to Yuan Chengzhi.
  • Zhang Chaotang (張朝唐; 张朝唐; Zhāng Cháotáng; Zoeng1 Ciu4-tong4), Yang Pengju (楊鵬舉; 杨鹏举; Yáng Péngjŭ; Joeng4 Paang4-geoi2) and Zhang Kang (張康; 张康; Zhāng Kāng; Zoeng1 Hong1) are three officials from the Bruneian Empire who visit China.
  • Raymond (雷蒙; Léiméng; Leoi4-mung4), Peter (彼得; Bǐdé; Bei2-dak1) and Rooklyn (若克琳; Ruòkèlín; Joek6-hak1-lam4) are three Westerners overseeing the sale of a battery of cannons to the Ming imperial army. They present Yuan Chengzhi with a map of the Far East after losing to him in a duel.
  • Zhang Chunjiu (張春九; 张春九; Zhāng Chūnjǐu; Zoeng1 Ceon1-gau2) was a martial artist who sought the whereabouts of Xia Xueyi. He was killed by Xia after finding the Golden Serpent Manual on Mount Hua.

See also[edit]