Guided meditation

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Guided meditation describes a form of meditation which utilizes a number of different techniques to achieve or enhance the meditative state. It may simply be meditation done under the guidance of a trained practitioner or teacher, or it may be through the use of imagery, music, and other techniques.[1] The session can be either in person, via media[2] comprising music or verbal instruction, or a combination of both.[3][4] The most common form is a combination of meditation music and receptive music therapy, guided imagery, relaxation, mindfulness, and journaling.[5][6][7]

Because of the different combinations used under the one term it can be difficult to attribute positive or negative outcomes to any of the various techniques. Furthermore, the term is frequently used interchangeably with "guided imagery" and sometimes with "creative visualization" in popular psychology and self-help literature. It is less commonly used in scholarly and scientific publications. Consequently, guided meditation cannot be understood as a single technique but rather multiple techniques that are integral to its practice.[8][9][10][11]

Benefits[edit]

Guided meditation as an aggregate or synthesis of techniques includes meditation music, receptive music therapy, guided imagery, relaxation, meditative praxis, and self-reflective diary-keeping or journaling. All of which have been shown to have therapeutic benefits when employed as an adjunct to primary strategies. Benefits include lower levels of stress,[12] reducing asthmatic episodes,[13] physical pain,[14] insomnia,[15] episodic anger,[16] negative or irrational thinking,[17] and anxiety, as well as improving coping skills,[18] focus,[19] and a general feeling of well-being.[20][21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  2. ^ Sources:
    • Stein, T. R., Olivo, E. L., Grand, S. H., Namerow, P. B., Costa, J., and Oz, M. C., A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp213-222.
    • Morris, C., The use of self-service technologies in stress management: A pilot project. Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers. Saint Catherine University, St. Paul, MN, 2012.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
  3. ^ Rose J. P. and Weis, J., Sound meditation in oncological rehabilitation: a pilot study of a receptive music therapy group using the monochord. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2006, pp335-343.
  4. ^ Grocke, D., and Wigram, T., Receptive methods in music therapy: Techniques and clinical applications for music therapy clinicians, educators, and students. London, England: Jessica Kingsley, 2007.
  5. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind-body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131–147.
  6. ^ Newham, P., Guided Meditation: Principles and Practice. London; Tigers Eye, 2005.
  7. ^ Newham, P., Music, and Meditation: The Therapeutics of Sound. London: Tigers Eye: 2014.
  8. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind–body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131–147.
  9. ^ Post-White J. 2002. Clinical indication for use of imagery in oncology practice. In Voice Massage, Scripts for Guided Imagery, Edwards D.M (Ed.). Oncology Nursing Society: Pittsburgh, PA.
  10. ^ Wallace KG. 1997. Analysis of recent literature concerning relaxation and imagery interventions for cancer pain. Cancer Nursing 20: 79–87.
  11. ^ Luebert K, Dahme B, Hasenbring M. 2001. The effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing treatment- related symptoms and improving emotional adjustment in acute non-surgical cancer treatment: A meta-analytical review. Psycho-Oncology, Vol. 10: pp490–502.
  12. ^ Sources:
    • Unger, C. A., Busse, D., & Yim, I. S., The effect of guided relaxation on cortisol and affect: Stress reactivity as a moderator. Journal of Health Psychology, 2015, 1359105315595118.
    • Weigensberg M.J., Lane C.J., Winners O., Wright T., Nguyen-Rodriguez S., Goran M.I., Spruijt-Metz, D. Acute effects of stress-reduction Interactive Guided Imagery (SM) on salivary cortisol in overweight Latino adolescents. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2003, pp297-303.
    • Varvogli, L., and Darviri, C., Stress Management Techniques: evidence-based procedures that reduce stress and promote health. Health Science Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011 pp74-89.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy, and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
    • Wynd C. A., Relaxation imagery used for stress reduction in the prevention of smoking relapse. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2006, pp294-302.
    • Lin, M. F., Hsu, M. C., Chang, H. J., Hsu, Y. Y., Chou, M. H., and Crawford, P., Pivotal moments and changes in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for patients with depression. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 19, Nos. 7‐8, 2010, pp1139-1148.
    • Roffe, L., Schmidt, K., and Ernst, E., A systematic review of guided imagery as an adjuvant cancer therapy. Psycho-oncology, Vol. 14, No. 8, 2005, pp607-617.
    • Holden-Lund C., Effects of relaxation with guided imagery on surgical stress and wound healing. Research in Nursing and Health, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2007, pp235-244.
    • Stein, T. R., Olivo, E. L., Grand, S. H., Namerow, P. B., Costa, J., and Oz, M. C., A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp213-222.
    • Sahler O.J., Hunter, B.C., Liesveld J.L., The effect of using music therapy with relaxation imagery in the management of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation: a pilot feasibility study. Alternative Therapies, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2003, pp70- 74.
    • Kent, D., "Zenventures: Unwind your Imagination with Guided Meditation". Masters Thesis. Buffalo State University, New York, 2014.
  13. ^ Epstein G.N., Halper J.P., Barrett E.A., Birdsall, C., McGee, M., Baron K.P., Lowenstein S., A pilot study of mind-body changes in adults with asthma who practice mental imagery. AlternativeTherapies. Volume 10, July/August 2004, pp66-71.
  14. ^ Sources:
    • Menzies V., Taylor A.G., Bourguignon C., Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2006, pp23-30.
    • Kwekkeboom, K. L., Kneip, J., and Pearson, L., A pilot study to predict success with guided imagery for cancer pain. Pain Management Nursing, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2003, pp112-123.
    • Antall G.F., Kresevic D. The use of guided imagery to manage pain in an elderly orthopedic population. Orthopaedic Nursing, Vol. 23, No. 5, September/October 2004, pp335-340
  15. ^ Sources:
    • Ong, J. C., Manber, R., Segal, Z., Xia, Y., Shapiro, S., and Wyatt, J. K., A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for chronic insomnia. Sleep, Vol. 37, No. 9, 2014, p1553.
    • Singh, A., and Modi, R., Meditation and positive mental health. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2012, p273.
    • Molen, Y., Santos, G., Carvalho, L., Prado, L., and Prado, G., Pre-sleep worry decrease by adding reading and guided imagery to insomnia treatment. Sleep Medicine, Vol. 14, 2013, e210-e211.
  16. ^ Awalt, R. M., Reilly, P. M., and Shopshire, M. S., The angry patient: an intervention for managing anger in substance abuse treatment. Journal of psychoactive drugs, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1997, 353-358.
  17. ^ Sources:
    • Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A., Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: Developing a novel computerised intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 26, 2012, pp145–157.
    • Teasdale, J. D., Emotion and two kinds of meaning: Cognitive therapy and applied cognitive science. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1993, pp339-354.
    • Birnbaum, L., & Birnbaum, A., In search of inner wisdom: guided mindfulness meditation in the context of suicide. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 4, 2004, pp216-227.
  18. ^ Sources:
    • Manyande, A., Berg, S., Gettins, D., Stanford, S. C., Mazhero, S., Marks, D. F., and Salmon, P., Preoperative rehearsal of active coping imagery influences subjective and hormonal responses to abdominal surgery. Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1995, pp177-182.
    • Hockenberry, M. H., Guided imagery as a coping measure for children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1989, pp29-29.
  19. ^ Sources:
    • Esplen, M. J. and Hodnett, E., A Pilot Study Investigating Student Musicians' Experiences of Guided Imagery as a Technique to Manage Performance Anxiety. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999, pp127-132.
    • Feltz, D. L., and Riessinger, C. A., Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on self-efficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1990, pp132-143.
    • Sanders, C. W., Sadoski, M., Bramson, R., Wiprud, R., and Van Walsum, K., Comparing the effects of physical practice and mental imagery rehearsal on learning basic surgical skills by medical students. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 191, No. 5, 2004, pp1811-1814.
  20. ^ Hanh, Thich Nhat. The blooming of a lotus: Guided meditation for achieving the miracle of mindfulness. Beacon Press, 2009.
  21. ^ LeónPizarro C., Gich I., Barthe E., Rovirosa A., Farrús B., Casas F., Verger E., Biete A., Craven Bartle J., Sierra J., Arcusa A., A randomized trial of the effect of training in relaxation and guided imagery techniques in improving psychological and quality-of-life indices for gynecologic and breast brachytherapy patients. Psycho-oncology, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2007, pp971-979.