|Guillermo Arévalo Valera|
Guillermo Arévalo in 2010
Yarinacocha, Ucayali Region, Peru
|Notable work||Las plantas medicinales y su beneficio en la salud Shipibo-Conibo (1994)|
In 1982, Arévalo co-founded Aplicación de Medicina Tradicional (AMETRA), an organization that sought to improve the sustainability of health care for the Shipibo-Conibo people by integrating traditional plant medicines. He is also the owner of Anaconda Cosmica, a retreat lodge in Peruvian Amazonia. The lodge is marketed to health tourists who are interested in ayahuasca and other traditional medicines of the Amazon.
Training and background
Guillermo Arévalo Valera was born in 1952 in Yarinacocha, a Shipibo community near Lake Yarinaqucha, on the outskirts of Pucallpa. He is the son of Benito Arévalo Barbarán and María Valera Teco. At age seven, he was matriculated into a Catholic mission school near Puerto Inca, a village on the bank of the Pachitea River. This was a boarding school, and Guillermo lived there until he was 18. When this phase of his education was complete, his parents pressed him to go to Brazil to study nursing. However, he cut his nursing studies short and returned to Yarinacocha, where he accepted a position as a nurse at the Hospital Amazónico.
From the hospital to the rainforest
His experience at the hospital was formative. He worked with patients who were recovering from surgery; some of them told him that the hospital's treatments didn't make them feel better, even if examinations and test results indicated improvement. Others worried that Western medicine couldn't help them if their illness was a result of witchcraft (brujería). Through observations and conversations with patients and hospital staff—especially a Swedish doctor named Anders Hansson—he concluded that Western medicine did not meet all the needs of the indigenous population. But the limits to the hospital's efficacy were not just a matter of cultural difference: The indigenous population was contending with serious health problems and constrained medical resources.
Arévalo looked to Shipibo traditional medicine as an alternative, researching phytotherapy and local plant lore. By age 22 he was learning about the Amazonian shamanic discipline of vegetalismo, and eventually saw a need to undergo the customary training rites. His father was a vegetalista, but Arévalo traveled downriver to the village of Pahoyan to be mentored by Manuel Mahua (1930–2008). He was about age 24 when he resigned from the hospital and committed himself to three months of isolation and self-deprivation in the forest—a shamanic practice known as dieta. By age 26, he was practicing vegetalismo.
In 1982, Arévalo and Anders Hansson co-founded a local organization called Aplicación de Medicina Tradicional (AMETRA), which (with Swedish funding) sought to revive the traditional medicine practices of Shipibo-Conibo people, and to look for ways to incorporate them into a health system for indigenous communities. Over the next few years, AMETRA published several papers, and Arévalo and Hansson personally authored or contributed to some of these.
The practicality of an integrative medicine approach attracted the attention of two regional federations of indigenous peoples: FECONAU (Federacíon de Comunidades Nativas del Ucayali y Afluentes) and FENAMAD (Federación Nativa del Río Madre de Dios y Afluentes), who sought to apply AMETRA's ideas to a revised health system in their own regions. As AMETRA's concept began to coalesce into possible solutions, funding flowed in from the World Wide Fund for Nature, the Rainforest Alliance, Pronaturaleza, and various member organizations of Friends of the Earth.
Arévalo left AMETRA in 1990 over contrasting views within the organization.
Later advocacy and entrepreneurship
After leaving AMETRA, Arévalo began treating people at his home in Yarinacocha, catering exclusively to a mestizo clientele. In 1994, through his affiliation with the indigenous development organization AIDESEP, he published a book: Medicinal Plants and Their Benefit to Shipibo-Conibo Health (Spanish: Las plantas medicinales y su beneficio en la salud Shipibo-Conibo).
In May 1999, the UN's World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) met with Arévalo to discuss his perspective on the "intellectual property needs and expectations" of Amazonian peoples. Arévalo expressed the view that traditional medicine is of pivotal importance to Amazonian cultures, and that indigenous communities must be able to negotiate access to it in order to prevent exploitation and environmental harm. Arévalo was one of several people that WIPO representatives spoke with during a fact-finding mission to Peru and Bolivia. Arévalo spoke in his capacity as president of IDIMA, the Instituto de Difusion e Investigacion de la Medicina Amazonica.
In 2004 Arévalo founded a woodland healing-retreat near the city of Iquitos. He co-managed the center with his wife, Sonia Chuquimbalqui, and marketed it to health tourists. The center was called Espíritu de Anaconda ("Anaconda Spirit") until they renamed it to Anaconda Cosmica ("Cosmic Anaconda") in 2011. For a time, Arévalo also operated a second lodge, Baris Betsa.
Arévalo's son James began operating a retreat lodge called Luz Cosmica in 2010. James learned vegetalismo from his grandfather, Benito; he began studying under Guillermo in 2006. Another of Arévalo's students, Ricardo Amaringo, opened a lodge called Nihue Rao (aka Ronin Saini) in 2011, in partnership with American family medicine practitioner Joe Tafur and Canadian artist Cvita Mamic.
A central fixture at the retreat lodges is the administration of ayahuasca, a psychedelic tisane used and revered by ethnic groups throughout the Amazon Basin. In an interview with journalist Roger Rumrrill in 2005, Arévalo lamented the state of drug tourism in Peru.
Arévalo was filmed for the ayahuasca documentary films D'autres mondes (2004) and Vine of the Soul: Encounters with Ayahuasca (2010). Jan Kounen, director of D'autres mondes, met Arévalo in the Peruvian Amazon while conducting research for his film Blueberry (2004). Kounen gave Arévalo a minor role in Blueberry, and participated in ayahuasca ceremonies with him over the course of a year. Two songs sung by Arévalo (credited to his Shipibo name, Kestenbetsa) appear on the Blueberry soundtrack. When another interviewer asked Arévalo what impact his appearances in Kounen's films have had, Arévalo said: "It meant that more and more people became aware of ayahuasca shamanism, and that's good. Professionally it's meant that more and more people are interested in Guillermo, and they want to know me."
Kounen had previously co-produced an album of eight songs sung by Arévalo (a cappella) in the Shipibo language. The album, Songs from Questembetsa: Shipibo Shaman of Peru, was released on CD in 2000. The other co-producers were French musicians Jean-Jacques Hertz and François Roy, who also composed Blueberry's score.
- Narby, Jeremy (2 March 2006). "Transformers". Intelligence in Nature. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-101-19089-0. OCLC 883349627.
- "James Arevalo — A shaman from the old school". Luz Cosmica. Archived from the original on 2016-06-04. Retrieved 2016-04-06.
- Caruso 2005, p. 65.
- "Guillermo Arévalo". Baris Betsa Healing Center. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Phillips, Oliver (1993). "Librarians of the Peruvian forest". People & the Planet. London: IPPF, UNPF, and IUCN. 2 (3): 18–19.
- Iturriaga San José, Alfredo; Rivera Cachique, Ronald (2013). "Entrevista a don Guillermo Arévalo—curandero shipibo–konibo". Técnica aborigen del autoconocimiento: Ayahuasca, de la selva su espíritu (in Spanish). Lima: Graph Ediciones. p. 41. ISBN 978-612-46307-6-7. OCLC 876080326.
- Russell, Andrew; Rahman, Elizabeth (23 April 2015). The Master Plant: Tobacco in Lowland South America. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4725-8756-5. OCLC 924905840.
- Caruso 2005, p. 66.
- Alexiades, Miguel N.; Lacaze D., Didier (1996). "FENAMAD's Program in Traditional Medicine: An Integrated Approach to Health Care in the Peruvian Amazon". In Balick, Michael J.; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Laird, Sarah A. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-231-10170-7. OCLC 32312412.
- Kensinger, Kenneth M.; et al. (1994). Guía etnográfica de la Alta Amazonía. Volumen III: Cashinahua. Amahuaca. Shipibo-Conibo. Travaux de l'Institut français d'études andines (in Spanish). Panamá: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. p. 405. ISBN 978-9978-04-574-9. OCLC 469363957.
- Hansson, A.; Arévalo, G. (1985). "Algunos aspectos de medicina tradicional en Ucayali." Proyecto AMETRA. Lima: Instituto Indigenista Peruano. Serie Amazonía: Shipibo-Conibo No. 2
- Arévalo Valera, Guillermo (1986). "El ayahuasca y el curandero Shipibo-Conibo del Ucayali (Perú)" [Ayahuasca and Shipibo-Conibo Healers of the Ucayali (Peru)]. América indígena (in Spanish). 46 (1): 147–61.
- Arévalo Valera, Guillermo (1994). Las plantas medicinales y su beneficio en la salud Shipibo-Conibo [Medicinal Plants and Their Benefit to Shipibo-Conibo Health] (in Spanish). Lima: Edición AIDESEP. OCLC 43145753.
- World Intellectual Property Organization (April 2001). "Peru (May 10 to 13, 1999)". Intellectual Property Needs and Expectations of Traditional Knowledge Holders: WIPO Report on Fact-finding Missions on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge (1998–1999). WIPO. p. 304. ISBN 978-92-805-0968-7. OCLC 48540983.
- Burg, Virginia. "Friends § Maestro Guillermo Arévalo ('Kestembetsa')". Traditional Plant Medicine. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Gubarev, Kate (12 May 2010). "Emotions run wild at ayahuasca healing centre in Peru". The Georgia Straight. Vancouver. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "About Espíritu de Anaconda". EspiritudeAnaconda.org. Archived from the original on 2010-03-27. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
- Hearn, Kelly (March 2013). "The Dark Side of Ayahuasca". Men's Journal. New York: Wenner Media. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "Our History". AnacondaCosmica.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- Kounen, Jan (27 December 2014). Visionary Ayahuasca: A Manual for Therapeutic and Spiritual Journeys. Translated by Cain, Jack. Park Street Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-62055-346-6. OCLC 870290160.
- "Ricardo Amaringo". Nihue Rao Centro Espiritual. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
- "Dr. Joe Tafur". Medicine Hunter. Chris Kilham. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
- "Nihue Rao Centro Espiritual". Plant Teachers. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
- Arrévalo, G. (2005). "Interview with Guillermo Arrévalo, a Shipibo urban shaman, by Roger Rumrrill. Interview by Roger Rumrrill". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 37 (2): 203–207. doi:10.1080/02791072.2005.10399802. PMID 16149334.
- Kounen, Jan (2004). Other Worlds (Media notes). Retrieved 2018-03-31.
- Razam, Rak (2014). "Guillermo Arevalo". The Ayahuasca Sessions: Conversations with Amazonian Curanderos and Western Shamans. Translated by Rama Le Clerc, Federica. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-58394-801-9. OCLC 857879392. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- Renegade on IMDb
- Hertz, Jean-Jacques; Roy, François (2004). Blueberry : L'expérience secrète (Bande originale du film) (Media notes) (in French). BMG France. OCLC 659036657.
- "Songs from Questembetsa: Shipibo Shaman of Peru (Musical CD, 2000)". WorldCat. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
- Caruso, Giuseppe (2005). Onaya Shipibo-Conibo: Sistema médico tradicional y desafíos de la modernidad [A Traditional Medical System and Challenges of Modernity] (in Spanish). Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala. pp. 64–67. ISBN 978-9978-22-539-4. OCLC 68967619.
- "Organizaciones amazónicas asumen compromisos por el desarrollo" [Amazonian organizations make commitments for development]. Inforegión (in Spanish). Miraflores. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- Niwe, Ronin (23 June 2010). "Interview with an Ayahuasca Curandero" (MP3 audio with transcript). Returning to Sacred World (Interview). Interviewed by Stephen Gray. Retrieved 2016-05-08.