Guillermo Gonzalez (astronomer)
|Known for||Compositions of Exoplanet host stars|
|Fields||Stellar spectroscopy, Stellar photometry|
|Institutions||University of Texas at Austin, University of Washington, Iowa State University, Ball State University|
|Doctoral advisor||George Wallerstein|
Guillermo Gonzalez (born 1963 in Havana, Cuba) is an astrophysicist, a proponent of the principle of intelligent design, and an assistant professor at Ball State University, a public research university, in Muncie, Indiana. He is a senior fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture, considered the hub of the intelligent design movement, and a fellow with the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design, which also promotes intelligent design.
Education, work and academics
Gonzalez obtained a BS in 1987 in Physics & Astronomy from University of Arizona and his Ph. D. in Astronomy from the University of Washington in 1993. He has done post-doctoral work at the University of Texas, Austin and the University of Washington. He has received fellowships, grants and awards from NASA, the University of Washington, Sigma Xi, and the National Science Foundation. He supports the Galactic habitable zone concept, which was coined in 1986 by L.S. Marochnik and L.M. Mukhin, who defined the zone as the region in which intelligent life could flourish. Until May 2008 he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Iowa State University, then taught at Grove City College, an evangelical Christian school, and since 2013 is an assistant professor at Ball State University in Muncie.
Gonzalez was a regular contributor to Facts for Faith magazine produced by Reasons To Believe, an old earth creationist group. In addition to his work for the Discovery Institute and International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design, he is a researcher for the Biologic Institute, which is funded by the institute for research into intelligent design.
In 2004 he published The Privileged Planet and its accompanying video, which takes the arguments of the Rare Earth hypothesis and combines them with arguments that the Earth is in prime location for observing the universe. He then proposes that the Earth was intelligently designed. William H. Jefferys, a Professor of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin, reviewed the book writing "the little that is new in this book isn't interesting, and what is old is just old-hat creationism in a new, modern-looking astronomical costume." Co-author Jay Richards responds to such criticism with the following statement: "It has absolutely nothing to do with biological evolution. We are talking about the things that you need to produce a habitable planet, which is a prerequisite for life. It doesn't tell you anything about how life got here." A documentary based on the book was produced by the Discovery Institute.
His primary research interest is studying radial velocity and transit techniques for the detection of extrasolar planets.Cite error: A
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 No mention of Gonzalez was made in these petitions, and the professors maintained the statement "was in no way targeted specifically at Gonzalez", that Tom Ingebritsen, an Associate Professor in the Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, had been advocating, and teaching a course in, Intelligent Design at ISU for a number of years before Gonzales arrived, and that "[a]t that time [the] statement began to circulate, Dr. Gonzalez was not well-known as an ID advocate to most faculty even at ISU". Avalos also criticized the Discovery Institute for "combining sentences from different sections of [the statement] in order create a fragmented syntax that appears to target Gonzalez":
Here is [sic] the three original sentences, snippets of which were recombined by the Discovery Institute:
- Intelligent Design has become a significant issue in science education, and it has now established a presence, even if minimal, at Iowa State University.
- Accordingly, if you are concerned about the negative impact of Intelligent Design on the integrity of science and on our university, please consider signing the "Statement on Intelligent Design by Iowa State University Faculty" below.
- We, therefore, urge all faculty members to uphold the integrity of our university of "science and technology," convey to students and the general public the importance of methodological naturalism in science, and reject efforts to portray Intelligent Design as science.
[emphasis in original]
Two years later, an article in the local newspaper The Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier reported Gonzalez' appeal against his denial of tenure and claimed he was "the unnamed target" of the ISU petition. The article noted that "Gonzalez won't discuss the reasons for the tenure denial" but that he "noted, however, that he has frequently been criticized by people who don't consider intelligent design as a legitimate science." Comments from John West, the associate director of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture - with whom Gonzalez was a senior fellow - blamed the failure to secure tenure directly upon Gonzalez' belief in intelligent design and compared it to a "doctrinal litmus test" typical of his native Cuba.
Denial of tenure and appeals
In April 2007 Iowa State University denied Gonzalez tenure.
On June 1, 2007, Gregory Geoffroy, President of Iowa State University, rejected Gonzalez's appeal and upheld the denial of tenure. In making this decision, Geoffroy states that he "specifically considered refereed publications, [Gonzalez's] level of success in attracting research funding and grants, the amount of telescope observing time he had been granted, the number of graduate students he had supervised, and most importantly, the overall evidence of future career promise in the field of astronomy" and that Gonzalez "simply did not show the trajectory of excellence that we expect in a candidate seeking tenure in physics and astronomy – one of our strongest academic programs." Geoffroy noted, "Over the past 10 years, four of the 12 candidates who came up for review in the physics and astronomy department were not granted tenure." Gonzalez appealed to the Iowa Board of Regents and the board affirmed the decision on February 7, 2008. 
Reasons for denial
The University has issued an FAQ concerning the situation saying that "The consensus of the tenured department faculty, the department chair, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the dean of Liberal Arts and Sciences, and the executive vice president and provost was that tenure should not be granted. Based on recommendations against granting tenure and promotion at every prior level of review, and his own review of the record, President Gregory Geoffroy notified Gonzalez in April that he would not be granted tenure and promotion to associate professor." The denial of tenure for Gonzalez resulted in one of the Discovery Institute intelligent design campaigns with the Institute encouraging its followers to call and email Geoffroy and urge him to reverse the decision.
The Chronicle of Higher Education said of Gonzalez and the Discovery Institute's claims of discrimination "At first glance, it seems like a clear-cut case of discrimination ... But a closer look at Mr. Gonzalez's case raises some questions about his recent scholarship and whether he has lived up to his early promise." The Chronicle observed that Gonzalez had no major grants during his seven years at ISU, had published no significant research during that time and had only one graduate student finish a dissertation. The Discovery Institute misrepresents an op-ed by John Hauptman, one of Gonzalez's colleagues in the physics department. Hauptman states clearly that Gonzalez's work falls far short of what scientists know to be science, containing not one single number, not one single measurement or test of any kind.[self-published source?][improper synthesis?] "I believe that I fully met the requirements for tenure at ISU," said Gonzalez. On May 8, 2007 Gonzalez appealed the decision.
Gonzalez's failure to obtain research funding has been cited as a factor in the decision. "Essentially, he had no research funding," said Eli Rosenberg, chairman of Gonzalez's department. "That's one of the issues." According to the Des Moines Register, "Iowa State has sponsored $22,661 in outside grant money for Gonzalez since July 2001, records show. In that same time period, Gonzalez's peers in physics and astronomy secured an average of $1.3 million by the time they were granted tenure."On February 7, 2008, his appeal to the Board of Regents was denied.
Discovery Institute and intelligent design campaign
The Discovery Institute launched a campaign portraying Gonzalez as a victim of discrimination by "Darwinist ideologues" for his support of intelligent design, comparing Gonzalez's denial of tenure to the claims of discrimination by Richard Sternberg, another institute affiliate, over the Sternberg peer review controversy. The institute's public relations campaign also makes the same claims of discrimination as the campaign it conducted on behalf of institute Fellow Francis J. Beckwith when he was initially denied tenure at Baylor University.
The Discovery Institute filed a request for public records and as a result, in December 2007, Des Moines Register obtained faculty email records from 2005 that included discussions of intelligent design, and made mention of the impact that Gonzalez's support for it might have on his prospects for tenure. Emails included one by John Hauptman who worried that the anti-Gonzalez sentiments were "starting to smack of a witch's hanging." Hauptman went on to vote against Gonzalez's tenure in part over concerns about Gonzalez's support of intelligent design. The Discovery Institute writes that the email records "demonstrate that a campaign was organized and conducted against Gonzalez by his colleagues, with the intent to deny him tenure". In a letter to the Iowa State Daily, Physics and Astronomy Professor Joerg Schmalian stated that the e-mail "discussion was prompted by our unease with the national debate on intelligent design", not the issue of tenure.
Observers such as PZ Myers have stated that the Discovery Institute's statement "relies heavily on fragmentary quotes taken from emails that they obtained through an open records inquiry", that the "entire anti-evolution movement" has a track-record of taking quotations out of context, that "the DI has not made the full text of the sources available for examination", leading to a "reluctan[ce] to accept the quotes provided at face value", and that in any case "[t]his is precisely what his colleagues are supposed to do: discuss concerns about his tenure case." A review and analysis of the list of Gonzalez's publications supplied by the Discovery Institute found that "he peaked in 1999, and the decline [in his publications] began even while he was still at the University of Washington" and that "[e]ven more pronounced than the drop in publications is the complete bottom-out in first authorships that is almost sustained throughout his entire probationary period leading up to tenure." Another academic commented:
How can Gonzalez complain if his work on ID was considered? If intelligent design is scientific, his department is entitled judge his work in that field. If ID is not science, it's fair to question why their faculty member is spending so much of his time and resources on it. The claims of persecution issuing from the Discovery Institute and Dr. Gonzalez require that intelligent design be both science and religion. This isn't about science, it's about politics.
Additionally, Gonzalez appeared in the controversial 2008 movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed. The American Association for the Advancement of Science describes the film as dishonest and divisive, aimed at introducing religious ideas into public school science classrooms, and the film is being used in private screenings to legislators as part of the Discovery Institute intelligent design campaign for Academic Freedom bills. Expelled portrays Gonzalez as a victim of religious discrimination and the Discovery Institute campaign asserts that his intelligent design writings should not have been considered in the review. However, Gonzales listed The Privileged Planet as part of his tenure review file. Dr. Gregory Tinkler of Iowa Citizens for Science stated that "Being a religious scientist is perfectly normal and acceptable, but scientists are supposed to be able to separate science from non-science, and good research from bad. Academic freedom protects a scientist's ability to do science, not to pass off a political or religious crusade as science."
Colleagues speak out
One of Gonzalez's colleagues, physics professor Joerg Schmalian wrote "To deny tenure to a colleague is a very painful experience. It literally causes sleepless nights to those who are forced to make a responsible decision. Faculty candidates who are being hired in our department always come with promising backgrounds and terrific accomplishments. The decision to recommend or deny tenure is then predominantly based on research performance while at Iowa State. As far as I can judge, this was no different in Gonzalez's case. What I know with certainty is that Gonzalez's views on intelligent design, with which I utterly disagree, had no bearing whatsoever on my vote on his tenure case."
Grove City College
In late 2007, Gonzalez accepted a non-tenure track position in the astronomy program of the Grove City College in Pennsylvania starting in fall semester 2008. Grove City College acquired an observatory from Edinboro University of Pennsylvania in February 2008 that will be utilized for astronomy classes as well as faculty and student research.
Ball State University
On 12 June 2013, Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana announced it had engaged Gonzalez as an assistant professor in the department of physics and astronomy. At the time, the university was already investigating a complaint that another assistant professor in that department, Eric Hedin, had been promoting intelligent design in an honors symposium titled "The Boundaries of Science". Concerns about the teaching of religion in science courses had been raised by academics, including professor of biology Jerry Coyne, who commented on the new hire that if Gonzales "wants to talk about it in his writing and speeches, he has a right to do that. But he can't pass that stuff off in a university classroom. He doesn't have the right to get tenure working in discredited science." The university's investigation into Hedin had begun following a letter from the Freedom from Religion Foundation, whose attorney said that the university "already has a serious issue with creationism being taught as science" by Hedin, "Now they've hired another astronomy professor and creationist to teach science at their university, Gonzalez", and this pattern could damage the university's reputation as well as involving the administration in work "to ensure that proper legal, ethical, and educational boundaries are followed by Gonzalez." The Discovery institute's Evolution News and Views website published a statement Guillermo Gonzalez had issued about his new position as a faculty member:
I am very happy to join the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Ball State University. As I communicated to members of the department during my interviews, I plan to continue my research on astrobiology and stellar astrophysics. I will not be discussing intelligent design (ID) in my classes (I didn't discuss ID at ISU either). My view that there is evidence of design in physics and cosmology (the type of design I have written about) is not out of the mainstream; a number of cosmologists and physicists hold to this view. In my opinion, the controversy surrounding my hire is artificial -- largely generated by one activist blogger who is not an astronomer. Lastly, I need to reiterate that I was denied tenure at ISU not because of poor academics on my part, but for ideological and political reasons."
At the end of July, Professor Jo Ann Gora as president of the university stated that science courses would not include teaching intelligent design and that Hedin would remain on the staff, but his symposium would not continue. She issued a letter to faculty and staff advising that "Intelligent design is overwhelmingly deemed by the scientific community as a religious belief and not a scientific theory" and that "Said simply, to allow intelligent design to be presented to science students as a valid scientific theory would violate the academic integrity of the course as it would fail to accurately represent the consensus of science scholars."
The Discovery Institute had meetings with Indiana Senator Dennis Kruse, chairman of the Education Committee, and three of his fellow Republican legislators. The legislators, acting on behalf of the Discovery Institute, wrote to the university to raise concerns about the decision, including the "establishment of a speech code restricting faculty speech on intelligent design" and demanding that Gora answer the question, "Does the policy forbid science professors from explaining either their support or rejection of intelligent design in answer to questions about intelligent design in class?" The Discovery Institute's vice president John G. West alleged that "one science class is covering intelligent design in order to bash it. If they allow that, it's tantamount to state endorsement of an anti-religious view."
The Discovery Institute also sought access to any emails between the university and Coyne to investigate their suspicions that a faculty member had contacted Coyne to sabotage the hiring of Gonzalez: Coyne described this as "crazy" and said "I made it clear I didn't think Guillermo Gonzalez or Eric Hedin should be fired. The question was whether religion can be taught as if it were science. Like president Gora said, it's not only wrong but illegal to represent religion as if it were science." He also commented that "The Discovery Institute is hurt because they lost, so they're trying to make trouble. This is a watershed thing, the first time the issue of intelligent design came up in a university as opposed to a high school or elementary school. Ball State was the first time they tried, and it failed."
- The Privileged Planet: How Our Place in the Cosmos Is Designed for Discovery (co-author Jay Richards), Regnery Publishing, Inc., Washington D.C., March 2004, ISBN 0-89526-065-4
- Observational Astronomy (co-authors D. Scott Birney, David Oesper) Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-85370-5
- Guillermo Gonzalez Archived 2006-09-25 at the Wayback Machine at the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. Accessed November 13, 2006
- The Galactic Habitable Zone I. Galactic Chemical Evolution, Guillermo Gonzalez, Donald Brownlee, Peter Ward, arXiv
- Robert Roy Britt, Amid the Universe's Chaos, a Few Habitable Places, Space.com, 28 May 2002
- Blair, S. K.; Magnani, L.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A. (2008). "Formaldehyde in the Far Outer Galaxy: Constraining the Outer Boundary of the Galactic Habitable Zone". Astrobiology. 8 (1): 59–73. Bibcode:2008AsBio...8...59B. doi:10.1089/ast.2007.0171. PMID 18266563.
- Marochnik, L.S. and Mukhin, L.M. (1986) In The Problem of the Search for Life in the Universe, Proc. Conf. SETI, Tallinn, Estonia, USSR, Dec. 7–11, 1981, edited by V.A. Ambartsumyan, N.S. Kardashev, and V.S. Troitskii, Nauka, Moscow, pp. 41–46.
- The Measurability of the Universe––a Record of the Creator’s Design By Guillermo Gonzalez, Facts for Faith Issue 4, 2000.
- "Biologic Institute People". Biologic Institute. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
- "Review of The Privileged Planet". National Center for Science Education. July 2005. Retrieved 2006-10-18.
- "Review of the Privileged Planet". Ames Tribune. June 2005.
- Privileged Planet official webpage
- "Story Misrepresented Professors' ID Petion". Iowa State Daily. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Statement by Iowa State University Faculty Archived 2007-10-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Never trust a creationist ellipsis — Hector Avalos on the Gonzalez emails Archived 2007-12-14 at the Wayback Machine, Pharyngula
- Intelligent design advocate denied tenure at ISU, Nafeesa Syeed, The Waterloo-Cedar Falls Courier
- Statement from Iowa State University President Greg Geoffroy Archived 2007-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Ames Tribune. June 2, 2007.
- "Statement from Iowa State University President Gregory Geoffroy". Iowa State University News Service. 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2007-12-03.
- Monastersky, Richard (2008-02-07). "Intelligent Design and Tenure: Not in the Stars". Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Beisser, Andrea (2008-02-08). "Regents dismiss Gonzalez appeal" (– Scholar search). Iowa State Daily.[dead link]
- Facts regarding status of tenure case at Iowa State, Iowa State University
- "Action Item: Help Guillermo Gonzalez in his fight for academic freedom. Contact ISU President ... let him know that you support academic freedom for Dr. Gonzalez to follow the evidence wherever it leads." Iowa State Avoids Key Question in Gonzalez Tenure Case Discovery Institute, Evolutionnews.org.
- Dr. Guillermo Gonzalez And Academic Persecution Discovery Institute. May 18, 2007.
- Advocate of Intelligent Design Who Was Denied Tenure Has Strong Publications Record Richard Monastersky. The Chronicle of Higher Education, May, 2007. Subscription needed
- ISU Physicist Misrepresents Guillermo Gonzalez’s Arguments for Testing Intelligent Design Casey Luskin, Discovery Institute. EvolutionNews.org, June 4, 2007.
- Rights are intact: Vote turns on question, 'What is science?' Archived 2009-04-18 at the Stanford Web Archive John Hauptman. Des Moines Register, June 2, 2007. dead link as of November 13, 2007
- Gonzalez appeal to be decided by Board of Regents Archived 2008-05-29 at the Wayback Machine Andrea Beisser, Iowa State Daily. February 7, 2008.
- www.desmoinesregister.com | Printer-friendly article page[permanent dead link]
- Intelligent Design and Tenure: Not in the Stars, The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 7, 2008
- Intelligent Design Scientist Denied Tenure Despite Exceeding Standard Requirements, Discovery Institute
- Proponent of intelligent design denied tenure by ISU Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, By: William Dillon, Mid-Iowa News
- Updated: Iowa State University Denies Tenure to Noted Scientist Who Supports Intelligent Design, John West, Evolution News & Views, Discovery Institute
- Lisa Rossi (2007-12-01). "Intelligent design theory influenced ISU tenure vote". Des Moines Register. Retrieved 2007-12-03.[permanent dead link]
- "Secret Emails Reveal How ISU Faculty Plotted to Deny Distinguished Astronomer Tenure". Discovery Institute. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- Joerg Schmalian. "LETTER: Released Gonzalez e-mails lack context". Iowa State Daily. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19.
- The Discovery Institute and the Gonzalez Tenure Issue: Why Should Intelligent Design be Privileged?, The Panda's Thumb
- Guillermo Gonzalez Archived 2008-04-20 at the Wayback Machine Expelled Exposed, National Center for Science Education. 2008
- Gonzalez, Discovery Institute seek to replace science with politics, religion, Iowa Citizens for Science
- "New AAAS Statement Decries "Profound Dishonesty" of Intelligent Design Movie". American Association for the Advancement of Science. April 18, 2008. Archived from the original on April 25, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Stephanie Simon (May 2, 2008). "Evolution's Critics Shift Tactics With Schools". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- Wesley R. Elsberry (December 12, 2007). "Iowa Citizens for Science Press Release on Gonzalez Case - The Panda's Thumb". The Panda's Thumb. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- "Iowa Citizens for Science - Gonzalez, Discovery Institute seek to replace science with politics, religion". Retrieved 2007-12-16.
- Intelligent Design Film Debuts With Former ISU Professor Archived 2008-04-26 at the Wayback Machine, Who TV, April 18, 2008
- Grove City College Physics Department - Faculty. Accessed: 10 September 2018.
- College Acquires Observatory for Research Archived 2008-04-30 at the Wayback Machine, Grove City College, February 13, 2008
- Ball State U. Hires Astronomer Who Advocates Intelligent Design, July 8, 2013
- Ball State University astronomy pick raises questions in light of on ongoing Creationism debate, Colleen Flaherty, Inside Higher Ed 9 July 2013
- Statement from Astronomer Guillermo Gonzalez about His New Position at Ball State University, John G. West, Evolution News and Views, the Discovery Institute, 9 July 2013
- Ball State University Denounces Intelligent Design, Keeps Professor Accused of ID Bias, Michael Gryboski, The Christian Post, 2 August 2013.
- Indiana lawmakers probe Ball State over intelligent design, Seth Slabaugh, The Indianapolis Star, 14 March 2014