The guitarra morisca or mandora medieval is a plucked string instrument. It is a lute that has a bulging belly and a headstock as sickle. Part of that characterization came from a c. 1330 poem, Libra de Buen Amor by Juan Ruiz, which described the "Moorish gittern" as "corpulent". The use of the adjective morisca tacked to guitarra may have been to differentiate it from the commonly seen Latin European variety, when the morisca was seen on a limited basis during the 14th century.
Appeared in the early 9th century, it is an instrument mentioned in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, and by Johannes de Grocheio (towards 1300) who called it quitarra sarracénica. In the 14th century it is known by the term guitarra morisca, coined by Arcipreste de Hita in Libro de buen amor. It is a hybrid instrument between the guitarra latina and medieval lute, usually played by fingers or plectrum.
- Page in Spanish about the Mandora or Moorish Guitar
- Page in Spanish cataloging instruments including Guitarra Morisca.
- Book, The British Museum Citole: New Perspectives has useful info about this instrument pages 93-103
- Modern reconstruction of the instrument, based on the Céfalù Cathedral picture.
- Wright, Lawrence (May 1977). "The Medieval Gittern and Citole: A Case of Mistaken Identity". The Galpin Society Journal. 30: 10–11. doi:10.2307/841364. JSTOR 841364.
- Wright, Lawrence (May 1977). "The Medieval Gittern and Citole: A Case of Mistaken Identity". The Galpin Society Journal. 30: 13. doi:10.2307/841364. JSTOR 841364.
- Galpin, Francis William (1911). Old English Instruments of Music. Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company. pp. 21–22.