Gujarat under Mughal Empire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Gujarat Subah)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Gujarat subah
Subah of the Mughal Empire

1573–1756
 

Capital Ahmedabad
Government viceroyalty
Historical era Early modern period
 •  Established 1573
 •  Disestablished 1756
Today part of Gujarat, India
Gujarat under Mughal Empire
Gujarat Subah
(1573–1756)
Gujarat Sultanate (1407–1535)
Humayun (1535-1536)
Gujarat Sultanate (1536-1573)
Akbar (1573–1605)
Jehangir (1605–1627)
Shah Jahan (1627–1658)
Aurangzeb (1658–1707)
Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)
Jahandar Shah (1712–1713)
Farrukhsiyar (1713–1719)
Muhammad Shah (1719–1748)
Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754)
Alamgir II (1754–1756)
Gujarat under Maratha Empire (1756-1819)

In 1573, Akbar (1573–1605), the emperor of the Mughal Empire captured Gujarat (now a state in western India) by defeating Gujarat Sultanate under Muzaffar Shah III. Muzaffar tried to regain the Sultanate in 1584 but failed. Gujarat remained the Mughal province (subah) governed by the viceroys and officers appointed by the Mughal emperors from Delhi. Akbar's foster brother Mirza Aziz Kokaltash was appointed as the viceroy who strengthened Mughal hold over the region. The nobles of former Sultanate continued to resist and rebel during the reign of the next emperor Jehangir (1605–1627) but Kokaltash and his successor viceroys subdued them. Jehangir also permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. The next emperor Shah Jahan (1627–1658) expanded his territories in south and his viceroys made hold over Kathiawar peninsula including Nawanagar. Shah Jahan had also appointed his prince Aurangzeb, who was involved in religious disputes, prince Dara Shikoh and later prince Murad Bakhsh as viceroys. Following battle of succession, Aurangzeb (1658–1707) came to the Mughal throne and his policies resulted in revolts and discontent. During his reign, the Marathas under Shivaji raided Surat (1666) and their incursions in Gujarat started. Till then Gujarat prospered due to political stability, peace and growing international trade.[1]

During the next three emperors (1707–1719) who had brief reigns, the nobles became more and more powerful due to instability in the Delhi. The royals of Marwar were appointed viceroys frequently. During the reign of the emperor Muhammad Shah (1719–1748), the struggle between the Mughal and Maratha nobles were heightened with frequent battles and incursions. The south Gujarat was lost to the Marathas and the towns in north and central Gujarat was attacked on several occasions with frequent demand of tributes. The Marathas continued to grow their hold and the frequent change of viceroys did not reverse the trend. The competing houses of Marathas, Gaikwars and Peshwas engaged between themselves which slow down their progress for a while. They later made peace between themselves. During the reign of the next emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754), there was nominal control over the nobles who acted on their own. There were frequent fights between themselves and with Marathas. Ahmedabad, the capital of province, finally fell to the Marathas in 1752. It was regained by noble Momin Khan for a short time but again lost to the Marathas in 1756 after a long siege. Finding opportunity, the British captured Surat in 1759. After a setback at Panipat in 1761, the Marathas strengthened their hold on Gujarat. During this fifty years, the power struggle between the Mughal nobles and Marathas caused disorder and the decline in prosperity.[1]

Background[edit]

Gujarat under Humayun (1535–1536)[edit]

About end of 1532, Gujarat Sultan Bahadur Shah had a quarrelled with Humayun, the Mughal emperor of Delhi. The original ground of quarrel was that Bahádur Sháh had sheltered Sultán Muhammad Zamán Mírza, the grandson of a daughter of the emperor Babar (1482–1530). Humáyún’s anger was increased by an insolent answer from Bahadur Shah. Without considering that he had provoked a powerful enemy, Bahádur Sháh again laid siege to Chittor, and though he heard that Humáyún had arrived at Gwalior, he would not desist from the siege. In March 1535, Chittor fell into the hands of the Bahadur Shah but near Mandasúr his army was shortly afterwards routed by Humáyún. Bahádur Sháh fled to Mandu, which fortress was speedily taken by Humáyún. From Mándu the king fled to Chámpáner, and finally took refuge in Diu. Chámpáner fell to Humáyún, and the whole of Gujarát, except Sorath, came under his rule.[2]

At this time Sher Sháh Súr revolted, in Bihar and Jaunpur, and Humáyún returned to Agra. As soon as Humáyún departed, the country rose against the Mughals, and his old nobles requested the king to join them. Bahádur joined them, and, defeating the Mughals at Kaníj village near Mahmúdábád (now Mahemdavad), expelled them from Gujarát.[2]

As Gujarat fell to the Mughal Empire, Bahadur Shah was forced to court the Portuguese. On 23 December 1534 while on board the galleon St. Mattheus he signed the Treaty of Bassein. Based on the terms of the agreement, the Portuguese Empire gained control of the city of Bassein (Vasai), as well as its territories, islands, and seas which included Daman and Bombay islands too. He had granted them leave to erect a factory in Diu. Instead of a factory the Portuguese built a Diu Fort.[2]

When he recovered his kingdom, Bahadur, repenting of his alliance with the Portuguese, went to Sorath to persuade an army of Portuguese, whom he had asked to come to his assistance, to return to Goa. In February 1537, when the Portuguese arrived at Diu, five or six thousand strong, the Sultán hoping to get rid of them by stratagem, went to Diu and endeavored to get the viceroy into his power. The viceroy excused himself, and in return invited the king to visit his ship anchored off the coast of Gujarat. Bahádur agreed, and on his way back was attacked and killed the Portuguese and his body was dumped into the Arabian Sea.[2][3][4]

After his death, Gujarat started facing pressure of Mughals in north and other kingdoms from east. They also faced growing economic competition in Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean from the Europeans.

Under Mughal Empire (1573–1756)[edit]

Under Akbar (1573–1605)[edit]

In 1573, Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat Sultanate (now Gujarat, India) taking advantage of young Gujarat Sultan Muzaffar Shah III and his quarrelling nobles. Muzaffar was held captive at Agra. He appointed his foster brother Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the first viceroy who faced an insurrection by the rebel nobles of the former Sultanate. Akbar quickly came to aid and ended the insurrection. He soon appointed Mirza Khan who managed to set revenue system and quelled attack by the Mirzas with help of Mughal minister Todar Mal. The next viceroy Shaháb-ud-dín strengthened the military. Soon Sultan Muzaffar escaped, returned to Gujarat and led an attack on Ahmedabad and recaptured it before his former noble and now viceroy Itimad Khan reached the city. Soon Mirza Khan was reappointed as the viceroy who defeated Muzaffar in the battle of Fatehwadi in 1584. Soon Kokaltásh returned as the viceroy and defeated Muzaffar and combined Kathiawad forces in battle of Bhuchar Mori. Later Muzaffar was captured but he committed suicide, putting an end to the Gujarat Sultanate. As Kokaltásh went to the Mecca on pilgrimage, Sultan Murad Bakhsh was appointed as the viceroy on whose death, Kokaltásh returned a third time as the viceroy. Akbar was succeeded by Jehangir.[5]

Under Jehangir (1605–1627)[edit]

Jehangir continued Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh as the viceroy when he ascended to the throne in 1605. He continued to manage the province even though Khalij Khan was appointed as the new viceroy. He was succeeded by Sayad Murtaza who controlled the rebellions in north and south Gujarat. Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh again returned as the viceroy and successfully averted invasion of Malik Ambar from Daulatabad in south. The next viceroy Abdulláh Khán Fírúz Jang made expedition to south and subdued the Ahmednagar. During his time, in 1611, Jehangir permitted the British East India Company to establish factories in Surat and elsewhere in Gujarat. During reign of the next viceroy Mukarrab Khán, Jehangir toured Gujarat and received several local rulers. In 1618, he appointed his son prince Shah Jahan as the next viceroy. He rebelled in 1622-23 and he was replaced by Sultán Dáwar Baksh. Shah Jahan resisted but later he managed the Jehangir's new appointment, Khán Jahán as his own. Saif Khan had managed the province instead as Khan Jahan was sent as Shah Jahan's ambassador to Jehangir. Jehangir died and Shah Jahan succeeded him as the emperor in 1627.[6]

Under Shah Jahan (1627–1658)[edit]

On the death of the emperor Jehangir, his son Shah Jahan ascended the to the throne in 1627. His Gujarat viceroy Sher Khán Túar worked for relief in 1631–31 famine in the province. Shah Jahan sent his men to expand its territories further south. Between 1632 and 1635, four viceroys were appointed due to their precious gift to the emperor and they could not manage the province well. Kolis of Kankrej in north Gujarat committed excesses and the Jam of Nawanagar did not pay the tribute. Soon Azam Khan was appointed who put the province in order by subdueing Kolis in north and Kathis in Kathiawad. He also made the Jam of Nawanagar surrender. The next viceroy Ísa Tarkhán carried out financial reforms. In 1644, the Mughal prince Aurangzeb was appointed as the viceroy who was engaged in religious disputes for destroying a Jain temple in Ahmedabad. Due to his disputes, he was replaced by Sháistah Khán who failed to subdue Kolis. So the prince Murad Bakhsh was appointed as the viceroy in 1654. He restored the disorder soon. In 1657, hearing news of Shah Jahan's severe illness, Murad Bakhsh declared himself the emperor and rebelled with his brother Aurangzeb. They defeated the Jaswant Singh and Kásam Khán, whom Sháh Jahán had appointed viceroys of Málwa and Gujarát respectively in the battle of Dharmatpur. They further went to the capital, Agra but were confronted by Dara Shikoh. They defeated him in the Battle of Samugarh (1658). Soon Aurangzed dumped and imprisoned Murad Bakhsh, confined his father and declared himself the emperor in 1658.[7]

Under Aurangzeb (1658–1707)[edit]

After defeating all his brothers, Aurangzeb ascended the Mughal throne in 1658. He rewarded people who had helped him in his succession war. He forgave Jaswant Singh with whom he had fought in the battle and appointed him as the viceroy of Gujarat. Mahabat Khan succeeded him who annexed Nawanagar under the Mughal control. During his time, Aurangzeb decreed some administrative reforms, ordered curbs on Hindu customs and festivals and enforced Islamic religious law. In 1664, Maratha leader Shivaji plundered Surat and emptied its riches. Under next viceroy Khan Jehan, Shivaji again attacked Surat and Janjira. Jaswant Singh was appointed the viceroy again and the Nawanagar was partially restored to its ruler. During the next viceroy Amin Khan, there was disorder in the province due to the imposition of jizya tax and other discrimination and Idar revolted in 1679 but soon contained.[8]

During next viceroy, Mukhtar Khan, Ahmedabad faced flood (1683) and the province faced the famine (1684). Sujaat Khan, the next viceroy, managed the province for nineteen years. he contained revolt of Shia Muslims in 1691 and disturbances in Kathiawad and Marwar. He made peace with Durgadas Rathod of Marwar. In 1698, Gujarat again faced scarcity. In 1703, Prince Muhammad Azam Shah was appointed as the viceroy. Durgadas was invited to Ahmedabad to be killed but he escaped. In south, the Marathas assembled and threatened to enter Gujarat. Soon they entered under Dhanaji Jadhav up to Bharuch during the rule of the next viceroy Ibrahim Khan. Under him, the Mughal forces were defeated at Ratanpur near Rajpipla and again at Baba Pyara and plundered the whole region. The emperor sent prince Muhammad Bidar Bakht with forces to help but the Marathas returned before he arrived. On the other hand, Durgadas again rebelled and sent forces but he was defeated. Ibrahim Khan soon reappointed as the viceroy just before death of Aurangzeb in 1707. Taking advantage of situation due to warring princes for succession, the Marathas under Balaji Vishwanath entered Gujarat and reached as far as Ahmedabad. Fearing heavy plunder, Ibrahim Khan negotiated and paid a heavy tribute of Rupees 210,000 to withdraw. Thus Marathas returned. Bahadur Shah I ascended the Mughal throne in Delhi. During Aurangzeb's rule, the Mughal Empire had weakened and started falling apart.[8]

Under Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)[edit]

Gházi-ud-dín, Forty-third Viceroy, 1708–1710[edit]

In 1708, in consequence of last viceroy Ibráhím Khán’s resignation, Gházi-ud-dín Khán Bahádur Fírúz Jang was appointed forty-third viceroy of Gujarát. The leaning of the new emperor towards Shia tenets and his order to insert in the Friday sermon the words the lawful successor of the Prophet after the name of Ali, the fourth Khalífah, besides giving general dissatisfaction, caused a small disturbance in Áhmedábád. On the first Friday on which the sermon was read the Túráni or Turk soldiers publicly called on the preacher to desist on pain of death. The preacher disregarding their threats on the next Friday was pulled down from the pulpit by the Túránis and brained with a mace. In the same year (1708), hearing that the representative of Sháhi Álam had a copy of a Quran written by the Imám Áli Taki, son of Músa Razá (810–829), the emperor expressed a wish to obtain a sight of it, and the viceroy sent it to him at Mándu in charge of Sayad Âkil and Salábat Khán Bábi. In 1709, Shariât Khán, brother of Abdúl Hamíd Khán, was appointed minister in place of his brother, who obtained the office of chief Kázi. Much treasure was sent to the imperial camp by order of the emperor. Ajítsingh of Márwár now rebelled and recovered Jodhpur. As the emperor wished to visit Ajmer, the viceroy of Gujarát was directed to join him with his army.[9]

At this time the pay of a horseman is said to have been Rupees 34 and of a footman Rupees 4 a month. During his administration, Fírúz Jang introduced the practice, which his successors continued, of levying taxes on grain piece-goods and garden produce on his own account, the viceroy’s men by degrees getting into their hands the whole power of collecting. In 1710, when on tour exacting tribute, the viceroy fell ill at Danta and was brought to Áhmedábád, where he died.[10] As Fírúz Jang had not submitted satisfactory accounts, his property was confiscated, and in 1711 Amánat Khán, governor of Surat, was appointed deputy viceroy with the title of Shahámat Khán.[10] When Shahámat Khán was levying tribute from the Kadi and Vijapur districts, he heard that a Marátha force had advanced to the Bába Pyara ford on the Narmada river. He at once marched to oppose them, summoning Sayad Áhmed Gíláni, governor of Sorath, to his assistance. When he reached Ankleshwar, the Maráthás met him, and a battle was fought in which the Maráthás were defeated. Shahámat Khán then proceeded to Surat, and, after providing for its safety returned to Áhmedábád. In spite of their reverse at Ankleshwar, the Maráthás from this time began to make yearly raids into Gujarát.[11]

Under Jahandar Shah (1712–1713)[edit]

Ásif-ud-Daulah, Forty-fourth Viceroy, 1712–13[edit]

In 1712, the emperor died, and was succeeded by his son Jahandar Shah, and Ásif-ud-daulah Asad Khán Bahádur was appointed forty-fourth viceroy of Gujarát. As Muhammad Beg Khán, who was then at Kharkol, was a favourite of the new viceroy and through his interest was appointed deputy, he went to Áhmedábád, and Shahámat Khán was transferred to Málwa as viceroy. In the meantime, Muhammad Beg Khán was appointed governor of Surat, and Sarbuland Khán Bahádur was sent to Áhmedábád as deputy viceroy. On his way to Gujarát, Sarbuland Khán was robbed in the Ságbára wilds to the east of Rájpípla. On his arrival he promptly marched against the rebellious Kolis of the Chunvál and subdued them. At the end of the year, as Farrukhsiyar, son of Ázím-us-Shán, second son of the late emperor, was marching with a large army on the capital, Sarbuland Khán returned to Delhi.[11]

Under Farrukhsiyar (1713–1719)[edit]

This expedition of Farrukhsiyar was successful. He put Jahandar Shah to death and mounted the throne in 1713. As he had been raised to the throne mainly by the aid of Sayads Husain Áli and Abdullah Khán, the new emperor fell under the power of these nobles. He concluded treaty with Ajitsingh of Jodhpur. Daud Khan Panni, the powerful general, was appointed as the viceroy but there were riots in Ahmedabad in 1714. Ajitsingh was appointed as the next viceroy who had disputes with other noble Haidar Kúli Khán. After some reluctance, Ajitsingh let Khán Daurán Nasrat Jang Bahádur to be appointed as the next viceroy. In 1719, the emperor Farrukhsiyar was deposed by influential Sayad brothers in 1719.[12]

Under Muhammad Shah (1719–1748)[edit]

Farrukhsiyar was succeeded by the short reigns of Rafi ud-Darajat and Shah Jahan II. Finally Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne by them. To make peace with powerful vassal, he appointed Ajítsingh of Márwár as a viceroy. The Maratha incursions continued and Píláji Gáikwár established himself at Songad near southern border of Gujarat. Ajit Singh had appointed Anopsingh Bhandari as his deputy. For helping to depose the influential Sayad brothers, Haidar Kúli Khán was appointed the next viceroy. People discontent with Anopsingh rejoiced his appointment but he tried to make himself free so he was recalled. Nizám-ul-Mulk took over who had to face the Maratha incursion again. The Marathas taking advantage of weakening Mughal Empire started extracting tribute from Gujarat regularly. The next viceroy Sarbuland Khan came in conflict with the Marathas whose generals were first defeated at Kapadvanj and again at Aras. The infighting in Marathas later stalled their advances. The imperial troops were sent by the emperor to help. Finally, the Marathas were defeated at Sojitra and Kapadvanj and pushed back from their inroads in Gujarat. In subsequent years, the Marathas attacked Vadnagar and later captured Baroda, Dabhoi and Champaner. The growing power of Marathas in southern Gujarat can not be contained.[13]

In 1730, Abheysingh was appointed as the viceroy who defeated Mubáriz-ul-Mulk at Adalaj who has opposed his appointment. He soon allied with Maratha Peshwa and defeated another Maratha Gaikwar. He returned to Marwar placing Ratansingh Bhandari, his deputy, in charge. He recovered Baroda but his rivalry with other Mughal leaders Momin Khan and Sohrab Khan weaken him. Soon Momin Khan was appointed as the viceroy but he had to laid siege of Ahmedabad to be in power as Ratansingh had not complied with the order. Soon the emperor reappointed Abheysingh but Momin Khan continued siege. He took help of Damaji Gaikwar and finally captured Ahmedabad. He had to share revenues with Gaikwars but soon disagreements rose and they had fights. He tried to manage his control over Gujarat but the Marathas keep growing and expanding their power. After death of Momin Khan, Fidá-ud-dín managed the province foe a while. Abdúl Ázíz Khán, the commander of Junnar near Pune came to power due to forged order but later had to relinquish. Muftakhir Khán, son of Momin Khan, appointed as the next viceroy. During his reign, the Marathas came to Ahmedabad and continued to attack towns in central Gujarat. Fakhr-ud-daulah succeeded him. He had some peace due to internal struggles between the different houses of the Marathas had slow down their advances in Gujarat.[13]

In 1748, the emperor Muhammad Shah died and was succeeded by his son Ahmad Shah Bahadur.

Under Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1754)[edit]

The emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur appointed Vakhatsingh, brother of Mahárája Abheysingh of Marwar as a viceroy but he never took a charge. He was the last viceroy appointed by the Mughal emperor. Sensing opportunity in weakening Mughal power, the Marathas and the Mughal nobles started plotting to establish themselves in Gujarat. The Maratha houses, Gaikwar and Peshwa, engaged in a struggle and finally brokered a peace. Jawan Mard Khan, who was incharge of Ahmedabad, had to surrender to them after a long siege. Thus the Marathas established themselves firmly in Gujarat in 1752. In 1754, Ahmad Shah Bahadur was deposed and Alamgir II came to power on the Mughal throne.[14]

Under Alamgir II (1754–1756)[edit]

The Marathas driven out the Mughal nobles under the emperor Alamgir II. One such noble, Momin Khan, had countered their advances and recovered Ahmedabad in 1756 lost to the Marathas few years ago. After a long siege, Ahmedabad fell again in hands of the Marathas. The Marathas levied tributes across Gujarat. In 1759, the English of the British East India Company captured Surat.[15]

Sadashiv Ramchandra was appointed as a viceroy by Peshwa in 1760 followed by Apa Ganesh in 1761. Following defeat of Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the nobles briefly recovered towns from the Marathas but soon had to surrender. Thus the Marathas firmly established themselves in Gujarat.[15]

Administration[edit]

The Gujarat subah covered an area of 302 kos (966.4 kilometres) between Burhanpur in the east and Jagat (Dwarka) in the west and 70 kos (224 kilometres) between Jalore in the north and Daman in the south. The twenty-five sarkars (administrative units) of Gujarat Sultanate were reorganised in 16 sarkars and the others areas were transferred back to its older provinces. Of this 16 sarkars; nine were under direct control of the Mughal Empire; Ahmadabad, Baroda, Bharuch, Champaner, Godhra, Nadaut, Patan, Sorath, and Surat. They were known as sarkarat-i kharaji where the Mughal fiscal system of revenue collection was applied. The other seven sarkars were under administration and fiscal jurisdictions of the local chiefs; Bansballa (Banswada), Dungarpur, Kutch, Nawanagar, Ramnagar, Sirohi and Sant. They were known as sarkarat-i peshkashi where annual tribute (peshkash) was collected by the Mughals. This local chiefs, zamindars, acknowledged the Mughal suzerainty and occasionally provided military support.[16]

Throughout the Mughal Empire, the single trimetallic currency was established but Gujarat continued to use a local silver coin known as Mahmudi alongside the Mughal currency.[17]

List of Mughal Viceroys of Gujarat (1573-1754)[edit]

Under Akbar (1573–1605)[edit]

  • Mírza Âziz Kokaltásh, First Viceroy, 1573–1575
  • Mírza Khán (later Mírza Abdúr-Rahím Khán (Khán Khánán)), Second Viceroy, 1575–1577
  • Shaháb-ud-dín, Third Viceroy, 1577–1583
  • Ítimád Khán Gujaráti, Fourth Viceroy, 1583–4
  • Mírza Abdúr-Rahím Khán (Khán Khánán), Fifth Viceroy, 1583–1587 (second time)
  • Ismáíl Kuli Khán, Sixth Viceroy, 1587–88
  • Mírza Âziz Kokaltásh, Seventh Viceroy, 1588–1592 (second time)
  • Sultán Murad Baksh, Eighth Viceroy, 1592–1600
  • Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh, Ninth Viceroy, 1600–1606 (third time)

Under Jehangir (1605–1627)[edit]

  • Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh, Ninth Viceroy, 1600–1606 (third time)
  • Kalíj Khán, Tenth Viceroy, 1606
  • Sayad Murtaza, Eleventh Viceroy, 1606–1609
  • Mírza Âzíz Kokaltásh, Twelfth Viceroy, 1609–1611 (fourth time)
  • Abdulláh Khán Fírúz Jang, Thirteenth Viceroy, 1611–1616
  • Mukarrab Khán, Fourteenth Viceroy, 1616
  • Prince Shah Jahan, Fifteenth Viceroy, 1618–1622
  • Sultán Dáwar Baksh, Sixteenth Viceroy, 1622–1624
  • Saif Khán, Seventeenth Viceroy, 1624–1627

Under Shah Jahan (1627–1658)[edit]

  • Sher Khán Túar, Eighteenth Viceroy, 1627–1632
  • Islám Khán, Nineteenth Viceroy, 1632
  • Bákar Khán, Twentieth Viceroy, 1632
  • Sipáhdár Khán, Twenty-first Viceroy, 1633
  • Saif Khán, Twenty-second Viceroy, 1633–1635
  • Ázam Khán, Twenty-third Viceroy, 1635–1642
  • Ísa Tarkhán, Twenty-fourth Viceroy, 1642–1644
  • Prince Muhammad Aurangzeb, Twenty-fifth Viceroy, 1644–1646
  • Sháistah Khán, Twenty-sixth Viceroy, 1646–1648
  • Prince Muhammad Dara Shikoh, Twenty-seventh Viceroy, 1648–1652
  • Sháistah Khán, Twenty-eighth Viceroy, 1652–1654 (second time)
  • Prince Murad Bakhsh, Twenty-ninth Viceroy, 1654–1657
  • Kásam Khán, Thirtieth Viceroy, 1657–1659

Under Aurangzeb (1658–1707)[edit]

  • Kásam Khán, Thirtieth Viceroy, 1657–1659
  • Sháh Nawáz Khán Safávi, Thirty-first Viceroy, 1659
  • Maharaja Jaswant Singh, Thirty-second Viceroy, 1659–1662
  • Mahábat Khán, Thirty-third Viceroy, 1662–1668
  • Khán Jehán, Thirty-fourth Viceroy, 1668–1671
  • Mahárája Jaswant Singh, Thirty-fifth Viceroy, 1671–1674 (second time)
  • Muhammad Amín Khán Umdat-ul-Mulk, Thirty-sixth Viceroy, 1674–1683
  • Mukhtár Khán, Thirty-seventh Viceroy, 1683–1684
  • Shujáât Khán (Kártalab Khán) Thirty-eighth Viceroy, 1684–1703
  • Prince Muhammad Azam Shah, Thirty-ninth Viceroy, 1703–1705
  • Ibráhím Khán, Fortieth Viceroy, 1705
  • Prince Muhammad Bidar Bakht, Forty-First Viceroy, 1705–170
  • Ibráhím Khán, Forty-second Viceroy, 1706 (second time)

Under Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)[edit]

Under Jahandar Shah (1712–1713)[edit]

  • Ásif-ud-Daulah, Forty-fourth Viceroy, 1712–13

Under Farrukhsiyar (1713–1719)[edit]

  • Shahámat Khán, Forty-fifth Viceroy, 1713
  • Daud Khan Panni, Forty-sixth Viceroy, 1714–15
  • Mahárája Ajítsingh, Forty-seventh Viceroy, 1715–16
  • Khán Daurán Nasrat Jang Bahádur, Forty-eighth Viceroy, 1716–1719

Under Muhammad Shah (1719–1748)[edit]

  • Mahárája Ajítsingh, Forty-ninth Viceroy, 1719–1721 (second time)
  • Haidar Kúli Khán, Fiftieth Viceroy, 1721–1722
  • Nizám-ul-Mulk, Fifty-first Viceroy, 1722
  • Sarbuland Khan, Fifty-second Viceroy, 1723–1730
  • Mahárája Abheysingh, Fifty-third Viceroy, 1730–1733
    • Ratansingh Bhandári, Deputy Viceroy, 1733–1737
  • Momín Khán, Fifty-fourth Viceroy, 1737
  • Mahárája Abheysingh, Fifty-fifth Viceroy, 1737 (second time)
  • Momín Khán, Fifth-sixth Viceroy, 1738–1743 (second time)
    • Fidá-ud-dín acts as Viceroy, 1743
    • Abdúl Ázíz Khán of Junnar, Viceroy (by a forged order)
  • Muftakhir Khán, Fifty-seventh Viceroy, 1743–44
  • Fakhr-ud-daulah, Fifty-eighth Viceroy, 1744–1748

Under Ahmad Shah Bahadur (1748–1756)[edit]

  • Mahárája Vakhatsingh, Fifty-ninth Viceroy, 1748 (never took charge)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Campbell 1896, p. 266-347.
  2. ^ a b c d Campbell 1896, p. 254-257.
  3. ^ The Cambridge history of the British Empire, Volume 2 by Arthur Percival Newton p.14
  4. ^ Sarina Singh (2003). India. Lonely Planet. p. 726. ISBN 1-74059-421-5. 
  5. ^ Campbell 1896, p. 266-274.
  6. ^ Campbell 1896, p. 274-278.
  7. ^ Campbell 1896, p. 278-284.
  8. ^ a b Campbell 1896, p. 283-297.
  9. ^ Campbell 1896, p. 297.
  10. ^ a b Campbell 1896, p. 297-298.
  11. ^ a b Campbell 1896, p. 298.
  12. ^ Campbell 1896, pp. 298-301.
  13. ^ a b Campbell 1896, pp. 301-333.
  14. ^ Campbell 1896, pp. 333-340.
  15. ^ a b Campbell 1896, pp. 340-347.
  16. ^ A., Nadri, Ghulam (2009). Eighteenth-century Gujarat : the dynamics of its political economy, 1750-1800. Leiden: Brill. p. 11. ISBN 9789004172029. OCLC 568402132. 
  17. ^ Haider, Najaf (2017-10-06). "A sturdy regional currency: The continuous use of Maḥmūdīs in Gujarat under the Mughals". Studies in People’s History: 2348448917725852. doi:10.1177/2348448917725852. ISSN 2348-4489. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, James Macnabb (1896). "Chapter III. MUGHAL VICEROYS. (A.D. 1573–1758)". In James Macnabb Campbell. History of Gujarát. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Volume I. Part II. Musalmán Gujarát. (A.D. 1297–1760.). The Government Central Press. pp. 254–257, 266–347.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.