Gujarati people

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Total population
c. 60 million
Regions with significant populations
 India 46,000,000[1]
 United Kingdom 815,000
 United States 287,367[2]
 Tanzania 250,000[3]
 Kenya 182,000[4]
 Canada 118,950[5]
 Oman 34,900[6]
 Portugal 30,000[7]
 Reunion 22,500[8]
 Pakistan 1,270,000[9]
 Madagascar 79,000[10]
Gujarati, Hindi, English, Kutchi, Urdu
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Aryan peoples

Gujarati people or Gujaratis (ગુજરાત) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking. Famous Gujaratis include Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Morarji Desai, Sam Bahadur, Vikram Sarabhai, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Shyamji Krishna Varma, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Freddie Mercury, Azim Premji, Dhirubhai Ambani, Narendra Modi, and Jamsetji Tata. Gujaratis are very prominent in industry and key figures played an historic role in the introduction of the doctrine of Swaraj and the decisive victory of the 1947 Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.[11][12][13]

Geographical Locations[edit]

Most Gujaratis in India live in the state of Gujarat in Western India. Gujaratis also form a significant part of the populations in the small union territories of Daman and Diu, and Dadra Nagar Haveli, both being former Portuguese colonies.[14] There are significant Gujarati communities in other parts of India, most notably in Mumbai,[15] Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Bangalore[16] and other metropolitan areas like Kollam and Kochi in Kerala.[17][18] All throughout history[19] Gujaratis have earned a reputation as being India's greatest merchants,[20][21] industrialists and business entrepreneurs,[22] and have therefore been at forefront of migrations all over the world, particularly to regions that were part of the British empire such as Fiji, Hong Kong, East Africa and countries in Southern Africa.[23] Diasporas and transnational networks in many of these countries date back to more than a century.[24][25] In recent decades, larger numbers of Gujaratis have migrated to English speaking countries such as United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and United States.[26][27]


Main article: Gujarati cuisine
Vedhmi is a sweet lentil stuffed chapatis.

Gujarati food has famously been described as "the haute cuisine of vegetarianism" and meals have a subtle balance of sweet, tart and mild hot sensations on the palate.[28][29] Hindus and Jains are largely vegetarians, to a greater extent than Hindu communities elsewhere in India, however many Gujaratis such as Rajputs have traditionally eaten a variety of meats and seafood.[30] Gujarati cuisine follows the traditional Indian full meal structure of rice, cooked vegetables, lentil dal or curry and roti. The different types of flatbreads that a Gujarati cooks are rotli or chapati, bhakhri, thepla or dhebara, puri, maal purah, and puran-pohli. Popular snacks such as Khaman, Dhokla, Pani Puri, Dhokli, dal-dhokli, Undhiyu, Jalebi, fafda, chevdoh, Samosa, papri chaat, Muthia, Bhajia, Patra, bhusu, locho, sev usal, fafda gathiya, vanela gathiya and Sev mamra are traditional Gujarati dishes savoured by many communities across the world.[31]

Khichdi and Kadhi – a mix of rice and yellow toor dal, a type of lentil, cooked with spices in a pressure cooker – is a popular and nutritious Gujarati meal which has regional variations. It is found satisfying by most Gujaratis, and cooked very regularly in most homes, typically on a busy day due to its ease of cooking. It can also become an elaborate meal such as a thali when served with several other side dishes such as a vegetable curry, yogurt, sabzi shaak, onions, mango pickle and papad.[32]

Spices have traditionally been made on grinding stones, however, since villages have seen rapid growth and industrialization in recent decades, today people may use a blender or grinder. People from north Gujarat use dry red chili powder, whereas people from south Gujarat prefer using green chili and coriander in their cooking. There is no standard recipe for Gujarati dishes, however the use of tomatoes and lemons is a consistent theme throughout Gujarat.[33] Traditionally Gujaratis eat mukhwas at the end of a meal to enhance digestion, and desserts such as aam shrikhand made using mango salad and hung curd are very popular.[33] In many parts of Gujarat, drinking chaas (chilled buttermilk) or soda after lunch or dinner is also quite common.

Surti delicasies include ghari which is a puri filled with khoa and nuts that is typically eaten during the festival Chandani Padva, sutarfeni – made from fine strands of sweet dough garnished with pistachios, and halwasan which are hard squares made from broken wheat, khoa, nutmeg and pistachios.[34] A version of English custard is made in Gujarat that uses cornstarch instead of the traditional eggs. It is cooked with cardamom and saffron, and served with fruit and sliced almonds.[35] Gujarati families celebrate Sharad Purnima by having dinner with doodh-pauva under moonlight.[36][37]


Main article: Gujarati literature
Excerpt from "My experiments with truth" - the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi in its original Gujarati.

The history of Gujarati literature may be traced to 1000 AD. Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Jhaverchand Meghani, Avinash Vyas, Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Gulabdas Broker, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mahatma Gandhi, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel, Imamuddin khanji Babi Saheb (Ruswa mazlumi), Niranjan Bhagat, Rajendra Keshavlal Shah, Raghuveer Chaudhari and Sitanshu Yashaschandra Mehta.

Kavi Kant, Kalapi and Abbas Abdulali Vasi are Gujarati language poets. Ardeshar Khabardar who was president of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad was a nationalist poet. His poem, Jya Jya Vase Ek Gujarati, Tya Tya Sadakal Gujarat (Wherever a Gujarati resides, there forever is Gujarat) depicts Gujarati ethnic pride and is widely popular in Gujarat.[38]

Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are Ahmedabad based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra is a novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Harindra Dave, Suresh Dalal, Jyotindra Dave, Dinkar Joshi, Prahlad Brahmbhatt, Tarak Mehta, Harkisan Mehta, Chandrakant Bakshi, Vinod Bhatt, Kanti Bhatt, Makarand Dave, and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers.

Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, contributed to Gujarati language literature with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans. Kanji Swami a spiritual mystic who was honored with the title, 'Koh-i-noor of Kathiawar' made literary contributions to Jain philosophy and promoted Ratnatraya.[39]

Gujarati theatre owes a lot to bhavai. Bhavai is a musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta and Sanjay Leela Bhansali explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai, Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.

Gujarati language is enriched by the Adhyatmik literature written by the Jain scholar, Shrimad Rajchandra and Pandit Himmatlal Jethalal Shah. This literature is both in the form of poetry and prose.[40]

Mention in history[edit]

The king of Cambay, from Itinerary of Ludovico Di Varthema of Bologna from 1502 to 1508.

Early European travelers like Ludovico di Varthema (15th century) traveled to Gujarat and wrote on the people of Gujarat. He noted that Jainism had a strong presence in Gujarat and opined that Gujaratis were deprived of their kingdom by Mughals because of their kind heartedness. His description of Gujaratis was:[41]

Social Stratification[edit]


The Gujarati people are predominantly Hindu. There are also significant minorities of Jains, and Muslims, however the others can be Christian, Zoroastrian, or Jewish as well.[citation needed]

Caste, Tribes, Quom and Communities[edit]


Gujaratis have a long tradition of seafaring and a history of overseas migration to foreign lands, to Yemen[42] Oman[43] Bahrain,[44] Kuwait, Zanzibar[45] and other countries in the Persian Gulf[46] since a mercantile culture resulted naturally from the state's proximity to the Arabian Sea.[47] Today, Gujaratis can be found in all inhabited continents of the world. The countries with the largest Gujarati populations are Pakistan, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and many countries in Southern and East Africa. Globally, Gujaratis are estimated to comprise around 33% of the Indian diaspora worldwide and can be found in 129 of 190 countries listed as sovereign nations by the United Nations.[48] Non Resident Gujaratis (NRGs) maintain active links with the homeland in the form of business, remittance, philanthropy, and through their political contribution to state governed domestic affairs.[49][50][51]

United Kingdom[edit]

The Swaminarayan Temple at Neasden, London which is the largest Hindu Temple in Europe

The second largest overseas diaspora of Gujaratis, after Pakistan, is in the UK. At a population of around 615,000[52] Gujaratis form almost half of the Indian community who live in the UK (1.2 million). Gujaratis first went to the UK in the 19th century with the establishment of the British Raj in India. Prominent members of this community such as Dadabhai Navroji and Shyamji Krishna Varma played a vital role in exerting political pressure upon colonial powers during the struggle for Indian Independence. Now this community is mostly the second and third generation descendants of "twice-over" immigrants from the former British colonies of East Africa, Portugal, and Indian Ocean Islands. Most of them despite being British Subjects had restricted access to Britain after successive Immigration acts of 1962, 1968 and 1971. Most were, however, eventually admitted on the basis of a Quota voucher system or, in case of Uganda, as refugees after the expulsion order by the Ugandan ruler, Idi Amin in August 1972.

Gujaratis in Britain are regarded as affluent, middle-upper class peoples who have assimilated into the milieu of British society.[53][54] They are celebrated for revolutionizing the corner shop, and energising the British economy which changed Britain's antiquated retail laws forever.[55][56] Demographically, Hindus form a majority along with a significant number of Jains and Muslims,[57] and smaller numbers of Gujarati Christians.[58] They are predominantly settled in metropolitan areas like Greater London, East Midlands, West Midlands, Lancashire and Yorkshire.[52] Cities with significant Gujarati populations include Leicester and London boroughs of Brent, Barnet, Harrow and Wembley. There is also a small, but vibrant Parsi community of Zoroastrians present in the country, dating back to the bygone era of Dadabhai Navroji, Shapurji Saklatvala and Pherozeshah Mehta.[59] Both Hindus and Muslims have established caste or community associations, temples, and mosques to cater for the needs of their respective communities. A well known temple popular with Gujaratis is the BAPS Swaminarayan Temple in Neasdon, London. A popular mosque that caters for the Gujarati Muslim community in Leicester is the Masjid Umar. Leicester has a Jain Temple that is also the headquarters of Jain Samaj Europe.[60]

Gujarati Hindus in the UK have maintained many traditions from their homeland. The community remains religious with more than 100 temples catering for their religious needs. All major Hindu festivals such as Navratri, Dassara, and Diwali are celebrated with a lot of enthusiasm even from the generations brought up in UK. Gujarati Hindus also maintain their caste affiliation to some extent with most major castes having their own community association in each population center with significant Gujarati population such as Leicester and London suburbs. Patidars form the largest community in the diaspora including Kutch Leva Patels,[61] followed closely by Lohanas of Saurashtra origin.[62] Gujarati Rajputs from various regional backgrounds are affiliated with several independent British organizations dependant on caste such as Shree Maher Samaj UK,[63] and the Gujarati Arya Kshatriya Mahasabha-UK.[64]

Endogamy remains important to Gujarati Muslims in UK with the existence of matrimonial services specifically dedicated to their community.[65] Gujarati Muslim society in the UK have kept the custom of Jamat Bandi, literally meaning communal solidarity. This system is the traditional expression of communal solidarity. It is designed to regulate the affairs of the community and apply sanctions against infractions of the communal code. Gujarati Muslim communities, such as the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Sunni Bohra, and Memon have caste associations, known as jamats that run mosques and community centers for their respective communities.

Gujaratis have had a long involvement with the British. The original East India Company set up a factory in the port city of Surat in Gujarat in 1615. These were the beginnings of first real British involvement with India that eventually led to the formation of the British Raj. India becoming the predominant IT powerhouse in the 1990s has led to waves of new immigration by Gujaratis, and other Indians with software skills to the UK.

United States[edit]

Gujaratis have achieved a high demographic profile in many urban districts worldwide, notably in India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, USA, as large-scale immigration from India continues into New York,[66][67][68][69] with the largest metropolitan Gujarati population outside of India.

The United States has the third-largest Gujarati population after the United Kingdom. The highest concentration of the population of over 100,000 is in the New York City Metropolitan Area alone, notably in the growing Gujarati diasporic center of India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey, and Edison in Middlesex County in Central New Jersey. Significant immigration from India to the United States started after the landmark Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[70][71] Early immigrants after 1965 were highly educated professionals. Since US immigration laws allow sponsoring immigration of parents, children and particularly siblings on the basis of family reunion, the numbers rapidly swelled in a phenomenon known as "chain migration". Given the Gujarati propensity for business enterprise, a number of them opened shops and motels. Now in the 21st century over 40% of the hospitality industry in the United States is controlled by Gujaratis.[72][73] Gujaratis, especially the Patidar samaj, also dominate as franchisees of fast food restaurant chains such as Subway and Dunkin' Donuts.[74] The descendants of the Gujarati immigrant generation have also made high levels of advancement into professional fields, including as physicians, engineers and politicians.

Famous Gujarati Americans include Ami Bera (United States Congress),[75] Reshma Saujani (American politician),[76] Sonal Shah (economist to Whitehouse),[77] Bharat Desai (CEO Syntel),[78] Vyomesh Joshi (Forbes),[79] Romesh Wadhwani (Forbes),[80] Raj Bhavsar (sports)[81] Halim Dhanidina (first Muslim judge of California), Savan Kotecha (Grammy nominated American songwriter),[82] and Hollywood actresses, Sheetal Sheth[83] and Noureen DeWulf.[84]


Canada, just like its southern neighbour, is home to a large Gujarati community. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, there are 118,950 Gujaratis of various religious backgrounds living in Canada.[85] The majority of them live in Toronto and its suburbs - home to the second largest Gujarati community in North America after the New York Metropolitan Area. Gujarati Hindus are the second largest linguistic/religious group in Canada's Indian community after Punjabi Sikhs. The Ismaili Khoja form a significant part of the Canadian diaspora estimated to be about 80,000 in numbers overall.[86] Most of them arrived in Canada in the 1970s as immigrants from Uganda and other countries of East Africa.[87][88]

Notable Gujarati Canadians include Zain Verjee (CNN journalist),[89] Ali Velshi (former CNN journalist),[90] Rizwan Manji (Canadian actor), Nazneen Contractor (Canadian actress), Ishu Patel (BAFTA-winning Animations director), Arif Virani (Member of Parliament for Parkdale-High Park),[91] Rahim Jaffer (Member of Parliament for Edmonton-Strathcona),[92] Omar Sachedina (CTV News anchor)[93] and Prashant Pathak (Investor and Philanthropist).[94]

East Africa[edit]

Former British colonies in East Africa had many residents of South Asian descent. The primary immigration was mainly from Gujarat and to a lesser extent from Punjab. They were brought there by the British Empire from India to do clerical work in Imperial service, or unskilled/semi-skilled manual labour such as construction or farm work. In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were East Africa under indentured labour contracts to work on the construction of the Uganda Railway that started in the Kenyan port city of Mombasa and ended in Kisumu on Kenyan side of Lake Victoria. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 individuals decided to remain in the African Great Lakes after the line's completion.

Many Asians, particularly the Gujarati, in these regions were in the trading businesses. They included Gujaratis of all religions as well many of the castes and Quoms. Since the representation of Indians in these occupations was high, stereotyping of Indians in Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyka as shopkeepers was common. A number of people worked for the British run banks. They also worked in skilled labor occupations, as managers, teachers and administrators. Gujarati and other South Asians had significant influence on the economy, constituting 1% of the population while receiving a fifth of the national income. For example, in Uganda, the Mehta and Madhvani families controlled the bulk of the manufacturing businesses. Gated ethnic communities served elite healthcare and schooling services. Additionally, the tariff system in Uganda had historically been oriented toward the economic interests of South Asian traders.[95]

The countries of East Africa gained independence from Britain in the early 1960s. At that time most Gujarati and other Asians opted to remain as British Subjects. The African politicians at that time accused Asians of economic exploitation and introduced a policy of Africanization. The 1968 Committee on "Africanisation in Commerce and Industry" in Uganda made far-reaching Indophobic proposals. A system of work permits and trade licenses was introduced in 1969 to restrict the role of Indians in economic and professional activities. Indians were segregated and discriminated against in all walks of life.[96] During the middle of the 1960s many Asians saw the writing on the wall and started moving either to UK or India. However, restrictive British immigration policies stopped a mass exodus of East African Asians until Idi Amin came to power in 1971. He exploited pre-existing Indophobia and spread propaganda against Indians involving stereotyping and scapegoating the Indian minority. Indians were stereotyped as "only traders" and "inbred" to their profession. Indians were labelled as "dukawallas" (an occupational term that degenerated into an anti-Indian slur during Amin's time), and stereotyped as "greedy, conniving", without any racial identity or loyalty but "always cheating, conspiring and plotting" to subvert Uganda. Amin used this propaganda to justify a campaign of "de-Indianization", eventually resulting in the expulsion and ethnic cleansing of Uganda's Indian minority.[96]


Gujarati and other Indians starting moving to the Kenya colony at the end of the 19th century when the British colonial authorities started opening up the country with the laying down of the Railways. A small colony of merchants, however, had existed on the port cities such Mombasa on the Kenyan coast for hundreds of years prior to that.[97] The immigrants who arrived with the British were the first ones to open up businesses in rural Kenya a century ago. These Dukawalas or shopkeepers were mainly Gujarati. Over the following decades the population, mainly Gujarati but also a sizable Punjabi too, increased in size. The population started declining after the independence of Kenya in the 1960s. At that time the majority of Gujaratis opted for British citizenship and eventually moved there, especially to cities like Leicester or London suburbs. Famous Kenyans of Gujarati heritage who contributed greatly in the development of East Africa include Thakkar Bapa, Manu Chandaria,[98] Atul Shah, Baloobhai Patel,[99] Bhimji Depar Shah (Forbes),[100] Naushad Merali (Forbes),[101] and Indian philanthropist, Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee,[102] who played a large role in the development of modern-day Kenya during colonial rule.[103][104]


Main article: Indians in Uganda

There is a small community of people of Indian origin living in Uganda, but the community is far smaller than before 1972 when Ugandan ruler Idi Amin expelled most Asians including Gujaratis.[105] In the late 19th century, mostly Sikhs, were brought on three-year contracts, with the aid of Imperial British contractor Alibhai Mulla Jeevanjee to build the Uganda Railway from Mombasa to Kisumu by 1901, and to Kampala by 1931. Some died, while others returned to India after the end of their contracts, but few chose to stay. They were joined by Gujarati traders called "passenger Indians",[106] both Hindu and Muslim free migrants who came to serve the economic needs of the indentured labourers, and to capitalise on the economic opportunities.

After the 1972 expulsion, most Indians and Gujaratis migrated to the United Kingdom. Due to the efforts of the Aga khan, many Khoja Nizari Ismaili refugees from Uganda were offered asylum in Canada.[107]


Main article: Indians in Tanzania

Indians have a long history in Tanzania starting with the arrival of Gujarati traders in the 19th century.[108] There are currently over 50,000 people of Indian origin in Tanzania. Many of them are traders and they control a sizeable portion of the Tanzanian economy. They came to gradually control the trade in Zanzibar. Many of the buildings constructed then still remain in Stone Town, the focal trading point on the island.

South Africa[edit]

Amla training with South Africa in 2009.

Indian diaspora in South Africa is more than a century old and it is centered around the city of Durban.[109] The vast majority of immigrant pioneer Gujaratis who came in the latter half of the 19th century were passenger Indians who paid for their own travel fare and means of transport to arrive and settle South Africa, in pursuit of fresh trade and career opportunities and as such were treated as British Subjects, unlike the fate of a bigger class of Indian indentured laborours who were transported to work on the sugarcane plantations of Natal Colony in miserable conditions. Passenger Indians, who initially operated in Durban, expanded inland, to the South African Republic (Transvaal), establishing communities in settlements on the main road between Johannesburg and Durban. After wealthy Gujarati Muslim merchants began experiencing discrimination from repressive colonial legislation in Natal,[110] they sought the help of one young lawyer, Mahatma Gandhi to represent the case of a Memon businessman. Umar Hajee Ahmed Jhaveri was consequently elected the first president of the South African Indian Congress.

Indians have played an important role in the anti-apartheid movement of South Africa.[111] Many were incarcerated alongside Nelson Mandela following the Rivonia Trial, and many became martyred fighting to end racial discrimination there. Notable South African Indians of Gujarati heritage include Marxist freedom fighters such as Ahmed Timol (activist),[112] Yusuf Dadoo (activist),[113] Ahmed Kathrada (activist),[114] Amina Cachalia (activist) and Dullah Omar (activist),[115] as well as Ahmed Deedat (missionary), Imran Garda (Al Jazeera English) and Hashim Amla (cricketer).[116]

Sultanate of Oman[edit]

Main article: Indians in Oman

Oman, holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, has been the primary focus of trade and commerce for medieval Gujarati merchants for much of its glorious history and Gujaratis, along with Baloch and Persian seafarers coming from Strait of Hormuz, contributed to the rich dynamic culture, founding and settlement of its capital port city, Muscat.[117] Some of the earliest Indian immigrants to settle in Oman were the Bhatias of Kutch, who have a powerful presence in Oman dating back to the 16th century.[118] At the turn of the 19th century, Gujaratis wielded such immense political clout that Faisal bin Turki, the great-grandfather of the current ruler, spoke Gujarati and Swahili far better than he spoke Arabic[119] and Oman's sultan Syed Said (1791-1856) was persuaded to shift his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar, more than two thousand miles from the Arabian mainland, on the recommendation of Shivji Topan and Bhimji families who lent money to the Sultan.[120] In modern times, business tycoon Kanaksi Khimji, from the famous Khimji family of Gujarat[121] was conferred title of Sheikh by the Sultan, the first ever use of the title for a member of the Hindu community.[122] The Muscati Mahajan is one of the oldest merchants associations founded more than a century ago.[123]


There is a community of Gujarati Muslims in neighbouring areas of the nation of Pakistan, mainly settled in the province of Sindh for generations. A sizable number migrated after the Partition of India and subsequent creation of independent Pakistan in 1947. These Pakistani Gujaratis belong mainly to the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Chundrigar, Charotar Sunni Vohra, Muslim Ghanchi and Memon groups; however, many Gujaratis are also a part of Pakistan's small but vibrant Hindu community.[124] Famous Gujaratis of Pakistan include Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Abdul Sattar Edhi, Jehangir H. Kothari,[125] Javed Miandad,[126] Abdul Gaffar Billoo, Tapu Javeri, Pervez Hoodbhoy,[127] and Ardeshir Cowasjee.[128]

Notable people[edit]

Vikram Sarabhai, first Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and head of India's Department of Atomic Energy, NASA


Notable Gujarati businesspeople include Dhirubhai Ambani, Mukesh Ambani, Anil Ambani, Gautam Adani, Virji Vora, Shantidas Jhaveri, Currimbhoy Ebrahim, Ardeshir Darabshaw Shroff, Cowasji Jehangir Readymoney, Hasmukhbhai Parekh, Nautamlal Bhagavanji Mehta, Nanji Kalidas Mehta, Muljibhai Madhvani, Mayur Madhvani, Meghji Pethraj Shah, Jamsetji Tata, Ratan Tata, Premchand Roychand, Walchand Hirachand, Ambalal Sarabhai, Jagmal Raja Chauhan, Jairam Valjee Chouhan, Fardunjee Marzban, Ashish Thakkar, Sudhir Ruparelia, Azim Premji, Adi Godrej, Cyrus Mistry, Lovji Nusserwanjee Wadia, Nusli Wadia, Uday Kotak, Dilip Shanghvi, Ramanbhai Patel, Adamjee Peerbhoy, J. D. C. Bytco, Hassam Moussa Rawat, Ismail Hasham, Haji Ismail Yusuf, Mohamed Yusuf, Samir Mehta, Sudhir Mehta, Hina Shah, Ranchhodlal Chhotalal, Bharat Desai, D.K. Hindocha,[129] and Kaizad Hansotia.[130]


Some of the most important figures involved in the independence movement were Gujarati. These include Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, and father of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Gujaratis have also been prime ministers of India. They include Morarji Desai, and the current prime minister Narendra Modi. Others involved in Gujarat or Indian National politics include current Gujarat chief minister Anandiben Patel, Rajesh Chudasama, Shaktisinh Gohil, Vitthal Radadiya, Vasanbhai Ahir, Purshottam Solanki, Prabhatsinh Pratapsinh Chauhan, Poonamben Madam, Asifa Khan, Vijay Rupani, Dileep Sanghani, Jayantilal Bhanusali, and Shankar Chaudhary.[131] Gujarati politicians active in other countries include UK politicians Baron Desai, Baron Bilimoria, Baron Popat, Baron Dholakia, Baron Parekh, Shailesh Vara, and Priti Patel, among others as well as American Arun Jhaveri, and Canadian politician Arif Virani.

Social Activists[edit]

Vikram Sarabhai, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Dadabhai Navroji, Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai, Ashoka Mehta, Indulal Yagnik, Sanat Mehta, Ravi Shankar Vyas, Jhaverchand Meghani, Abbas Tyabji, Mahadev Desai, Jayanti Dalal, K.M. Munshi, Jugatram Dave, Odhavram, Shyamji Krishna Varma, S. R. Rana, Bhikaiji Cama

Arts and entertainment[edit]

Women and men performing Garba as part of Navaratri celebrations in the city of Ahmedabad
Mer Dandiya a sword dance performed by the martial communities of Saurashtra

Famous Bollywood veterans of Gujarati heritage include Sohrab Modi,[132] Asha Parekh,[133] Sanjeev Kumar,[134] Jackie Shroff,[135] Parveen Babi,[136]Aditya Pancholi, Dimple Kapadia,[137] Tina Ambani, Farooq Sheikh[138] and Mehtab.[139] Mehboob Khan was a pioneer of Hindi cinema, best known for directing the social epic drama Mother India (1957). As well as film directors such as Mehul Kumar, Mahesh Bhatt and Shreedatt Vyas[140] Indian theatre personalities include Boman Irani, and Alyque Padamsee.[141] Award-winning producer Ismail Merchant, won six Academy Awards in collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions,[142] whereas veteran playback singer Jaykar Bhojak has been performing in the industry for over two decades now.[143] Bollywood actresses Prachi Desai and Ameesha Patel have found fame in recent times.

Manmohan Desai is remembered for casting actors like Raj Kapoor, Babita and Amitabh Bachchan in hit films he directed such as Chhalia, Kismat, and Amar Akbar Anthony, and Babubhai Mistry pioneered the use of special effects in films.[144] Theatre veteran Chhel Vayeda was well known in Hindi cinema for being a popular production designer who designed the sets of over 50 films during his lifetime. Meanwhile, film tycoon Dalsukh Pancholi owned and operated one of the biggest cinema houses in Lahore and launched the careers of Punjabi film stars such as Noor Jehan in undivided India.[145]Wadia Movietone was a noted Indian film production company and studio based in Mumbai, established in 1933 by Wadia brothers J. B. H. Wadia and Homi Wadia, whom were originally from Surat.

Director Chaturbhuj Doshi is today known as was one of the founding fathers of Gujarati cinema. Gujarati films have made artists like Naresh Kanodia, Upendra Trivedi, Snehlata, Raajeev, Roma Maneck, Aruna Irani and Asrani popular in the entertainment industry. Among these dynamic actors, the late Upendra Trivedi who was a leading veteran of Gujarati cinema, made a popular pair with the heroine Snehlata and together they co-acted in more than 70 Gujarati films. Arvind Trivedi by whom the famous character of Ravana was played in Ramanad Sagar's popular TV serial Ramayana is his brother. In recent times, Gujarati drama film releases such as Little Zizou, Kevi Rite Jaish and Premji: Rise of a Warrior were positively received by audiences. Director Sanjay Leela Bhansali has blazed quite a trail in Bollywood with films like Black, Bajirao Mastani, Devdas, and others, while Ketan Mehta's blockbuster hit, Bhavni Bhavai starring Om Puri and Naseeruddin Shah was released to international critical acclaim, and remains one of the best Gujarati films of all time.[146][147][148]

Gujarati TV serials which showcase the traditional culture and lifestyle have made a prominent place in India. Comedy actors such as Paresh Rawal, Sarita Joshi, Urvashi Dholakia, Ketki Dave, Purbi Joshi, Disha Vakani, Dilip Joshi, Deven Bhojani, Rashmi Desai, Satish Shah, Dina Pathak, Ratna Pathak Shah and Supriya Pathak have found a place in audience hearts and are presently the top actors on Indian television. Modern actors of Gujarati heritage who are more versatile include Darshan Pandya,[149] Vatsal Seth,[150] Avinash Sachdev, Esha Kansara,[151] Shrenu Parikh,[152] Amar Upadhyay, Viraf Patel, Ajaz Khan, Sameer Dattani,[153] Karishma Tanna,[154] Drashti Dhami,[155] Disha Savla,[156] Komal Thacker,[157] Vasim Bloch,[158] Parth Oza,[159] Tanvi Vyas, Nisha Rawal, Karan Suchak,[160] Jugal Jethi,[161] Isha Sharvani,[162] Pia Trivedi,[163] Sanjeeda Sheikh[164] Pooja Gor, Payal Rohatgi, Ravish Desai, Shefali Zariwala, and Shenaz Treasurywala.[165]

There are dedicated television channels airing Gujarati programs.

Well known musicians include the internationally acclaimed Vasant Rai, Zubin Mehta - a leading New York Philharmonic Orchestra composer, pop star Alisha Chinai, Darshan Raval,[166] Shekhar Ravjiani,[167] Salim–Sulaiman, sons of Sadruddin Merchant who is veteran composer of the film industry, and ghazal singer Pankaj Udhas who is recipient of the Padma Shri. Famous sports icons of Gujarati heritage include Karsan Ghavri, Deepak Shodhan, Ashok Mankad,[168] Ghulam Guard, Prince Aslam Khan, Rajesh Chauhan, Parthiv Patel, Yusuf Pathan, Irfan Pathan, Cheteshwar Pujara, Manpreet Juneja, Ajay Jadeja, Ravindra Jadeja, Chirag Jani, Munaf Patel, Axar Patel, Kiran More, Ian Dev Singh, and Sheldon Jackson.[169]

Science and technology[edit]

World renowned computer scientist and inventor of SixthSense, Pranav Mistry (Vice President of Research at Samsung), Sam Pitroda (Communication Revolution), and Indian physicist Vikram Sarabhai are Gujarati. Vikram Sarabhai is considered the father of India's space programme, while Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha who is related to the Tata industrial family is the father of India's nuclear science programme. Pioneer Jamsetji Tata who founded Tata Group, India's biggest conglomerate company and devoted his life to four goals: setting up an iron and steel company, a world-class learning institution, a unique hotel and a hydro-electric plant, is the "Father of Indian Industry".[170]


In terms of ancestry, Gujaratis share identical genes with the rest of the Indian populations.

A 2004 Stanford study conducted with a wide sampling from India, found that over 33% of genetic markers in Gujarat were partially of West Eurasian origin, the second highest amongst the sampled group of South Asians with Punjabis at 42%, and Kashmiris at 30%.[171]

mtDNA Haplogroup U7 is found in Iran, the rest of the Near East,[172] the Caucasus,[173] Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan; with extremely low frequencies in neighboring countries Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Iraq. Its frequency peaks at over 12% in Gujarat, 9% in Iran, 9% in Punjab, 6% in Pakistan and 6% in Afghanistan. Elsewhere in India, its frequency is very low (0.00% to 0.90%).[172] Outside of the Near East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Northwestern Indian states, Haplogroup U7 is non-existent. Expansion times and haplotype diversities for the Indian and Near and Middle Eastern U7 mtDNAs are strikingly similar.[172]

The possible homeland of this haplogroup likely spans the coverage of the Near East to Western India.[174]

Some preliminary conclusions from these varying tests support some of the highest degrees of Indian mtDNAs found in Western Asia, supporting a theory of trade contact and migrations out of Gujarat into West Asia.[175]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ CIA Factbook (2014 estimate). SIL Ethnologue cites 46 million native speakers of Gujarati.
  2. ^ "Gujarati only regional language in US census". The Times of India. Sep 3, 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2015. The famous Gujarati poet Ardeshir F Khabardar wrote, 'Jya vase ek Gujarati tyan sada kal Gujarat' (Where there is even one Gujarati, there is a Gujarat forever)..... Census data released earlier this year by the US vindicates the aphorism. The census reveals that the number of Gujarati-speaking people in the US is steadily rising, and the figure now stands at 287,367. 
  3. ^ "Gujarati: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. University Press, Cambridge. p. 208. ISBN 0-521-65279-0. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Temple building is a sign of the growth in numbers and the increased prosperity of the Gujarati immigrants...The two decades between 1950 and 1969 were a heady period of success for the Gujaratis of East Africa... Michael Lyon observed that the Gujaratis acquired a new role in the colonial economics of East Africa, and ultimately a tragic one. They became a privileged racial estate under British protection. The Indian population in Kenya increased from 43,625 in 1931 to 176,613 in 1962... More than 80 percent were Gujaratis. 
  5. ^ "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011, Census Data". Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  6. ^ Bharat Yagnik. "Oman was Gujaratis' first stop in their world sweep". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Oman's capital Muscat was the first home for Gujarati traders away from the subcontinent. The Bhatia community from Kutch was the first among all Gujaratis to settle overseas — relocating to Muscat as early as 1507! The Bhatias' settlement in the Gulf is emphasized by Hindu places of worship, seen there since the 16th century. As historian Makrand Mehta asserts, "Business and culture go together." 
  7. ^ Rita d'Ávila Cachado. "Samosas And Saris:Informal Economies In The Informal City Among Portuguese Hindu Families". Retrieved 4 February 2015. The Hindus in Great Lisbon have similarities with Hindus in the United Kingdom: they are mostly from a Gujarati background and migrated from ex-colonial countries. Yet the colonial system they came from was mostly Portuguese, both in India and in East Africa... Nevertheless, a realistic estimate is that there are about 30,000 Hindus in Portugal. That includes Hindu-Gujaratis, who migrated in the early 1980s, as well as Hindu migrants from all parts of India and Bangladesh, who migrated in the late 1990s. 
  8. ^ "Gujarati of Reunion". Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  9. ^ "Gujarati of Pakistan". Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  10. ^ "Gujarati of Madagascar". Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  11. ^ M. K. Gandhi (2014). Hind Swaraj: Indian Home Rule. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan. Retrieved 11 December 2015. 
  12. ^ Minahan, James B. (2012). Ethnic groups of South Asia and the Pacific : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 1598846590. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Anti-British sentiment led to a strong Gujarati participation in the Indian independence movement. 
  13. ^ Yagnik, Achyut; Sheth, Suchitra (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0144000385. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  14. ^ Bhargava, ed. S.C. Bhatt, Gopal K. (2006). Daman & Diu. Delhi: Kalpaz publ. p. 17. ISBN 81-7835-389-X. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  15. ^ Blank, Jonah. Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity Among the Daudi Bohras. The University of Chicago Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-226-05677-5. Modern-day Mumbai is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, but until the creation of this state in 1960 the city has always been as closely linked to Gujarati culture as it has been to Marathi culture. During most of the colonial period, Gujaratis held the preponderance of economic and political power. 
  16. ^ Raymond Brady Williams. A New Face of Hinduism: The Swaminarayan Religion. Cambridge University Press 1984. p. 170. ISBN 0-521-25454-X. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Rubber Boom Raises Hope Of Repatriates". Counter Currents. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  18. ^ "Gujarat should learn from Kerala - The New Indian Express". Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  19. ^ Edward A. Alpers (1975). Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa. University of California Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-520-02689-6. Retrieved 4 February 2015. In the early 1660s, Surat merchants had 50 ships trading overseas, and the wealthiest of these, Virji Vora had an estate valued at perhaps 8 million rupees... 
  20. ^ Peck, Amelia. Interwoven Globe: The Worldwide Textile Trade, 1500-1800. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-58839-496-5. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Of the Asian trading communities the most successful were the Gujaratis, as witnessed not only by Pires and Barbosa but by a variety of other sources. All confirm that merchants from the Gujarati community routinely held the most senior post open to an expatriate trader, that of shah-bandar (controller of maritime trade). 
  21. ^ Farhat Hasan (2004). State and Locality in Mughal India: Power Relations in Western India, C.1572 - 1730. University Press, Cambridge. p. 42. ISBN 0-521-841 19-4. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Mulla Abdul Ghafur, one of the richest merchants in Surat, his son, Mulla Abdul Hai, was awarded the title of 'umdat-tud-tujjar' (lit. the most eminent merchant) by the imperial court. Shantidas Shahu, a powerful merchant of Surat, was gifted an elephant and robe by the emperor, both things being emblems of imperial sovereignty, that 'symbolized the incorporation of the recipient into his [King's] person as his subordinate, to act in future as an extension of himself. 
  22. ^ Mehta, Makrand (1991). Indian merchants and entrepreneurs in historical perspective : with special reference to shroffs of Gujarat, 17th to 19th centuries. Delhi: Academic Foundation. pp. 21, 27. ISBN 8171880177. Retrieved 29 October 2015. The Gujarat region situated in the western part of India is known for its business activities since ancient times. The region has been agriculturally fertile and it also contains a long sea-coast enabling the merchants to undertake overseas trade. Thevenot held the Gujarati merchants in high esteem. Commending them for their skills in the currency business he states that he saw some 15000 banians in Ispahan, the capital of Persia operating exclusively as money-lenders and sharafs. He compared them with the Jews of Turkey and pointed out that they had their own residential settlements at Basra and Ormuz where they had constructed their temples. 
  23. ^ Kalpana Hiralal. Indian Family Businesses in Natal, 1870 – 1950 (PDF). Natal Society Foundation 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 
  24. ^ Poros, Maritsa V. (2010). Modern Migrations Gujarati Indian Networks in New York and London. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0804775834. However, Gujaratis have been migrating as part of wide-ranging trade diasporas for centuries, long before capitalist development became concentrated in Europe and the United States. 
  25. ^ Vinay Lal. "Diaspora Purana: The Indic Presence in World Culture". Retrieved 22 October 2015. Most historians, even those who have sought to move away from the narratives furnished by the framework of colonial knowledge, are unable to begin their narrative of the Indian diaspora before the nineteenth century, but the Gujaratis had justly established a diasporic presence in the early part of the second millennium. So renowned had the Gujaratis become for their entrepreneurial spirit, commercial networks, and business acumen that a bill of credit issued by a Gujarati merchant would be honored as far as 5,000 miles away merely on the strength of the community's business reputation. They traversed the vast spaces of the Indian Ocean world with confidence, and a Gujarati pilot guided Vasco da Gama's ship to India... Under Portuguese rule the Indian Ocean trading system went into precipitous decline, and not until the nineteenth century did the Gujarati diaspora find a new lease of life. Gujarati traders migrated under the British dispensation in large numbers to Kenya, Tanganyika, South Africa, and Fiji, among other places, and Mohandas Gandhi, himself a Gujarati, has recorded that the early political proceedings of the Indian community in South Africa were conducted in the Gujarati language. In East Africa their presence was so prominent that banknotes in Kenya, before the country acquired independence, had inscriptions in Gujarati. Khojas, or Gujarati Ismailis, flourished and even occupied positions as teachers and educators in Muslim countries around the world. 
  26. ^ Seeing Krishna in America The Hindu Bhakti Tradition of Vallabhacharya in India and Its Movement to the West. McFarland Publishing. 2014. pp. 48, 49. ISBN 9780786459735. Retrieved 24 October 2015. Among Gujaratis, emigration from India has a long history that has also affected Pushtimargiyas. As a seacoast mercantile population, the migration patterns of Gujaratis are ancient and may extend back over two millennia. 
  27. ^ Peggy Levitt. "Towards an Understanding of Transnational Community Forms and Their Impact on Immigrant Incorporation". research & seminars. Retrieved 25 October 2015. In the Indian case, though organizational arrangements encourage U.S. and sending-country involvements, and the community displays high levels of economic and political integration, the goals of participation in home-country groups, the requirements of membership, and the insular social milieu in which participation occurs, reinforces homeland ties. Gujaratis may become the most transnational of groups because they assimilate selectively into the U.S. and maintain strong sending-country attachments 
  28. ^ Jung, Jeffrey Aldford & Naomi Duguid ; photographs by Jeffrey Aldford & Naomi Duguid ; additional photographs by Richard (2005). Mangoes & curry leaves culinary travels through the great subcontinent. New York: Artisan. p. 14. ISBN 9781579655655. Retrieved 24 October 2015. 
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  43. ^ Cordell Crownover. Ultimate Handbook Guide to Muscat : (Oman) Travel Guide. Retrieved 4 February 2015. As an important port-town in the Gulf of Oman, Muscat attracted foreign tradesman and settlers, such as the Persians, the Balochs and Gujaratis. 
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  45. ^ Ababu Minda Yimene (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. pp. 66, 67. ISBN 3-86537-206-6. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Some centuries later, the Gujarati merchants established permanent trading posts in Zanzibar, consolidating their influence in the Indian Ocean... Gujarati Muslims, and their Omani partners, engaged in a network of mercantile activities among Oman, Zanzibar and Bombay. Thanks to those mercantile Gujarati, India remained by far the principal trading partner of Zanzibar. 
  46. ^ Irfan Habib. Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500. p. 166. ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1. Retrieved 4 February 2015. In the Persian Gulf, Hurmuz (Hormuz), was the most important entrepot for the international exchange for goods which were either bartered or purchased with money. The rise of Hurmuz in the thirteenth century followed the decline of the neighbouring entrepot of Qays, where there was a community of Gujarati Bohra merchants 
  47. ^ Paul R. Magocsi. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 631. ISBN 0-8020-2938-8. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Gujarat's proximity to the Arabian Sea has been responsible for the ceaseless mercantile and maritime activities of its people. Through the ports of Gujarat, some of which date back to the dawn of history, trade and commerce flourished, and colonizers left for distant lands. 
  48. ^ Chidanand Rajghatta. "Global Gujaratis: Now in 129 nations". The economic times. Retrieved 21 October 2015. A lot of the spread worldwide took place after a pit-stop in East Africa, right across the sea from Gujarat. When Idi Amin turfed out some 100,000 Indians (mostly Gujaratis) from Uganda in 1972, most of them descended on Britain before peeling off elsewhere. 
  49. ^ Premal Balan & Kalpesh Damor. "Thanks to NRIs, 3 small Gujarat villages each have Rs 2,000cr bank deposits". the times of india. Retrieved 26 October 2015. No wonder bank hoardings flashing interest rates for NRI deposits (up to 10%) is a common sight in these villages. "Some villages in Kutch like Madhapar and Baladia have very high NRI deposits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest in the country," said K C Chippa, former convener of the State Level Banker's Committee (SLBC) Gujarat. Between them, Madhapar, Baladia and Kera have 30 bank branches and 24 ATMs. 
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  55. ^ Chitra Unnithan (May 23, 2012). "Family is key to success of Gujarati businessmen in Britain". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 February 2015. British Gujaratis were also more successful than other minority communities in Britain because they had already tasted success in Africa. The book also says that Gujarati Hindus have become notably successful public citizens of contemporary, capitalistic Britain; on the other hand, they maintain close family links with India. "British Gujaratis have been successful in a great variety of fields. Many younger Gujaratis took to professions rather than stay behind the counter of their parents' corner shops, or they entered public life, while those who went into business have not remained in some narrow commercial niche," says the book. 
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  82. ^ "Savan Kotecha, Songwriter". Retrieved 24 October 2015. I come from a pretty traditional Gujarati family and that made getting into the music business pretty tricky. My parents like most Indian parents, wanted me to go to Uni and be a Doctor or Lawyer. That meant I was on my own for the most part as far as figuring out how to 'make it'. It also gave me something to prove which made me work extra hard. 
  83. ^ "Movers and shakers". india today. Retrieved 6 February 2015. "We are close to our extended families in Ahmedabad and Mumbai and grew up with Gujarati culture as a predominant influence in our lives.... The Gujarati community has done it all in the US — from doctors to entrepreneurs, from retail to the hospitality industry. 
  84. ^ "Stereotypes are very hard to escape: Noureen DeWulf". Zee News India. Retrieved 6 February 2015. DeWulf, a Gujarati Muslim by origin, has carved out a successful career for herself in Hollywood and her repertoire includes Hollywood films like `West Bank Story` and `Ghosts of Girlfriends Past` besides TV shows `Maneater`, `90210` and `Girlfriends`. 
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  88. ^ Ajit Jain. "'Gujarati diaspora integral to state's success'". Retrieved 22 October 2015. According to him "It was a very warm discussion. PM Modi knows Canada well because we have been such active participants in Vibrant Gujarat for over 18 years now. He also knows very well how strong the Gujarati diaspora is in Canada. It may be up to one quarter of all the Indo-Canadians in this country, and so their success has been part of Gujarat's success." And "the prime minister (of India) recognizes that," Alexander stated emphatically. 
  89. ^ "Zain Verjee – Atlanta, Georgia". Retrieved 7 December 2015. Verjee also has produced successful radio campaigns spreading awareness of HIV/AIDS, road safety and violence against women. Her community efforts include work with Street Children and with Operation Smile. Verjee received her undergraduate degree in English from McGill University in Montreal and studied at York University in Canada. She speaks Gujarati, Kiswahili and conversational French. 
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  92. ^ "Canada’s Prime Minister Stephen Harper is not a real Evangelical Christian". the Retrieved 7 December 2015. Jaffer, who is an Ismaili Muslim of Gujarati origin, became Canada’s youngest non-white MP at the age of 25 in 1997. He served four terms till his loss in the 2008 parliamentary elections. 
  93. ^ "Omar Sachedina". Retrieved 7 December 2015. Sachedina speaks French, Gujarati, and Kutchi. He enjoys travelling, music, and sampling food from around the world 
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  97. ^ Parth Shastri. "US researcher looks for Gujarati influence in Kenya and East Africa". the times of india. Retrieved 28 October 2015. During British ascendancy, the early Gujarati-speaking traders were predominantly Muslims—Khoja, Bhora, and Ithna Asheri. They were quickly followed by Patel, Lohana, Bhatia and Oshawal. "Community was a major factor. It both energized Indian identity and simultaneously prevented Indians from coming together as a political whole except in times of dire crisis," Misha says. 
  98. ^ "Forbes India Magazine – Experiences of the Indian Diaspora in Africa". 26 August 2009. 
  99. ^ "The rise and rise of Kenya's silent billionaires at NSE". Business daily Africa. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Baloobhai Patel, a director of Pan Africa Insurance, is invariably listed as one of the largest individual shareholders of more than 10 companies on the Nairobi bourse. The 75-year-old has major interests in Pan Africa Insurance, Barclays, Bamburi, DTB, Mumias Sugar, and Safaricom currently valued at Sh2.4 billion. 
  100. ^ "Vimal replaced on Forbes list of Africa's 50 richest people". Business daily Africa. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  101. ^ Maybe he is a Patel, I hear Indian … at Kenyan Entrepreneur
  102. ^ Saeed Khan. "Gujaratis brought glory to East Africa". Times of India. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Historian Makrand Mehta credits Gujaratis' contribution for the success of this project. He describes how A M Jeevanji, a Dawoodi Bohra from Kutch, got labour contract for the project. 
  103. ^ Bharat Yagnik,. "Non-Resident Gujaratis build Rs 100cr hospital in Nairobi". the times of India. Retrieved 1 November 2015. Even as the India-Africa Forum Summit 2015 kicked off celebrating Indo-Africa ties, the Kutchi Leuva Patel Samaj settled in Kenya is building a super-speciality charitable hospital at the cost of Rs 100 crore in Nairobi to gift a state-of-art healthcare facility to locals...Lakshman Raghwani, a Nairobi-based contractor and community leader, said the community is running a school for 22 years in Nairobi that has over 3,000 Indian and Kenyan students. "The hospital is an extension of our engagement with the local community.Two other major hospitals on national level - MP Shah Hospital in Nairobi and Agha Khan Hospital in Mombasa - also have Gujarati connection," he said. 
  104. ^ Bharat Yagnik,. "From assistant priest to Kenya's steel tycoon". the times of India. Retrieved 1 November 2015. He has earned the sobriquet 'Guru' amongst his peers in Kenya. With a net worth of $650 million, Gujarati steel tycoon Narendra Raval (53) of Devki Group is one of the wealthiest businessmen of Kenya today. Narendra Raval, through his pragmatic business ideologies and philanthropy, aims to transform the once-hostile perception of Africans about Indian businessmen. His company employs 98% staff from local Kenyan and African populace and also runs many orphanages and schools for the underprivileged. 
  105. ^ "Ugandan Asians are part of Britain's secret weapon for success". Retrieved 28 October 2015. In 1997, Ugandan President Museveni invited the displaced Asians to return home. And while some returned to sort out their affairs, very few went back for good. 
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  107. ^ "Out of Africa: Thousands of Ismaili Muslims expelled from their African homelands in the 1970s have thrived in Canada". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 28 October 2015. Through the efforts of the Aga Khan, other countries agreed to take in the refugees, and they were scattered over the world. Britain took in 20,000, the U.S. took 50,000, and 75,000 came to Canada... Ladha said Canada's role in taking in the refugees has earned the praise of the Aga Khan for its treatment of refugees and its multiculturalism. "The Aga Khan is a great admirer of Canada's multicultural polices," said Ladha. As a result, he's putting $4 million toward a global centre for pluralism in Ottawa, with the Canadian government providing $3 million.. 
  108. ^ Anna Greenwood; Harshad Topiwala (2015). Indian Doctors in Kenya, 1895-1940: The Forgotten History Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 25. The Gujaratis comprised a large number of the traders drawn from the Western Indian port province of Gujarat (including Kutch) who had had long historical trading links with Zanzibar. Their presence meant that from very early on Zanzibar became demographically colonised by a religiously and ethnically diverse Gujarati speaking population of Ismaili Khojas, Bhoras, Suni Memons, Hindu Vaniyas and the Parsis. Frustratingly for historians this group of immigrants left few records, but it is widely agreed that they were the ancestors of the communities of Indian traders that the British encountered when they arrived in Zanzibar and the East Coast of Africa at the end of the nineteenth century. 
  109. ^ Robin David (July 4, 2010). "Rainbow Nation's colourful Indians". Times of India. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Gujaratis of Durban, who came to South Africa mainly from Surat and Saurashtra, have gone a step further and are keeping their unique Gujarati identity alive as well. Most of them arrived as traders soon after the first Indian labourers were brought in to work on sugarcane fields in the 1860s and have carved out a unique niche for themselves. 
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  117. ^ Willem Floor. "The Persian Gulf: Muscat – City, Society and Trade". Mage Publishers. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Muscat, the capital city of present day Oman, has had a long, and colorful history as a typical Indian Ocean port at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. International trade brought about a rich mix of various ethnic and religious groups including, besides Arabs, Africans, Baluchis, Mekranis, Sindis, Gujaratis, Persians and many others. At the turn of the twentieth century fourteen languages could be heard spoken in the city. 
  118. ^ Khalid M. Al-Azri (2013). Social and Gender Inequality in Oman: The Power of Religious and Political Tradition. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-415-67241-2. Retrieved 5 February 2015. Hindus had settled in Oman by the sixteenth century, and from at least the early nineteenth century Omani commerce and trade has been conducted by Hindu Banyans of Bhatia caste deriving from Kutch in Gujarat. 
  119. ^ Hugh Eakin (August 14, 2014). "In the Heart of Mysterious Oman". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  120. ^ Bharat Yagnik (Jan 3, 2015). "Oman was Gujaratis' first stop in their world sweep". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  121. ^ Marc Valeri (2009). Oman : politics and society in the Qaboos state. London: C. Hurst. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-85065-933-4. Retrieved 5 February 2015. One of these families is another Banyan one, known today as Khimji, whose ancestor came to Oman around 1870 from Gujarat. The family business grew during the Second World War, when it became the Sultan's most important contractor: the Khimji group was the exclusive supplier of the royal palace, and was granted the monopoly and distribution of food products in the Dhofar region. 
  122. ^ Runa Mukherjee Parikh (May 11, 2013). "World's only Hindu Sheikh traces his roots to Gujarat". The Times of India. Retrieved 5 February 2015. "We see achievements as milestones in the quest for excellence. We just want to be the best," says the 77-year-old tycoon, Kanaksi Khimji. Not sales and volumes, Khimji believes that the most important measure of success for his family's business is how far it has helped advance the national development plans laid out by Oman's Sultan Qaboos bin Said. In fact, Khimji with his Indian roots was one of the first to embrace Omanisation, a directive to train and empower Omani professionals. Such a rare honour makes Khimji the most distinguished Indian in this Middle Eastern country. 
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  130. ^ "Gurkha Gold". G2 : The Global Gujarati. Retrieved 23 October 2015. Until 1988, Gurkha was a brand of low-cost Indian cigars owned by a company based in Goa. A Bombay-born Parsi, Kaizad Hansotia (whose surname traces its origins to a small village in Gujarat called Hansot) living in the US bought the brand from a Portuguese gentleman while on vacation in Goa. It was an impulse buy but the purpose behind it was simple: to have a unique gift to present to the customers of the Hansotia family's watch company. "I bought over the man's entire cigar stock and brand name which was Gurkha, for $143! At that time they had a dying company, so I decided to buy them out and infuse some life into it," Kaizad says. 
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  134. ^ "'Sanjeev Kumar had no ego, Ashok Kumar had a feminine voice'". Retrieved 6 February 2015. People think from my surname Varma that I am Punjabi. But I belong to Kutch so I speak Gujarati and Kutchi. Sanju and I got along well. We spoke in Gujarati on the sets and we ate the same kind of food. 
  135. ^ Priya Gupta. "I am reckless: Jackie Shroff". Times of India. Retrieved 6 February 2015. My father Kakabhai Haribhai Shroff was an astrologer. My father was a Gujarati and my mom Turkish. My mom came from Kazakhstan, where there was a coup and she, along with six sisters and my nani, came down all the way down to Ladakh where they slept on a chatai on ice, down to Delhi and then Mumbai where she met my dad and they got married. My dad was from a wealthy pearl trader's family 
  136. ^ "Parveen Babi Biography". Retrieved 6 February 2015. Parveen Babi was born as Parveen Wali Mohammad Khan Babi to Gujarati Muslim family on April 4, 1949 in the Junagadh district 
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  141. ^ "The Alyque Padamsee brand of life". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 January 2015. I was born into riches: Ours was a Kutchi business family. My father, Jafferseth, owned 10 buildings and also ran a glassware business. My mother, Kulsumbai Padamsee, ran a furniture business. Anything I wanted was there for the asking. We were eight children in all but I, being born after three daughters, was pampered most. Among Gujarati families, it was only the Padamsees and the royal house of Rajpipla. At school, I learnt to speak in English. Later, our parents learnt the language from us. All that I am today is because of what I learnt at school. Miss Murphy, who ran the school, was an inspirational figure for me. 
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  149. ^ Amrita Mulchandani. "Looks matter the most in TV: Darshan Pandya". the times of india. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Looking dapper in the cool denims and hooded jacket, actor Darshan Pandya managed to turn quite a few heads as he struck poses at the River Front during his recent trip to Ahmedabad. The actor, who came into the limelight for his impressive performance in his debut TV show 'Aapki Antara' has been in the news for his recent endeavour in 'Kya Huaa Tera Vaada' where he played Vineet until recently. In town for a personal visit, Darshan says, "I have come here for few days as my parents and sister live here. I watched a film and enjoyed some lovely food in various restaurants in the city." 
  150. ^ "Huma Qureshi tweets for Vatsal Sheth". Times of India. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Gujarati actor Vatsal Sheth is back on the small screen with a bang! 
  151. ^ "TV stars' Navratri musings". Times of India. Retrieved 7 February 2015. ESHA KANSARA: Being a Gujarati, Navratri is a festival that's very close to my heart. I simply love the vibrancy this festival brings with it. 
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  154. ^ "Upen Patel proposes Karishma Tanna inside Bigg Boss, her craze is rising outside!". Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  155. ^ Amrita Mulchandani. "Link-up rumours don't really bother me: Drashti Dhami". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 January 2015. Chirpy, Dhrasti Dhami exudes great energy not just on the small screen, but insists she is the same in real life too. Dhrasti has a strong Gujarat connect and is proud of her roots. "I am a very proud Gujarati. I have lots of relatives in Surat, but it's been quite some time since I have been there. I came to Ahmedabad as a child, but haven't visited the city for some time," she says. 
  156. ^ Ano Patel. "Gujaratis take the lead on prime time TV". Times of India. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Hometown: Kutch. As the nagging wife Bobby in Neeli Chhatri Wale, Disha Savla has made quite an impression, and shares screen space with Yashpal Sharma. The actress who hails from Kutch has been part of a number of plays in Mumbai and has also done a Gujarati show on TV. Making her debut on Hindi TV, she says, "The Gujarati show has prepared me for taking this next step. It is a very different concept so I hope this show clicks with the audience." 
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  160. ^ Ano Patel. "Gujaratis take the lead on prime time TV". Times of India. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Karan Suchak Hometown: Ahmedabad. After playing character roles in Ek Hazaaron Mein Meri Behna Hai, Savitri and Pavitra Rishta, Karan shot to fame as Dhrishtadyumna in Mahabharat. Now playing Raja Vikramaditya in Singhasan Battisi, Karan says, "I was born in Ahmedabad and I am a Gujarati. It's only been a few months for me in this industry and it has been a busy journey, I hope it remains that way." 
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  162. ^ "Isha Sharvani: I call myself a global Gujarati". Times of India. Retrieved 7 February 2015. Actress-danseuse Isha Sharvani who was in Vadodara to perform at a mega art and culture festival, says, "My mother is a Gujarati and I have very fond memories of Gujarat. 
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  166. ^ Abhimanyu Mishra. "Darshan Rawal enters the final four on reality show". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 April 2015. Darshan Rawal has been quite a sensation with his signature style singing and an adorable personality which has won him many fans. 
  167. ^ "Not thought of acting as of now: Shekhar". Times of India. Retrieved 8 February 2015. I belong to Jamnagar but my mother has many friends in Ahmedabad. I miss eating ice-candies and listening to Gujarati folk music during Navratri. I want to travel to the interiors of Gujarat and some places in Kutch, and interact with the local musicians who compose on those rare musical instruments. What attracts me is the strong folk music heritage that Gujarat has kept alive after so many years. 
  168. ^ "Cricketers have become too aggressive: Gavaskar". the times of India. Retrieved 19 November 2015. Sunil Gavaskar had the audience in splits when he said how he learnt Gujarati. "We had two Gujaratis, Ashok Mankad and Karsan Ghavri, in Mumbai team and others were Maharashtrians. Mankad and Ghavri used to murder Marathi so we said that we will learn Gujarati. 'Mane pan thodu Gujarati aavde che'," said Gavaskar to an amused audience. 
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  175. ^ Metspalu, M; Kivisild, T; Metspalu, E; Parik, J; Hudjashov, G; Kaldma, K; Serk, P; Karmin, M; Behar, DM; Gilbert, MT; Endicott, P; Mastana, S; Papiha, SS; Skorecki, K; Torroni, A; Villems, R (31 August 2004). "Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in south and southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans.". BMC genetics 5: 26. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-5-26. PMC 516768. PMID 15339343. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Jhaveri, Krishanlal Mohanlal (ed.) (2003). The Gujaratis: The People, Their History, and Culture. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications. .