Gujranwala

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Gujranwala
گوجرانوالا
City District / Divisional Capital
PSX 20140925 153352.jpg
Gujranwala is located in Pakistan
Gujranwala
Gujranwala
Location in Pakistan
Coordinates: 32°9′N 74°11′E / 32.150°N 74.183°E / 32.150; 74.183Coordinates: 32°9′N 74°11′E / 32.150°N 74.183°E / 32.150; 74.183
Country Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Gujranwala District
Autonomous towns 7
Union councils 19
Area
 • Total 3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 2,723,009
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
Postal code 52250
Area code(s) 055

Gujranwala (Punjabi, Urdu: گوجرانوالا‎) is an industrial city in Punjab province of Pakistan. Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level[2] and is the seventh-most-populous of the Pakistani metropolitan areas.[3]

History

Old photo of low, round building with trees, a man and a horse in front
District Court House, 1865

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Gujranwala was founded by the Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sherzai Jats of Iran who settled there; however, its old name has survived.[4] Many historians also note that the place was named for the Gurjars[5] who ruled the Gurjara-Pratihara.

Baradari in Sheranwala Bagh.

In 630, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), near present-day Gujranwala; a mound near the contemporary village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north (Including region of present-day Gujranwala) remained under Rajput rule until 1193.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire ruled Gujranwala. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. Gujranwala became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city.[4] Ranjit Singh, also born there, became the powerful of the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with building the "new" Gujranwala.[6]

The area was captured by the British Empire in 1848. In 1881, a railway line was built along the Grand Trunk Road to connect Gujranwala with other cities in the Punjab, facilitating trade. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867, and the North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India, such as Calcutta and Karachi.[4] Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 Indian census, was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was the octroi (Rs. 59,700).[4]

Geography and climate

Long, two-story building with towerpunjab group of colleges
University of the Punjab Gujranwala campus

Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level, sharing borders with Ghakhar Mandi and several towns and villages. About 80 kilometres (50 mi) south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber, Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir, and Silakot connects it with Jammun. About 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest is Faisalabad. To its west are Hafizabad and Pindi Bhattian, which connect Gujranwala to Jhang, Chiniot and Sargodha.

Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh),[7] according to the Köppen-Geiger system, and changes throughout the year. During summer (June to September), the temperature reaches 36–42 °C (97–108 °F). The coldest months are usually November to February, when the temperature can drop to an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest-precipitation months are usually July and August, when the monsoon reaches the Punjab. During the other months, the average rainfall is about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). The driest months are usually November to April, with little rainfall.[8]

Climate data for Gujranwala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
22.1
(71.8)
27.4
(81.3)
33.7
(92.7)
39
(102)
40.8
(105.4)
36.1
(97)
34.6
(94.3)
35
(95)
33
(91)
27
(81)
21.2
(70.2)
30.75
(87.34)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
15
(59)
20.3
(68.5)
26
(79)
31
(88)
33.8
(92.8)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.5
(85.1)
25.4
(77.7)
18.6
(65.5)
13.4
(56.1)
23.9
(75.05)
Average low °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
8
(46)
13.3
(55.9)
18.4
(65.1)
23.1
(73.6)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
25.9
(78.6)
24
(75)
17.8
(64)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
17.12
(62.75)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31
(1.22)
30
(1.18)
29
(1.14)
18
(0.71)
19
(0.75)
46
(1.81)
147
(5.79)
168
(6.61)
65
(2.56)
9
(0.35)
5
(0.2)
14
(0.55)
581
(22.87)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m[7]

Economy

According to a GCCI estimate, 5,000 small and medium enterprises and 16,000 cottage units, along with a few large factories, are located in the city.[9][10]

References in popular culture

In January 2016, Thai artist Navin Rawanchaikul launched Postcards from Dubai at Art Stage Singapore which involved the distribution of white T-shirts with "GUJRANWALA Here you are!" printed on them in Punjabi and Urdu. Rawanchaikul traces his ancestry to Gujranwala and in 2013, had been stopped in Dubai while wearing the T-shirt by a security guard who came from the same city. Rawanchaikul stated, "I hope that these T-shirts will lead me to yet another destiny where we can all share our complex stories, identities and journeys in today’s fragmented world, wherever we are from."[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/V_26_No_2_9Dr.%20Asad%20Ali%20Khan.pdf
  2. ^ Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
  3. ^ "Population size and growth of major cities" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 1998. Retrieved June 11, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
  5. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64. . 
  6. ^ Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
  7. ^ a b "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  8. ^ Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
  9. ^ http://www.dawn.com/news/1143243
  10. ^ http://gbc.org.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49&Itemid=18
  11. ^ Cheah, Ui-Hoon (22 January 2016). "Art stage expands its sights". Singapore Press Holdings. The Business Times. Retrieved 27 January 2016. 

External links