|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2015)|
Nishan-e-Manzil in the Gujranwala cantonment
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Population (August 14, 2014)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Gujranwala (Punjabi, Urdu: گوجرانوالا) also known as the "City of Wrestlers" (Palwana da shehr in Punjabi) is an industrial city in Gujranwala District, Punjab province of Pakistan. It is the seventh-most-populous Pakistani metropolitan areas, and is one of the fastest-growing cities in Pakistan.[better source needed] Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi, Alipur Chatha, Kamonke and several small towns and villages.
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Gujranwala was founded by the Gurjars and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jatts of Amritsar who settled there; however, its old name has survived. Many historians also note that the place was named for the Gurjars who ruled the Gurjara-Pratihara.
In 630, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan Tsang visited a town known as Tse-kia (or Taki), near present-day Gujranwala; a mound near the contemporary village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. From the beginning of the 7th century Rajput kingdoms dominated Eastern portions of Pakistan and northern India. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of some western Punjab region. Eastern Regions of Punjab from Multan to the Rawalpindi in north (Including region of present-day Gujranwala) remained under Rajput rule until 1193. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire later ruled the region The Punjab became predominantly Muslim, due to missionary Sufits whose dargahs dot the landscape.Gujranwala evolved as a medieval town, and Sufi missionaries converted the local Gurjar population to Islam. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known about Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore was the chief city. The district gazetteer dates the name "Gujranwala" to about the mid-16th century.
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire ruled Gujranwala. The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. Gujranwala became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh, who were born in the city. Ranjit Singh, also born there, became the powerful of the Sikh rulers. Hari Singh Nalwa, military commander of the Sikh army, was credited with building the "new" Gujranwala.
The area was captured by the British Empire in 1848. In 1881, a railway line was built along the Grand Trunk Road to connect Gujranwala with other cities in the Punjab, facilitating trade. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867, and the North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India, such as Calcutta and Karachi. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 Indian census, was 29,224. In 1903 and 1904, income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was the octroi (Rs. 59,700).
Geography and climate
Gujranwala is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level, sharing borders with Ghakhar Mandi and several towns and villages. About 80 kilometres (50 mi) south is the provincial capital, Lahore. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north. Gujrat connects Gujranwala with Bhimber, Mirpure Azad Jammun and Kashmir, and Silakot connects it with Jammun. About 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest is Faisalabad. To its west are Hafizabad and Pindi Bhattian, which connect Gujranwala to Jhang, Chiniot and Sargodha.
Gujranwala has a hot semi-arid climate (BSh), according to the Köppen-Geiger system, and changes throughout the year. During summer (June to September), the temperature reaches 36–42 °C (97–108 °F). The coldest months are usually November to February, when the temperature can drop to an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest-precipitation months are usually July and August, when the monsoon reaches the Punjab. During the other months, the average rainfall is about 25 millimetres (0.98 in). The driest months are usually November to April, with little rainfall.
|Climate data for Gujranwala|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.2
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||31
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 225m|
Gujranwala District (previously composed of five tehsils: Gujranwala City, Gujranwala Sadar, Kamonki, Nowshehra Virkan and Wazirabad) has become the Gujranwala City District, made up of the following towns:
- Gujranwala Division
- Gujranwala Electric Power Company
- List of educational institutions in Gujranwala
- List of people from Gujranwala
- "Population size and growth of major cities" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 1998. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Location of Gujranwala – Falling Rain Genomics
- Gujrānwāla Town – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
- Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64.
- Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
- "Climate: Gujranwala – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala – Monthly Averages
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- Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry
- Article on Gujranwala from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica