Gujrat, Pakistan

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Gujrat


گُجرات
Eid Gah Gujrat.jpg
Mosque in Gujrat Pakistan.JPG
Chale sharif Tomb project.jpg
MohriSharif.jpg
Gujrat is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Gujrat
Gujrat
Gujrat is located in Pakistan
Gujrat
Gujrat
Coordinates: 32°34′26″N 74°4′44″E / 32.57389°N 74.07889°E / 32.57389; 74.07889Coordinates: 32°34′26″N 74°4′44″E / 32.57389°N 74.07889°E / 32.57389; 74.07889
CountryPakistan
ProvincePunjab
DistrictGujrat
Government
 • Deputy CommissionerDr. Khurram Shehzad
 • District Police OfficerTauseef Haider
Population
 (2017)[1]
 • Total390,533
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
Calling code053
Number of Union councils18[2]

Gujrat (Punjabi, Urdu: گُجرات‎), is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan.[3] It is the capital of Gujrat District and the 20th largest city of Pakistan.[2] Along with the nearby cities of Sialkot and Gujranwala, Gujrat forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies.[4][5]

History[edit]

The area around Gujrat was settled during the Sher Shah Suri period, immediately prior to Mughal rule.[6] The area was named Khwaspur,[6] in honour of Suri's Governor of Rohtas, Khwas Khan. Local traditions state that Gujrat is the second town to be built in the area, with the first having been destroyed by Mongol invasions in 1303.[7]

The city was further developed during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar, who built the Gujrat Fort in 1580,[8] and compelled local Gujjars to settle in the city in 1596-97.[6][9] The city was then named in reference to the Gujjar tribes.[6] In 1605, the city Syed Abdul Kasim was granted the city as a fief by Akbar.[6]

During the reign of Emperor Jahangir, Gujrat was part of the route used by Mughal royals when visiting Kashmir.[10] Gujrat's most famous saint, Shah Daula, is credited with having saved Gujrat from the wrath of Sikh Guru Hargobind when he stayed in the city upon his return from Kashmir in 1620.[9] During the Mughal era, Gujrat was encircled by a wall with 5 gates, of which only the Shah Daula gate survives.[11]

Gujrats's Alexandria bridge spans the Chenab River, and was built during the British era

Following the decline of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the region's security situation declined. Gujrat was sacked by Afsharid Persian Emperor Nader Shah during his invasion of the Mughal Empire.[6] Shortly afterwards in 1741, the city was captured by Gakhar tribes from near the Rawalpindi area.[7] The city further suffered from the invasions of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the mid 1700s.[6]

In 1765, the city was overrun by the Bhangi Sikhs under Sardar GujjGujaratiar Singh.[7] The Sikhs defeated an Afghan force in a battle for Gujrat on 29 April 1797.[12] In 1798, the Bhangi leader Sahib Singh pledged allegiance to the Sukerchakia Misl of Ranjit Singh.[6] In 1810, Ranjit Singh's armies captured the city from Bhangi forces, thereby extending the rule of the Sikh Empire to the city.[6]

Gujrat finally came under British influence in 1849, following the collapse of the Sikh Empire in the wake of the Sikh's defeat at the Battle of Gujrat on 22 February, which ended the Second Anglo-Sikh War.[6] In 1867, Gujrat was constituted as a municipality.[8]

Geography[edit]

Gujrat is an ancient city of Pakistan located between two famous rivers, Jhelum River and Chenab River. It is bounded to the northeast by Jammu and Kashmir, to the northwest by the Jhelum River, to the east and southeast by the Chenab River, separating it from the districts of Gujranwala and Sialkot; and to the west by Mandi Bahauddin District. Gujrat consists of three Tehsils which are Sarai Alamgir, Kharian and Gujrat.

Climate[edit]

Gujrat has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh).

Climate data for Gujrat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
22.1
(71.8)
27.4
(81.3)
33.7
(92.7)
39.1
(102.4)
41.1
(106.0)
36.3
(97.3)
34.6
(94.3)
35.1
(95.2)
33.1
(91.6)
27.2
(81.0)
21.2
(70.2)
30.8
(87.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
15.1
(59.2)
20.3
(68.5)
26
(79)
31.1
(88.0)
34
(93)
31.4
(88.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.4
(84.9)
25.3
(77.5)
18.7
(65.7)
13.5
(56.3)
24.0
(75.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
8.1
(46.6)
13.3
(55.9)
18.4
(65.1)
23.2
(73.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
25.8
(78.4)
23.8
(74.8)
17.6
(63.7)
10.2
(50.4)
5.8
(42.4)
17.1
(62.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
21
(0.8)
19
(0.7)
47
(1.9)
182
(7.2)
205
(8.1)
83
(3.3)
12
(0.5)
5
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
703
(27.8)
Source: https://en.climate-data.org/location/964104/

References[edit]

  1. ^ "DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Gujrat – Government of Pakistan". Archived from the original on 14 February 2009.
  3. ^ Google maps. "Location of Gujrat". Google maps. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  4. ^ Mehmood, Mirza, Faisal; Ali, Jaffri, Atif; Saim, Hashmi, Muhammad (21 April 2014). An assessment of industrial employment skill gaps among university graduates: In the Gujrat-Sialkot-Gujranwala industrial cluster, Pakistan. Intl Food Policy Res Inst. p. 2.
  5. ^ Naz, Neelum. "Historical Perspective of Urban Development of Gujranwala". Dept. of Architecture, UET, Lahore. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 12, page 365 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Americanized Encyclopaedia Britannica: Rev. and Amended A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature, to which is Added Biographies of Living Subjects. 96 Colored Maps and Numerous Illustrations. Belford-Clarke Company. 1890.
  8. ^ a b "Gujrat | Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b Malhotra, Anshu; Mir, Farina (21 February 2012). Punjab Reconsidered: History, Culture, and Practice. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199088775.
  10. ^ Bhat, Muzaffar (22 September 2017). "The Mughal road to Srinagar". The Friday Times. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  11. ^ "Last vestige of Mughal era in Gujrat | ePaper | DAWN.COM". epaper.dawn.com. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  12. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313335389.