Hoe (food)

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Korea style raw fish.jpg
Korean name
Revised Romanization hoe
McCune–Reischauer hoe

Hoe (Korean pronunciation: [hwe̞]) refers to several varieties of raw food dishes in Korean cuisine. Saengseon hoe[1] (생선회) or "Hwareo hoe" (활어회) is thinly sliced raw fish or other raw seafood (similar to Japanese sashimi). Yukhoe (육회) is made of raw beef[2] seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil, and rice wine, while gan hoe (간회) is raw beef liver with a sauce of sesame oil and salt.

Saengseon hoe is sometimes called sashimi (사시미), a Japanese loanword in use despite efforts to remove loanwords from the Korean language.[3][4]

Fish hoe is usually dipped in a spicy gochujang-based sauce called chogochujang (초고추장) or Ssamjang (쌈장), and wrapped in lettuce and Korean perilla leaves.

When people finish a meal of saengseon hoe at a restaurant, they sometimes order maeuntang (spicy fish stew, from the fish heads and remaining meat) together with various vegetables.


Historians assume the tradition of eating hoe was imported from China to Korea during early in the Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC-668 AD), facilitated by frequent exchanges between China and Korea on the Korean peninsula. According to the Confucian Analects, written in the 1st century BC, Confucius said "Do not shun rice that is well clean; do not shun kuai that is thinly sliced" (食不厭精,膾不厭細).[5] While the term kuai () originally referred to finely sliced raw fish or other meats such as beef or lamb, since the Qing and Han Dynasties it has referred mainly to raw fish.

With the popularization of Buddhism in Korea, beginning in the middle of the Three Kingdoms Period, and running late into the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392), the consumption of fish and other meat products (including hoe) declined. As the influence of Buddhism waned in the late Goryeo Dynasty period, the consumption of hoe began to lose its stigma.

During the Joseon Dynasty, the state promoted Confucianism, and, as Confucius was known to have enjoyed eating raw meat, hoe consumption greatly increased.[6]

Today, the consumption of raw meat or seafood in Chinese cuisine is rare outside of a few regions, such as Chaozhou where dishes such as yusheng are popular.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "LX F&B Akamatsu (아까마쯔)". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2013-04-05. 
  2. ^ "Yukhweh". South China Morning Post. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 5 April 2013. 
  3. ^ "Refined word (purified word) Sashimi[사시미]". Government and Media Loanword Joint Review Committee [정부.언론외래어심의공동위원회].
    To be purified and standardized word: Sashimi [순화 및 표준화 대상어 사시미]
    Purified and standardized word: Saengseonhoe (순화어 및 표준화 용어 생선회)
    Original word: Sashimi (刺身)
    Remarks (purified history): National Language purification information first collection(1977) Saengseonhoe (x: Use the purified word) [참고 사항(순화 이력 등) 국어순화자료 제1집(1977) - 생선회 (×: 순화한 용어만 쓸 것)]
  4. ^ "[우리말 바루기] '사시미'는 '생선회'로 [Sashimi as Saengseonhoe]". Joongang Ilbo. December 29, 2008. 
  5. ^ http://www.afpc.asso.fr/wengu/wg/wengu.php?no=248&l=Lunyu
  6. ^ Kim Hak-min (김학민) (2003-07-16). 공자 사모님 힘드셨겠네 (in Korean). The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 

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