Örüg Temür Khan

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Örüg Temür Khan (Gulichi)
Khagan of the Mongols
Emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty
Reign 1402–1408
Coronation 1402
Predecessor Gün Temür Khan
Successor Öljei Temür Khan
Died 1408
House Torghud or House of Ogedei(?) of the Borjigin
Dynasty Northern Yuan

Örüg Temür (Chinese: 兀雷帖木兒汗) or Gulichi[1] (Chinese: 鬼力赤) was a Mongol leader who temporarily enthroned himself Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia in the early 15th century. He might also have been known as Ugechi Khashikha (Chinese: 烏格齊哈什哈). "Khashikha" means prince or duke in the Tungusic languages. He was a leader of the Oirats, particularly the Torguud clan. Örüg Temür may have been descended from either Ariq Böke or Genghis Khan's younger brothers, either Hasar or Temüge.[2] He may also have been a descendant of Ogedai.[3] Thus, it is still unclear whether he was an Oirat or Genghisid.

Elbeg Khan (1400–1402) appointed Bahamu (Batlai, Mahamu, Muhamud) ruler of the Four Oirats after he had mistakenly executed his father Taifu. The Khagan's decision made the Oirat leader Gulichi (or Orug Temur?) disappointed. Gulichi and Bahamu organized the plot to kill Elbeg and succeeded; the former seized the family and property of the late Khagan. Gulichi became the new Khan in 1402, and abolished the name Yuan Dynasty. Gulichi appointed Arughtai of the Asud chingsang of the Eastern Mongols. According to the Ming annals, he might have nominated a Tatar Khan.

The Yongle Emperor made overtures to Gulichi and his principal retainer Arughtai to establish relationship within Ming China's tributary system, but Gulichi and Arughtai rejected it.[4] They also poisoned Engke Temur, Prince of Hami, who had allied with the Ming.[4] However, he was defeated by Öljei Temür Khan, the Borjigin monarch, in 1403. In 1408, his former chingsang and noyan Arughtai killed him after a conflict erupted between them. He was succeeded by his son Esekhu (died 1425).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ 東京外国語大学. アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究所-アジア・アフリカ言語文化研究, Issues 27-30, p. 152
  2. ^ List of Mongolian rulers
  3. ^ C. P. Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, list of heads of Mongolia
  4. ^ a b Ed. Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8, p. 227
  • René Grousset - Empire of Steppes
  • Ж.Бор - Монгол хийгээд Евразийн дипломат шаштир БОТЬ 3
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gün Temür Khan
Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty
Succeeded by
Öljei Temür Khan