Gulnara Karimova, photographed in 2009
|Uzbekistan’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva|
|Succeeded by||Bakhtiyor Ibragimov|
|Ambassador of Uzbekistan to Spain|
|Succeeded by||Dilshod Akhatov|
8 July 1972 |
Fergana, Uzbek SSR, Soviet Union
|Relatives||Lola Karimova-Tillyaeva (sister)|
|Alma mater||Tashkent State University, Harvard University|
Gulnara Islomovna Karimova (Cyrillic Uzbek: Гулнора Исломовна Каримова; Russian: Гульнара Исламовна Каримова, Gul'nara Islamovna Karimova; 8 July 1972) is the elder daughter of Islam Karimov, the leader of Uzbekistan from 1989 to his death in 2016. Karimova is the founder of the Forum of Culture and Arts of Uzbekistan Foundation and chairperson of its Board of Trustees; she is also the head of a number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) focused on cultural and social aspects of life in Uzbekistan.
In 2015, an investigation by the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project reported that Karimova had taken over US$1 billion in bribes from Scandinavian and Russian telecom companies wanting involvement in the Uzbek market. In 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice seized $850 million that was funneled through corrupt deals by Karimova. Karimova is also under investigation in Uzbekistan on charges of corruption, although she denies any wrongdoing.
According to the BBC, Karimova was placed under house arrest in Tashkent, Uzbekistan in November 2014, and was rumored, according to Central Asian news reports, to have died from poisoning on 5 November 2016. In January 2017, The Wall Street Journal reported that Karimova had been questioned in December 2016, over money-laundering accusations by Swiss prosecutors while she was under house arrest in Tashkent, according to a lawyer who attended the meetings.
In December 2017, the U.S. Department of Treasury  included Karimova in a new Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act list, effectively banning all United States entities from dealing with Karimova or any of her organisations or associates.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career and activities
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Conviction
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
Early life and education
Karimova graduated from the Youth Mathematic Academy in Tashkent in 1988. During 1987 she interned at the State Committee of Uzbekistan on Statistics. From 1989 to 1994 she attended Tashkent State University, where she obtained a bachelor's degree from the International Economics department. During her second year, she worked as a translator at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In 1992, she completed a course of jewellery design in New York's Fashion Institute of Technology.
Between 1994 and 1996 she was enrolled at Institute of Economy at the Uzbekistan Academy of Science where she pursued a master's degree. During 1994-1995 she was intern-teacher at the political science department of the University of World Economy and Diplomacy in Tashkent. Afterwards, from summer 1995 until 1996, she worked at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan at the department for political analysis and forecast, where she was assigned to write analytical reports for the State Security Council and the Presidential Administration.
The next phase of her education took place after a few years of full-time work. Between 1998 and 2000, Karimova enrolled at the graduate level at Harvard University, where she was awarded a master's degree in regional studies. At the same time, she was enrolled at the University of World Economy and Diplomacy (UWED) in Tashkent, where in 2001, was "awarded" a PhD in political science. Since 2009, she has held a chair of political science at the UWED. She also holds a Bachelor of Arts in telecommunications which she received in 2006, from Tashkent University of Informational Technologies.
Career and activities
Political and diplomatic activities
Between summer 1995 and autumn 1997, she was Adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan. During this time she helped on with organizing the Tashkent International Conference "Central Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone" (CANWFZ).
In 1998 and from 2000 to 2003, Karimova served as counselor at Uzbekistan’s Mission to the United Nations in New York. From 2003 until 2005 she was minister-counselor at the Uzbek embassy in Moscow, and served as adviser to the minister of foreign affairs from 2005 to 2008. In February 2008, she was appointed deputy foreign minister for international cooperation in cultural and humanitarian affairs. In September of the same year, she was named Permanent Representative of Uzbekistan to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva and took up the post in December 2008. In January 2010, she was named Uzbek Ambassador to Spain. She is a member of the Cercle Diplomatique de Genève.
In 2012, Karimova was honoured with the "Silk Road and Humanitarian Cooperation" Award of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
According to US diplomats in Uzbekistan, Karimova "bullied her way into gaining a slice of virtually every lucrative business" in the country and is viewed as a "robber baron".
Karimova was believed to control Uzdunrobita, Uzbekistan's national mobile telephone network, as well as the country's healthcare, and media sectors. However, since June 2007 Uzdunrobita has been totally owned by Mobile TeleSystems OJSC ("MTS" – NYSE: MBT), the largest mobile phone operator in Russia and the CIS. December 2009, the Swiss magazine "Bilanz" described Gulnora Karimova as one of the ten richest women in the country.
In the interview to the Swiss economic magazine Bilan, Karimova denied her involvement into mentioned cases stating: "I have never considered the opportunities of doing business in Switzerland. ... These references are insinuations of my opponents. My name has been mentioned earlier several times in relations to companies such as Zeromax in Zug, Interspan, Oxus Gold, Wimm-Bill-Dann of Russia, Carlsberg and many others."
In March 2014, the Swiss Prosecutor's Office announced that it had extended a money laundering investigation to include Karimova. The probe, launched in 2012, had initially focused on four of Karimova’s allies.
In 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice seized $850 million that was funneled through corrupt deals by Karimova. The money was seized through the Kleptocracy Asset Recovery Initiative, an effort launched in 2010, to confiscate assets of government officials around the world who abuse their influence for personal enrichment. Karimova is also under investigation in Uzbekistan on charges of corruption, although she denies any wrongdoing.
Promoting Uzbekistan in politics
In 2005, Karimova established and promoted the "Centre for Political Studies", the first independent think tank. which focuses on scientific-applied research on present-day issues of internal and foreign policy of Uzbekistan, regional security, economic development and international cooperation. The Centre prepares informational, analytical and prognosis materials on these subjects. Today the Centre for Political Studies cooperates with more than 25 institutions worldwide. Karimova is a chief-editor of the monthly published the Information-Analytical Bulletin “Uzbekistan & Central Asia”.
Under Karimova's supervision five NGOs have been established in Uzbekistan. In 2009, two of the foundations, the Social Initiatives Support Fund (SISF) and the Women's Council Public Association, organized a conference on "Medical aspects and role of Public Organizations in breast cancer problems solutions". In 2006, under the SISF, Karimova took on initiative of micro-credits for women farmers in rural areas of Uzbekistan.
Karimova is founder and the chairperson of the social organisation called Forum of Culture and Arts of Uzbekistan Foundation (the Fund Forum). The Forum of Culture and Arts of Uzbekistan Foundation (the Fund Forum), the biggest NGO in the country was established in spring 2004 Since then, signed a number of MOU with international organisations and in 2010, received consultative status at the ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council). On 24 December 2010, the International Olympic Committee honored the Fund Forum with its annual "Sport – Inspiring Young People" Trophy for its activities in the area of sport, education and culture among youth. Beyond national cultural and art promotion, the Fund also provides merit- and need-based scholarships for undergraduate and graduate levels.
In June 2010, the Fund Forum in cooperation with other foundations engaged in humanitarian aid to those affected by the events in neighbouring Kyrgyzstan.
In 2010, she initiated the organization of a charitable marathon, "In the Name of Life" under the auspices of the Fund Forum, the Women's Council and the Uzbekistan National Breast Cancer Association. 100,000 people across the Uzbekistan have joined the marathon since its launch. In 2012, Karimova is reported to donated over 25 million sum to the National Breast Cancer Association to purchase cancer medication during the marathon. In 2013, the race attracted 7,000 runners.
In April 2012, Karimova announced that she had initiated the establishment of a new NGO, the "Forum of Socially Responsible Citizens of Uzbekistan", which focuses on support of Uzbek citizens' social initiatives.
Support of youth
In 2004, on her initiative was created "YangiAvlod" Festival which supports children in arts disciplines. Also in 2009, the news have spread internationally that two of the worlds' most famous football strikers Cameroonian Samuel Eto'o and Portuguese Cristiano Ronaldo agreed to support Gulnara Karimova's new initiative launching a children's project. Both of the players evidently have signed Memorandums of cooperation with the Fund Forum.
Another project of Karimova, the Kelajak Ovozi Talented Youth Contest, has reportedly been attended by 388,000 young people in Uzbekistan since 2005, with projects and ideas ranging from IT, through architecture and design, to social innovations and poetry.
In 2006, Karimova released her first music video singing a song called "Unutma Meni" (Don't Forget Me) under the stage name "Googoosha", apparently her father′s nickname for her. She also performed in a later music video, singing a duet of "Besame Mucho" with Julio Iglesias.
In December 2012, Googoosha released a duet with French actor Gérard Depardieu. During his visit to Uzbekistan, the French actor agreed to star in an Uzbek film. Gulnara Karimova wrote a screenplay for "The Theft of the White Cocoon," a story about the origin of the famed Central Asian silk, and set in the 5th and 6th centuries.
Googoosha's first single "Round Run" was released in April 2012, with various remixes by DJ White Shadow, Razor N Guido of USA and Max Fadeev of Russia. The remix from the album "has been on air in many radio stations and been played at more than 100 night clubs in the US". In June 2012 Karimova released her self-titled debut album in the US and other countries on iTunes. The album was also expected to be released in Asia, Russia and a number of other European countries. However, early reviews by critics have panned the debut album thus indefinitely halting the release in those markets.
Fashion and jewellery design
In March 2009, Karimova presented her own special jewellery collection "GULI for Chopard", designed for renowned Swiss company Chopard. Reportedly her royalty for design from sales of the collection will benefit the "Yangi Avlod" (New Generation) Children's Festival. As of June 2016, the Children's Festival has yet to receive any monetary proceeds from the sales.
In September 2011, Karimova′s planned spring 2012 fashion show at New York’s Fashion Week was banned after Human Rights Watch and other organizations had drawn attention to her connection to her father’s government and its record on torture, and child and forced labour. According to Human Rights Watch, up to two million Uzbek children are forced to leave school each year for two months to pick cotton – a fabric woven throughout Karimova’s designs.
In Uzbekistan, Karimova also hosts Style.uz Art Week featuring catwalk shows of international labels such as Cavalli, Scervino and Chopard. Art Week also includes Theatre.uz International Theatre Festival, Golden Guepard Tashkent International Film Forum, Biennale and Photobiennale exhibitions as well as master-classes, round tables, concerts and charity events.
Gulnara Karimova presented her first fragrances, Victorious for men and Mysterieuse for women, on 8 October, as part of Style.Uz Art Week 2012. The fragrances were created by French perfumer Bertrand Duchaufour. Halit Ergenç the famous Turkish actor became a face of Victorious for men.
Cinema against AIDS
In May 2010, Karimova was at the center of a scandal surrounding her attendance of the annual "Cinema against AIDS" gala fundraising event organised by amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research during the Cannes Film Festival.
AmfAR faced criticism from NGOs such as Reporters without Borders, with claims that it would be hypocritical for AmfAR to accept the attendance of Karimova given her country’s refusal to take AIDS treatment seriously. Just months before the Cinema Against AIDS dinner, a 27-year-old AIDS activist, Maksim Popov, had been sentenced by an Uzbek court to seven years in prison for distributing information to stop the spread of HIV-AIDS. The Uzbek court deemed the information to be against society’s moral standards.
Marriage and divorce
In 1991, she married Mansur Maqsudi, an American businessman of Afghanistan Tajik origin. They have two children, a son, Islam Karimov Jr., born in 1992 and a daughter, Iman Karimova, born in 1998. When the marriage started to crumble in July 2001, Karimova took the two children and left the United States for Uzbekistan. An Uzbek judge granted her a divorce, while a US court granted one to Maqsudi. When Karimova refused to accede to the US court ruling awarding custody of the two children to Maqsudi, an international arrest warrant in her name was filed with Interpol. In return, Maqsudi faced arrest in Uzbekistan, and some of his relatives were arrested and imprisoned. Others were driven to the Uzbek-Afghan border and released in Afghan territory,[not in citation given] and Maqsudi had his business assets in Uzbekistan, particularly his interest in a joint-venture with Coca-Cola, taken away. According to The Guardian, as part of her divorce settlement, Karimova kept $4.5 million worth of jewellery and business interests worth approximately $60 million. On 9 July 2008, custody of the two children was fully given to Karimova, by a Consent Order signed by Judge Deanne M. Wilson (Superior Court of the State of New Jersey).
Rumors of marriage to Sodiq Safoyev
In 2003, when Sodiq Safoyev was the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uzbekistan, rumours about his marriage to Karimova surfaced in local and international media. Safoyev, a career diplomat and a divorcee as of 2001, was hinted to have been picked by the President Islam Karimov as his possible replacement, hence the marriage to his daughter. However, the allegations were denied by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the BBC, which published the story, was accused by First Deputy Minister Vladimir Norov of intruding into the personal lives of Safoyev and Karimova.
Alleged house arrest and rumoured death
On 22 November 2016, a Central Asian news portal Centre1 claimed that Karimova died on 5 November 2016, after being poisoned and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Minor cemetery in Tashkent. According to RIA Novosti, sources close to the family disputed the claim that she was dead but did not provide any proof as to her current status or whereabouts.
In December 2016, Karimova's son, Islam Karimov Junior, called for his mother's whereabouts to be revealed by Uzbekistan. He revealed that she was being kept against her will "without any even basic human rights that every person deserves on this earth". He explained that living in London, he cannot go back to Uzbekistan from fears that he will not be allowed to return, which was also the reason why he did not attend his grandfather's funeral, who was initially responsible for putting Karimova under house-arrest.
In January 2017, The Wall Street Journal reported that Karimova had been questioned in December 2016, over money-laundering accusations by Swiss prosecutors while she was under house arrest in Tashkent, according to a lawyer who attended the meetings.
On 28 July 2017, the Uzbek Prosecutor-General's Office released a statement saying that she was in custody following a 2015 conviction and faces additional charges in an ongoing investigation, marking the first time authorities have revealed details about her. The statement also said she was a member of an organised criminal group that controlled assets worth more than $1.3 billion in 12 countries, including properties in London worth £22.9 million ($29.95 million) and hotels in Dubai worth $67.4 million. She was also alleged to have acquired $595 million worth of assets and received $869.3 million in kickbacks that were paid into offshore accounts.
- New Permanent Representative of Uzbekistan to United Nations
- "New Uzbek ambassador presents credentials to King of Spain". East Time. 3 July 2012.
- "NGOs and projects". Website Gulnara Karimova. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013.
- "Uzbekistan's first daughter accused of pocketing $1 bn in phone deals". The Guardian. 24 March 2015.
- Standish, Reid (January 31, 2017). "Central Asia's Autocrats Welcome the Age of Trump". Foreign Policy. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Ten reasons why Gulnara's downfall is not her father's doing". www.uznews.net. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Suspected Gulnara Karimova letter smuggled to BBC - BBC News". Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "The secret recordings of Gulnara Karimova". www.bbc.com. BBC. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "Гульнара Каримова убита – утверждает источник из СНБ Узбекистана". Centre-1.
- "СМИ сообщили об отравлении и смерти Гульнары Каримовой". NEWSru. 22 November 2016.
- http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/the-times/dictators-daughter-killed-buried-in-unmarked-grave/news-story/9c56d8e9898aaa601129a8ab14dac4d8[dead link]
- "Gulnara Karimova: 'Show world my mum is alive,' says son". BBC News. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 2017-11-20.
- Gauthier-Villars, David (January 15, 2017). "Former Uzbek President's Daughter Questioned by Swiss Prosecutors". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Human Rights Abusers blocked".
- Trustfull, Paul. "A Woman of Substance by all Standards". The Forbes Custom. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "Biography". Website Gulnara Karimova. Archived from the original on 7 August 2009.
- "GOULNARA KARIMOVA'S WORLD OF DIPLOMACY, CULTURE AND CHARITY". Diva International. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "Gulnara Karimova Biography". Informat Fashion. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- "Uzbekistan: President's elder daughter named Deputy Foreign Minister". Ferghana.Ru. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "UPDATE 1-Swiss probe private bank Lombard Odier over suspected Uzbek money laundering". Reuters. 24 February 2017.
- Carlin, John (9 May 2010). "Laporta y la diva uzbeca. El presidente del Barcelona ha hecho negocios con la hija del presidente del régimen del país asiático y uno de los peores tiranos del mundo, donde existen la tortura y el esclavismo". El Pais (in Spanish).
- "Gulnara Karimova becomes honorary member of Swiss diplomatic club". UzDaily.com. February 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009.
- "SCO award goes to Chairperson of Fund Forum's Board of Trustees". Azerbaijan News. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
- Leigh, David (12 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: US keeps Uzbekistan president onside to protect supply line". The Guardian. London.
- "It's Gulnara's World. We Only Live in It". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. December 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- "MTS acquires remaining stake in Uzdunrobita". Mobile TeleSystems OJSC. June 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
- "Mise en cause par divers médias en Suisse dans un dossier judiciaire, la fille du président de l'Ouzbékistan donne sa version des faits". Bilan.ch. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "Swiss investigate Uzbek president's daughter". swissinfo.ch.
- "Central Asian Energy Market: Trends and Prospects". People's Daily, China.
- "about us". Center for Political Studies. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "International Forum: "Medical aspects and role of public organizations in breast cancer problems solution"". SISF.uz. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012.
- "Female Funding". World Business TV.
- "Uzbekistan Provides 128 Women With Micro Loans for Business Development". CNW Telbec. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Sting awards special grant diplomas to 5 Uzbek talents". AllBusiness, a D&B Company.
- Simons, Alex. "Uzbekistan: Traditions of the Past, Visions of the Future". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Culture and Art". Permanent Mission of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the UN. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Finalists of Kelajak ovozi 2010 saluted" (12). Fund Forum. 2010. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011.
"Nation jeune par excellence (40% de la population a moins de 18 ans)" (82). Tribune de Genev. 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "Grants to talented Uzbek Youth". ImmediaPress. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
- "Nachrichten - Pressemitteilungen". Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- ""In the Name of Life" Marathon". Forum of Culture and Arts of Uzbekistan Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012.
- "Charitable marathons kick off across Uzbekistan". The Forbes Custom. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Forum-marathon "In the Name of Life" raises 216 million soums". Embassy of Uzbekistan to the United States. 16 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013.
- "7000 человек собрал благотворительный марафон в Алмалыке" [7000 people gathered in the charity marathon in Olmaliq]. Газета.uz (in Russian). 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013.
- Azizov, D. "Uzbekistan Fund Forum completes more than 600 projects in 2012". Trend News. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "The Forum of Socially Responsible Citizens of Uzbekistan". Gulnara Karimova. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
- "Samuel Eto'o launches new project for children of Uzbekistan". Uzdaily.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "Cristiano Ronaldo and Fund Forum sign cooperation agreement". Uzdaily.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- "Cristiano Ronaldo's Visit to Uzbekistan: My Experience with the Famous Football Player". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Республиканской конкурс одаренной молодежи "Келажак овози" (The Republican contest of talented youth "Kelajak Ovozi")" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Центра молодежных инициатив «Келажак овози» (Official website of the Center of Youth Initiatives "Kelajak Ovozi"). Archived from the original on 9 April 2013.
- Orange, Richard (15 April 2011). "Gulnara Karimova profile". The Telegraph.
- "Uzbek president's daughter releases duet with Depardieu". Agence France‑Presse. 5 December 2012.
- "Gerard Depardieu to star in Uzbek film by Karimov's daughter". The Telegraph. 29 November 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- (UzDaily.com), Uzbekistan Daily. "Googoosha releases debut album worldwide". Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
- "Guli for Chopard". Website Guli.uz. Archived from the original on 5 December 2011.
- "Gulnara Karimova to design for Chopard". France 24.[permanent dead link]
- "Gulnara Karimova to launch new jewelry line". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- Orange, Richard (12 September 2010). "Daughter of Uzbek president unveils her fashion collection". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
- "Guli Show relocated during Fashion Week". Archived from the original on 22 May 2012.
- "Fashion Week Cancels Show of Uzbek Dictator's Daughter". Human Rights Watch. 15 September 2011.
- "Fashion TV". Fashiontv.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 2012-10-25.
- "Новые ароматы знаменитости: Guli Mysterieuse для нее и Guli Victorious для него от дизайнера Гульнары Каримовой". Embaurma News. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Парфюмерные новинки от Guli". Krasotka fashion website. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- ""Mysterieuse" & "Victorious" от GULIl". Styled.asia website. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Reporters Without Borders are shocked at presence of Gulnara Karimova at "Cinema against AIDS" event in Cannes". FergaNews. 21 May 2010.
- Paul Canning (12 May 2010). "Uzbekistan's Aids shame". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- West, Jackson (16 April 2009). "Gulnara Karimova: Uzbek oligarch, pop musician, UN representative". The Awl. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
- Coman, Julian (18 April 2004). "Bitter divorce threatens unlikely alliance at the heart of war on terror". The Telegraph.
- Alden, Edward; Ward, Andrew (13 June 2006). "Bottled up: why Coke stands accused of being too cosy with the Karimovs". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- Parfitt, Tom (11 August 2006). "'Princess of Uzbeks' cavorts in a cartoon wonderland". The Guardian.
- "Президент готовит себе замену. Садик Сафаев женится на дочери Каримова?" [The President is preparing his replacement. Is Sadyk Safayev marrying Karimov's daughter?]. Centasia. 23 May 2003. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Узбекистан отрицает сообщение Би-би-си" [Uzbekistan is refuting the BBC story]. BBC. 14 August 2004. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- "Karimova Is In Custody, Uzbek Prosecutor-General's Office Says". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "Uzbekistan jails ex-president's daughter Gulnara Karimova". Yahoo News. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- Antelava, Natalia (16 January 2014). "iPlayer: Crossing Continents: Uzbekistan: Searching for Googoosha". BBC. Retrieved 23 January 2014.