Gun Fight

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Gun Fight
Gun fight arcade flyer.jpg
Developer(s)Taito
Publisher(s)
Designer(s)Tomohiro Nishikado
Dave Nutting (US)
Programmer(s)Tom McHugh (US)
Platform(s)Arcade, Astrocade, Atari 8-bit
ReleaseArcade
Astrocade
Atari 8-bit
Genre(s)Multidirectional shooter
Mode(s)Multiplayer
Arcade systemTaito Discrete Logic
Midway 8080 (US)

Gun Fight, known as Western Gun[a] in Japan[3][1] and Europe,[4] is a 1975 multidirectional shooter arcade game designed by Tomohiro Nishikado,[5] and released by Taito in Japan[3] and Europe[4] and by Midway in North America.[3][5] Based around two Old West cowboys armed with revolvers and squaring off in a duel, it was the first video game to depict human-to-human combat.[6] The Midway version was also the first video game to use a microprocessor.[6][7] The game's concept was adapted from Sega's 1969 arcade electro-mechanical game Gun Fight.

The game was a global commercial success. In Japan, Western Gun was among the top ten highest-grossing arcade video games of 1976. In the United States, Gun Fight sold 8,600 arcade cabinets and was the third highest-grossing arcade game of 1975, second highest-grossing arcade game of 1976 and fifth highest arcade game of 1977.

It was ported to the Bally Astrocade video game console[8] as a built-in game[9] in 1977[10] and later the Atari 8-bit family.[11] It is the first ever violent video game that depicts violence like realistic death.

Gameplay[edit]

Western Gun is a single-screen shooter[12] where two players compete in an Old West gun fight.[13] It was the first video game to depict human-to-human combat.[6][8] When shot, the characters in fall to the ground and the words "GOT ME!" appear above the body.[14] The game has two joysticks per player: an eight-way joystick for moving the computerized cowboy and the other for changing the shooting direction.[3][15] Unlike later dual stick games, Western Gun has the movement joystick on the right.

Obstacles between the characters block shots, such as a cactus,[16] and (in later levels) stagecoaches.[14] The guns have limited ammunition, with each player given six bullets. A round ends if both players run out of ammo.[12] Gunshots can ricochet off the top and bottom edges of the playfield, allowing for indirect hits.[12][16]

Taito's original Western Gun allows the two players to move around anywhere on the screen. Midway's version, Gun Fight, restricts each player to their respective portions of the screen and also increased the size of the characters.[17]

Development[edit]

Both Western Gun and Gun Fight have artwork of Wild West cowboys on the cabinet, with matching in-game graphics featuring cacti, rocks, and human characters (and a covered wagon in Gun Fight). These cartoon-like humans were in contrast to earlier games which used miniature shapes to represent abstract blocks or spaceships.[5]

The original game, Western Gun, was created by Tomohiro Nishikado for Taito.[5] The game's concept was adapted from a Sega arcade electro-mechanical game, also called Gun Fight,[18] which was released in 1969.[19] In that game, two players control cowboy figurines on opposing sides of a playfield full of obstacles, with each player attempting to shoot the opponent's cowboy. The cowboy figurines were adapted into character sprites, with both players able to maneuver across a landscape while shooting each other. It was the second game by Nishikado to use human character sprites, after a 1974 sports video game he designed for Taito, Basketball, which was released as TV Basketball by Midway in North America.[18]

Taito licensed Western Gun to Midway for release in North America, one of the first such licenses, after the 1974 scrolling racing game Speed Race,[20] also designed by Nishikado,[21] and the 1974 sports game Basketball.[22] The title Western Gun, while making perfect sense for Japanese audiences in that it conveyed the setting and theme as simply as possible, sounded odd to American audiences, so it was renamed Gun Fight for its American localization.[20]

Taito's version was based on discrete logic.[5] When Dave Nutting adapted the game for Midway, he decided to base it on the Intel 8080, which made Gun Fight the first video game to use a microprocessor.[7] Nutting's company Dave Nutting Associates had already used microprocessor technology in prototypes of arcade pinball machines, and the first arcade pinball machine to include a microprocessor, The Spirit of '76 by Mirco Games, used this technology under license.

Midway's version, which had a black-and-white raster monitor with a transparent yellow screen overlay, used bitmapped framebuffer technology to display the game text and graphics, including its animated human-like characters.[23] To make the animation fast and smooth, the game included a special barrel shifter circuit built from multiple discrete chips.[24] The microprocessor used this to shift each pattern of picture bits, byte-by-byte, to the proper horizontal bit offset, reading back each shifted byte and then writing it into the framebuffer. The 8080, like other microprocessors of its era, had shift instructions that could only shift by a single bit position. With the shifter circuit, the microprocessor could quickly shift a picture byte by several bit positions, giving it more time for other work. A similar shifter circuit was used in later Midway and Taito games whose hardware was based on Gun Fight, such as Sea Wolf and Space Invaders.[25][26] (In some later Space Invaders derivatives, such as Taito's Space Invaders Part II of 1979, this circuit is a Fujitsu MB14241, a single-chip implementation of the barrel shifter.)

Midway's version increased the size of the character sprites, while at the same time restricting each character's movement to their respective portions of the screen.[17] Nishikado believed that his original version was more fun than Midway's version, but he was impressed with the Midway machine's improved graphics and smoother animation.[27] This led him to design microprocessors into his subsequent games, including the 1978 shoot 'em up Space Invaders.[28]

Reception[edit]

In Japan, Western Gun was among the top ten highest-grossing arcade video games of 1976.[29]

In the United States, following its November 1975 release there, Gun Fight sold 500 arcade cabinets by the end of 1975, making it one of the top ten best-selling arcade games of 1975.[30] It eventually went on to sell 8,600 arcade cabinets in the United States.[31]

In March 1976, the first annual RePlay arcade chart listed Gun Fight as the third highest-grossing arcade game of the previous year in the United States, below the Kee game Tank I & II and Taito/Midway game Wheels I & II.[32] In October 1976, RePlay listed Gun Fight as the second highest-grossing arcade game of 1976 in the United States, below Midway's Sea Wolf.[33] In November 1977, the first annual Play Meter arcade chart listed Gun Fight as the fifth highest-grossing arcade video game of 1977.[34] Play Meter later listed it among the top 30 highest-grossing arcade games of 1978.[35]

In 2021, The Guardian listed it as the eleventh greatest video game of the 1970s.[36]

Ports[edit]

In 1978,[37] the game was introduced to the home market with a port to the Bally Astrocade,[8] which included a color version of the game within the system's ROM.[38]

In 1983, Epyx released Gun Fight and another Midway game, Sea Wolf II, for the Atari 8-bit family as an Arcade Classics compilation.[11]

Legacy[edit]

The game was included in GameSpy's "Hall of Fame" in 2002. They stated that "Gun Fight was the first game to feature two humanized characters attempting to outfight each other, which would become one of the most common themes in games for the next 25-plus years"; that it was one of the first Japanese video games imported to North America; and that Midway's version "was the first microprocessor-based arcade game."[14]

Atari, Inc. released a similar arcade game in 1976 titled Outlaw which was ported to the Atari VCS.

In 1982, the clone Gunfight was released for the Atari 8-bit family by Hofacker / Elcomp Publishing.[39] The Duel for the Commodore 64 is a clone released in 1985.[40]

Taito used a control scheme similar to Western Gun for the run-and-gun shooter Front Line (1982).[41] In 1995, GamesMaster host Dominik Diamond called Sega's arcade game Virtual On: Cyber Troopers "a futuristic version of the old Gun Fight game."[42]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Japanese: ウエスタンガン, Hepburn: Uesutan Gan

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Akagi, Masumi (13 October 2006). アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971-2005) [Arcade TV Game List: Domestic • Overseas Edition (1971-2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: Amusement News Agency. pp. 40–1. ISBN 978-4990251215.
  2. ^ Akagi, Masumi (13 October 2006). アーケードTVゲームリスト国内•海外編(1971-2005) [Arcade TV Game List: Domestic • Overseas Edition (1971-2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: Amusement News Agency. p. 124. ISBN 978-4990251215.
  3. ^ a b c d Stephen Totilo (August 31, 2010). "In Search Of The First Video Game Gun". Kotaku. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
  4. ^ a b "Western Gun". The Arcade Flyer Archive. Killer List of Video Games. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
  5. ^ a b c d e Chris Kohler (2005), "Chapter 2: An Early History of Cinematic Elements in Video Games", Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 18, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1, retrieved 2011-03-27
  6. ^ a b c Cassidy, William (May 6, 2002). "Gun Fight". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  7. ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001), The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world, p. 64, Prima, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4
  8. ^ a b c Shirley R. Steinberg (2010), Shirley R. Steinberg; Michael Kehler; Lindsay Cornish (eds.), Boy Culture: An Encyclopedia, 1, ABC-CLIO, p. 451, ISBN 978-0-313-35080-1, retrieved 2011-04-02
  9. ^ Mini-micro systems, Volume 11. Cahners Publishing. 1978. p. 46. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  10. ^ "Gunfight (Astrocade)". GameFAQs. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Atarimania - Arcade Classics: Sea Wolf II / Gun Fight". Retrieved 2011-02-01.
  12. ^ a b c "Gun Fight". Archived from the original on 2014-11-14.
  13. ^ "The Arcade Flyer Archive: Western Gun". Retrieved 2015-06-18.
  14. ^ a b c Cassidy, William (May 6, 2002). "Gun Fight". GameSpy. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  15. ^ Western Gun at the Killer List of Videogames
  16. ^ a b Rusel DeMaria & Johnny L. Wilson (2003), High score! The illustrated history of electronic games (2 ed.), McGraw-Hill Professional, pp. 24–5, ISBN 0-07-223172-6, retrieved 2011-04-02
  17. ^ a b "Gun Fight (Arcade) review". Honest Gamers. June 15, 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  18. ^ a b Smith, Alexander (19 November 2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry, Vol. I: 1971-1982. CRC Press. pp. 193–95. ISBN 978-0-429-75261-2.
  19. ^ "GUN FIGHT(ガンファイト)". Sega (in Japanese). Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  20. ^ a b Chris Kohler (2005), Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 211, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1
  21. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 16, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1
  22. ^ "The Golden Age Arcade Historian: Video Game Firsts??". 22 November 2013.
  23. ^ http://www.vasulka.org/archive/Writings/VideogameImpact.pdf#page=24
  24. ^ The schematic for the "game logic" board of Gun Fight has a shifter circuit made from four AMD Am25S10 4-bit barrel-shifter chips wired together, along with several 74175 latches to hold the data to be shifted and the number of bit positions to shift by.
  25. ^ "src/mame/drivers/mw8080bw.cpp". Retrieved 2020-03-09. Most of these games do not actually use the MB14241 shifter IC, but instead implement equivalent functionality using a bunch of standard 74XX IC's.
  26. ^ "src/mame/drivers/8080bw.cpp". Retrieved 2020-03-09. ... data shifter, using either ~11 74xx chips, AM25S10s, Fujitsu MB14221 or Fujitsu MB14241 chips, which all do the same thing.
  27. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 19, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1, As a game, I thought our version of Western Gun was more fun. But just from using a microprocessor, the walking animation became much smoother and prettier in Midway's version.
  28. ^ Chris Kohler (2005), "Chapter 2: An Early History of Cinematic Elements in Video Games", Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life, BradyGames, p. 19, ISBN 0-7440-0424-1, retrieved 2011-03-27
  29. ^ "本紙アンケー 〜 ト調査の結果" [Paper Questionnaire: Results of the Survey] (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 65. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 February 1977. p. 2.
  30. ^ Baer, Ralph H. (2005). Videogames: In the Beginning. Rolenta Press. pp. 10–3. ISBN 978-0-9643848-1-1.
  31. ^ Smith, Alexander (19 November 2019). They Create Worlds: The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry, Vol. I: 1971-1982. CRC Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-429-75261-2.
  32. ^ "The Nation's Top Arcade Games". RePlay. March 1976.
  33. ^ "Profit Chart". RePlay. October 1976.
  34. ^ "Top Arcade Games". Play Meter. November 1977.
  35. ^ "The 'Winners' of '78: Top Arcade Games". Play Meter. 1978.
  36. ^ "The 15 greatest video games of the 70s – ranked!". The Guardian. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  37. ^ "Gunfight (Bally Professional Arcade)". AllGame. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
  38. ^ Rusel DeMaria & Johnny L. Wilson (2003), High score! The illustrated history of electronic games (2 ed.), McGraw-Hill Professional, p. 48, ISBN 0-07-223172-6, retrieved 2011-04-02
  39. ^ "Atarimania - Gunfight". Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  40. ^ "The Duel".
  41. ^ "Front Line / Top Ten Hits". Video Games. Vol. 1 no. 7. Pumpkin Press. March 1983. pp. 49, 66.
  42. ^ Diamond, Dominik (7 December 1995). "Episode #106". GamesMaster. Series 5. Episode 12. United Kingdom. 3 minutes in. Channel 4. Retrieved 24 April 2021.

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