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Gun control

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For international arms restrictions, see arms control. For techniques for the safe handling, possession, and storage of firearms, see gun safety.
A gun show in Houston, Texas.

Gun control (or firearms regulation)[1][2] is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

Most countries have a restrictive firearm guiding policy, with only a few legislations being categorized as permissive.[3] Jurisdictions that regulate access to firearms typically restrict access to only certain categories of firearms and then to restrict the categories of persons who will be granted a firearms license to have access to a firearm.

Terminology and context

Gun control refers to domestic regulation of firearm manufacture, trade, possession, use, and transport, specifically with regard to the class of weapons referred to as small arms (revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles and carbines, assault rifles, submachine guns and light machine guns).[4][5]

Usage of the term gun control is sometimes politicized.[6] Some of those in favor of legislation instead prefer to use terms such as "gun-violence prevention", "gun safety", "firearms regulation", "illegal guns", or "criminal access to guns".[7]

In 2007, it was estimated that there were, globally, about 875 million small arms in the hands of civilians, law enforcement agencies, and armed forces.[a][8] Of these firearms 650 million, or 75%, are held by civilians.[8] U.S. civilians account for 270 million of this total.[8] A further 200 million are controlled by state military forces.[9] Law enforcement agencies have some 26 million small arms.[9] Non-state armed groups[b] have about 1.4 million firearms.[c][9] Finally, gang members hold between 2 and 10 million small arms.[9] Together, the small arms arsenals of non-state armed groups and gangs account for, at most, 1.4% of the global total.[10]

Regulation of civilian firearms

Barring a few exceptions,[d] most countries in the world allow civilians to purchase firearms subject to certain restrictions.[13] A 2011 survey of 28 countries over five continents[e] found that a major distinction between different national regimes of firearm regulation is whether civilian gun ownership is seen as a right or a privilege.[16] The study concluded that both the United States and Yemen were distinct from the other countries surveyed in viewing firearm ownership as a basic right of civilians and in having more permissive regimes of civilian gun ownership.[16] In the remaining countries included in the sample, civilian firearm ownership is considered a privilege and the legislation governing possession of firearms is correspondingly more restrictive.[16]

International and regional civilian firearm regulation

At the international and regional level, diplomatic attention has tended to focus on the cross-border illegal trade in small arms as an area of particular concern rather than the regulation of civilian-held firearms.[17] During the mid-1990s, however, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) adopted a series of resolutions relating to the civilian ownership of small arms.[17] These called for an exchange of data on national systems of firearm regulation and for the initiation of an international study of the issue.[17] In July 1997, ECOSOC issued a resolution that underlined the responsibility of UN member states to competently regulate civilian ownership of small arms and which urged them to ensure that their regulatory frameworks encompassed the following aspects: firearm safety and storage; penalties for the unlawful possession and misuse of firearms; a licensing system to prevent undesirable persons from owning firearms; exemption from criminal liability to promote the surrender by citizens of illegal, unsafe or unwanted guns; and, a record-keeping system to track civilian firearms.[17] In 1997, the UN published a study based on member state survey data titled the United Nations International Study on Firearm Regulation which was updated in 1999.[f][17] This study was meant to initiate the establishment of a database on civilian firearm regulations which would be run by the Centre for International Crime Prevention, located in Vienna. who were to report on national systems of civilian firearm regulation every two years.[17] These plans never reached fruition and further UN-led efforts to establish international norms for the regulation of civilian-held firearms were stymied.[18] Responding to pressure from the U.S. government,[g][20] any mention of the regulation of civilian ownership of small arms was removed from the draft proposals for the 2001 UN Programme of Action on Small Arms.[17]

Although the issue is no longer part of the UN policy debate, since 1991 there have been eight regional agreements involving 110 countries concerning aspects of civilian firearm possession.[17] The Bamako Declaration,[h] was adopted in Bamako, Mali, on 1 December 2000 by the representatives of the member states of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).[21] The provisions of this declaration recommend that the signatories would establish the illegal possession of small arms and light weapons as a criminal offence under national law in their respective countries.[22]

Studies

High rates of gun mortality and injury are often cited as a primary impetus for gun control policies.[23] A 2004 National Research Council critical review found that while some strong conclusions are warranted from current research, the state of our knowledge is generally poor.[24] The result of the scarcity of relevant data is that gun control is one of the most fraught topics in American politics[25] and scholars remain deadlocked on a variety of issues.[25] Notably, since 1996, when the Dickey Amendment was first inserted into the federal spending bill, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been prohibited from using its federal funding "to advocate or promote gun control," effectively ending gun violence research at the agency. The funding provision's author has said that this was an over-interpretation.[26]

General

A 1998 review found that suicide rates generally declined after gun control laws were enacted, and concluded that "The findings support gun control measures as a strategy for reducing suicide rates."[27] A 2016 review found that laws banning people under restraining orders due to domestic violence convictions from accessing guns were associated with "reductions in intimate partner homicide".[28] Another 2016 review identified 130 studies regarding restrictive gun laws and found that the implementation of multiple such laws simultaneously was associated with a decrease in gun-related deaths.[29]

According to a 2011 UN study, after identifying a number of methodological problems, it stated "notwithstanding such challenges, a significant body of literature tends to suggest that firearm availability predominantly represents a risk factor rather than a protective factor for homicide. In particular, a number of quantitative studies tend towards demonstrating a firearm prevalence-homicide association."[30]

United States

Cross-sectional studies

In 1983, a cross-sectional study of all 50 U.S. states found that the six states with the strictest gun laws (according to the National Rifle Association) had suicide rates that were approximately 3/100,000 people lower than in other states, and that these states' suicide rates were 4/100,000 people lower than those of states with the least restrictive gun laws.[31] A 2003 study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine looked at the restrictiveness of gun laws and suicide rates in men and women in all 50 U.S. states and found that states whose gun laws were more restrictive had lower suicide rates among both sexes.[32] In 2004, another study found that the effect of state gun laws on gun-related homicides was "limited".[33] A 2005 study looked at all 50 states in the U.S. and the District of Columbia, and found that no gun laws were associated with reductions in firearm homicide or suicide, but that a "shall-issue" concealed carry law may be associated with increased firearm homicide rates.[34] A 2011 study found that firearm regulation laws in the United States have "a significant deterrent effect on male suicide".[35] A 2013 study found that in the United States, "A higher number of firearm laws in a state are associated with a lower rate of firearm fatalities in the state."[36] A 2016 study published in The Lancet found that of 25 laws studied, and in the time period examined (2008–2010), nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality (including both homicide and suicide), nine were associated with increased mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. The three laws most strongly associated with reduced firearm mortality were laws requiring universal background checks, background checks for ammunition sales, and identification for guns.[37] In an accompanying commentary, David Hemenway noted that this study had multiple limitations, such as not controlling for all factors that may influence gun-related deaths aside from gun control laws, and the use of 29 explanatory variables in the analysis.[38]

Other studies comparing gun control laws in different U.S. states include a 2015 study which found that in the United States, "stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates" for nonfatal gun injuries.[39] A 2014 study that also looked at the United States found that children living in states with stricter gun laws were safer.[40] Another study looking specifically at suicide rates in the United States found that the four handgun laws examined (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) were associated with "significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms." The study also found that all four of these laws (except the waiting-period one) were associated with reductions in the overall suicide rate.[41] Another study, published the same year, found that states with permit to purchase, registration, and/or license laws for handguns had lower overall suicide rates, as well as lower firearm suicide rates.[42] A 2014 study found that states that required licensing and inspections of gun dealers tended to have lower rates of gun homicides.[43] Another study published the same year, analyzing panel data from all 50 states, found that stricter gun laws may modestly reduce gun deaths.[44] A 2016 study found that U.S. military veterans tend to commit suicide with guns more often than the general population, thereby possibly increasing state suicide rates, and that "the tendency for veterans to live in states without handgun legislation may exacerbate this phenomenon."[45] California has exceptionally strict gun sales laws, and a 2015 study found that it also had the oldest guns recovered in crimes of any states in the U.S.. The same study concluded that "These findings suggest that more restrictive gun sales laws and gun dealer regulations do make it more difficult for criminals to acquire new guns first purchased at retail outlets."[46] Another 2016 study found that stricter state gun laws in the United States reduced suicide rates.[47] Another 2016 study found that U.S. states with lenient gun control laws had more gun-related child injury hospital admissions than did states with stricter gun control laws.[48]

Reviews

A review of published studies of gun control released in October 2003 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was unable to determine any statistically significant effect resulting from such laws, although the authors suggest that further study may provide more conclusive information, and noted that "insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness should not be interpreted as evidence of ineffectiveness".[49]:18

In 2015, Garen Wintemute and Daniel Webster reviewed studies examining the effectiveness of gun laws aimed at keeping guns out of the hands of high-risk individuals in the United States. They found that some laws prohibiting gun possession by people under domestic violence restraining orders or who had been convicted of violent misdemeanors were associated with lower violence rates, as were laws establishing more procedures to see if people were prohibited from owning a gun under these laws. They also found that multiple other gun regulations intended to prevent prohibited individuals from obtaining guns, such as "rigorous permit-to-purchase" laws and "comprehensive background checks", were "negatively associated with the diversion of guns to criminals."[50]

Studies of individual laws

Other studies have examined trends in firearm-related deaths before and after gun control laws are either enacted or repealed. A 2004 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found evidence that child access prevention laws were "associated with a modest reduction in suicide rates among youth aged 14 to 17 years."[51] Two 2015 studies found that the permit-to-purchase law passed in Connecticut in 1995 was associated with a reduction in firearm suicides and homicides.[52][53] One of these studies also found that the repeal of Missouri's permit-to-purchase law was associated with "a 16.1% increase in firearm suicide rates,"[52] and a 2014 study by the same research team found that the repeal of this law was associated with a 16% increase in homicide rates.[54] A 1991 study looked at Washington, D.C.'s Firearms Control Regulations Act of 1975, which banned its residents from owning all guns except certain shotguns and sporting rifles, which were also required to be unloaded, disassembled, or stored with a trigger lock in their owners' homes.[55] The study found that the law's enactment was associated with "a prompt decline in homicides and suicides by firearms in the District of Columbia."[56] A 1996 study reanalyzed this data and reached a significantly different conclusion as to the effectiveness of this law.[57]

Other studies and debate

Kleck and Patterson analyzed the impact of 18 major types of gun control laws on every major type of violent crime or violence (including suicide) in 170 U.S. cities, and found that gun laws generally had no significant effect on violent crime rates or suicide rates.[58][needs update] Similarly, a 1997 study found that gun control laws had only a small influence on the rate of gun deaths in U.S. states compared to socioeconomic variables.[59][needs update]

Philosophy professor Michael Huemer argues that gun control may be morally wrong, even if its outcomes would be positive, because individuals have a prima facie right to own a gun for self-defence and recreation.[60]

Canada

Main article: Gun laws in Canada

Rifles and shotguns are relatively easy to obtain, while handguns and some semi-automatic rifles are restricted.[61]

With respect to the Criminal Law Amendment Act, a gun control law passed in Canada in 1977, some studies have found that it was ineffective at reducing homicide or robbery rates.[62][63] One study even found that the law may have actually increased robberies involving firearms.[63] A 1993 study of found that after this law was passed, gun suicides decreased significantly, as did the proportion of suicides committed in the country with guns.[64] A 2003 study found that this law "may have had an impact on suicide rates, even after controls for social variables,"[65] while a 2001 study by the same research team concluded that the law "may have had an impact on homicide rates, at least for older victims."[66] A 1994 study found that after this law came into force in 1978, suicide rates decreased over time in Ontario, and that there was no evidence of method substitution. The same study found that "These decreases may be only partly due to the legislation."[67]

In 1991, Canada implemented the gun control law Bill C-17. According to a 2004 study, after this law was passed, firearm-related suicides and homicides, as well as the percentage of suicides involving firearms, declined significantly in that country.[68] A 2010 study found that after this law was passed, firearm suicides declined in Quebec among men, but acknowledged that this may not represent a causal relationship.[69] In 1992, Canada promulgated the Canadian Firearms Act, which aimed at ensuring that guns were stored safely. A 2004 study found that although firearm suicide rates declined in the Quebec region Abitibi-Témiscamingue after the law was passed, overall suicide rates did not.[70] A 2008 study reached similar conclusions with regard to the entire Quebec province; this study also found that C-17 did not seem to increase the rate at which the firearm suicide rate was declining.[71] Other researchers have criticized this 2008 study for looking at too short a time period and not taking account of the fact that the regulations in C-17 were implemented gradually.[69]

A 1990 study compared suicide rates in the Vancouver, Canada metropolitan area (where gun control laws were more restrictive) with those in the Seattle, Washington area in the United States. The overall suicide rate was essentially the same in the two locations, but the suicide rate among 15 to 24 year olds was about 40 percent higher in Seattle than in Vancouver. The authors concluded that "restricting access to handguns might be expected to reduce the suicide rate in persons 15 to 24 years old, but...it probably would not reduce the overall suicide rate."[72]

A 2012 study looked at gun control laws passed in Canada from 1974 to 2008 and found no evidence that these laws had a beneficial effect on firearm homicide rates in that country. According to the study, "other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate."[73]

Australia

Main article: Gun laws in Australia

In 1988 and 1996, gun control laws were enacted in the Australian state of Victoria, both times following mass shootings. A 2004 study found that in the context of these laws, overall firearm-related deaths, especially suicides, declined dramatically.[74] A 1995 study found preliminary evidence that gun control legislation enacted in Queensland, Australia reduced suicide rates there.[75]

A 2006 study by gun lobby-affiliated researchers Jeanine Baker and Samara McPhedran found that after Australia enacted the National Firearms Agreement (NFA), a gun control law, in 1996, gun-related suicides may have been affected, but no other parameter appeared to have been.[76] Another 2006 study, led by Simon Chapman, found that after this law was enacted in 1996 in Australia, the country went more than a decade without any mass shootings, and gun-related deaths (especially suicides) declined dramatically.[77] The latter of these studies also criticized the former for using a time-series analysis despite the fact that, according to Chapman et al., "calculating mortality rates and then treating them as a number in a time series ignores the natural variability inherent in the counts that make up the numerator of the rate." Chapman et al. also said that Baker and McPhedran used the Box-Jenkins model inappropriately.[77] A 2010 study looking at the effect of the NFA on gun-related deaths found that the law "did not have any large effects on reducing firearm homicide or suicide rates,"[78] although David Hemenway has criticized this study for using a structural break test despite the fact that such tests can miss the effects of policies in the presence of lags, or when the effect occurs over several years.[79] Another study, published the same year, found that Australia's gun buyback program reduced gun-related suicide rates by almost 80%, while non-gun death rates were not significantly affected.[80] Other research has argued that although gun suicide rates fell after the NFA was enacted, the NFA may not have been responsible for this decrease and "a change in social and cultural attitudes" may have instead been at least partly responsible.[81] In 2016, Chapman co-authored another study that found that after the NFA was passed, there were no mass shootings in the country (as of May 2016), and that gun-related death rates declined more quickly after the NFA than they did before it. The study also found, however, that non-gun suicide and homicide rates declined even more quickly after the NFA, leading the authors to conclude that "it is not possible to determine whether the change in firearm deaths can be attributed to the gun law reforms."[82]

Other countries

A 2007 study found evidence that gun control laws passed in Austria in 1997 reduced the rates of firearm suicide and homicide in that country.[83] In Brazil, after disarmament laws were passed in 2003,[84] gun-related mortality declined by 8% in 2004 relative to the previous year, the first decline observed in a decade. Gun-related hospitalizations also reversed their previous trend by decreasing 4.6% from 2003 to 2004.[85] A 2006 study found that after gun control laws were passed in New Zealand in 1992, homicides committed with guns declined significantly, especially among youth. The same study found a decline in youth suicide after the laws were passed, but also concluded that "it is not possible to determine the extent to which this was accounted for by changes in firearms legislation or other causes."[86] A 2010 study looked at the effect of a policy adopted by the Israeli Defense Forces that restricted access to guns among adolescents on suicide rates, and found that "Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%." The authors concluded that "The results of this study illustrate the ability of a relatively simple change in policy to have a major impact on suicide rates."[87] A 2013 study showed that after the Military of Switzerland adopted the Army XXI reform, which restricted gun availability, in 2003, suicide rates—both overall and firearm-related—decreased.[88] Another 2013 study looking at four restrictive gun laws passed in Norway found that two of them may have reduced firearm mortality among men, but that the evidence was more inconclusive with respect to all of the laws they studied.[89] A 2014 study found that after South Africa's Firearm Control Act was passed in 2000, homicide rates in the country declined, and concluded that "stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period [2001-2005]."[90] A 2000 study found that a ban on carrying guns in Colombia was associated with reductions in homicide rates in two cities in the country, namely, Cali and Bogotá.[91]

See also

International

United States

Notes

  1. ^ This figure excludes older, pre-automatic small arms from military and law enforcement stockpiles or 'craft-produced' civilian firearms.[8]
  2. ^ Composed of 'insurgents and militias, including dormant and state-related groups'.[10]
  3. ^ However, as of 2009, active non-state armed groups, numbering about 285,000 combatants, control only about 350,000 small arms.[11]
  4. ^ Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, and Taiwan (Republic of China) prohibit civilian ownership of firearms in almost all instances. Eritrea and Somalia also prohibit civilian possession of firearms as part of their implementation of the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms. In the Solomon Islands civilian firearm ownership is restricted to members of the Regional Assistance Mission.[12]
  5. ^ The survey, carried out by the Small Arms Survey included 28 countries (42 jurisdictions in total). The countries included in the sample were:
    • Africa: Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda;
    • Americas: Belize, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Dominican Republic, United States, Venezuela;
    • Asia: India, Israel, Japan, Kazakhstan, Singapore, Turkey, Yemen;
    • Europe: Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Russian Federation, Switzerland, United Kingdom;
    • Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea.[14]
      The study states that 'while the sample is diverse and balanced, it may not be representative of the systems in place in countries outside the sample'.[15]
  6. ^ The impetus behind this study was twofold: firstly, there were concerns over the incidence of firearm-related crimes, accidents and suicides; secondly, there was the apprehension that existing regulatory instruments administering the ownership, storage and training in the use of firearms held by civilians might be inadequate.[17]
  7. ^ The US government was opposed to a section of the draft proposal calling on countries 'to seriously consider the prohibition of unrestricted trade and private ownership of small arms and light weapons'.[19]
  8. ^ The full title is 'The Bamako Declaration on an African Common Position on the Illicit Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2000)'.[21]

References

  1. ^ Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (2005). Federal Firearms Regulations Reference Guide (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved: January 3, 2016.
  2. ^ https://www.loc.gov/law/help/firearms-control/
  3. ^ GunPolicy.org - Facts. The only countries with permissive gun legislation are: Albania, Austria, Chad, Republic of Congo, Honduras, Micronesia, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Tanzania, the United States, Yemen and Zambia. Accessed on August 27, 2016.
  4. ^ "International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapon" (PDF). unodc.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Small Arms Survey: Definitions". smallarmssurvey.org. Small Arms Survey. April 15, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  6. ^ LaFrance, Adrienne (11 January 2016). "How 'Gun Control' Became a Taboo Phrase". The Atlantic. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  7. ^ Ball, Molly (January 2013). Don't Call It 'Gun Control' The Atlantic. Retrieved: September 24, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Karp 2007, p. 39.
  9. ^ a b c d Karp 2010, p. 102
  10. ^ a b Karp 2010, p. 101
  11. ^ Karp 2010, p. 121
  12. ^ Parker 2011, p. 62 n. 1
  13. ^ Parker 2011, p. 1
  14. ^ Parker 2011, p. 2
  15. ^ Parker 2011, p. 62 n. 4
  16. ^ a b c Parker 2011, p. 36
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Parker 2011, p. 3
  18. ^ Parker 2011, pp. 3-4
  19. ^ Alley 2004, p. 54
  20. ^ Alley 2004, pp. 53-54
  21. ^ a b Juma 2006, p. 39
  22. ^ Parker 2011, p. 4
  23. ^ Goldberg, Jeffrey (December 2012). "The Case for More Guns (and More Gun Control)". The Atlantic. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  24. ^ National Research Council 2005, p. 3,6.
  25. ^ a b Branas 2009.
  26. ^ "The Congressman Who Restricted Gun Violence Research Has Regrets". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 
  27. ^ Lambert & Silva 1998.
  28. ^ Zeoli et al. 2016.
  29. ^ Santaella-Tenorio et al. 2016.
  30. ^ UNODC. Global Study on Homicide. p 43. Retrieved: October 9, 2016.
  31. ^ Medoff & Magaddino 1983.
  32. ^ Conner & Zhong 2003.
  33. ^ Price et al. 2004.
  34. ^ Rosengart et al. 2005.
  35. ^ Andres et al. 2011.
  36. ^ Fleegler et al. 2013.
  37. ^ Kalesan et al. 2016.
  38. ^ Hemenway 2016.
  39. ^ Simonetti et al. 2015.
  40. ^ Safavi et al. 2014.
  41. ^ Anestis & Anestis 2015.
  42. ^ Anestis et al. 2015.
  43. ^ Irvin et al. 2014.
  44. ^ Lanza 2014.
  45. ^ Anestis & Capron 2016.
  46. ^ Pierce et al. 2015.
  47. ^ Kposowa et al. 2016.
  48. ^ Tashiro et al. 2016.
  49. ^ "First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Early Childhood Home Visitation and Firearms Laws. Findings from the Task Force on Community Preventive Services." (PDF). MMWR. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 52 (RR-14): 11–20. 2003. ISSN 1057-5987. 
  50. ^ Wintemute & Webster 2015.
  51. ^ Webster et al. 2004.
  52. ^ a b Crifasi et al. 2015.
  53. ^ Rudolph et al. 2015.
  54. ^ Webster et al. 2014.
  55. ^ Abrams, Jonathan (10 January 2010). "Washington's Gun Past Affects Arenas's Future". New York Times. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  56. ^ Loftin et al. 1991.
  57. ^ Britt, Kleck & Bordua 1996.
  58. ^ Kleck & Patterson 1993.
  59. ^ Kwon et al. 1997.
  60. ^ Huemer, Michael (2003), "Is There a Right to Own a Gun?", Social Theory and Practice, 29 (2): 297–324, doi:10.5840/soctheorpract200329215 
  61. ^ http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/cfp-pcaf/fs-fd/clas-eng.htm
  62. ^ Mauser 1992.
  63. ^ a b Mauser 2003.
  64. ^ Lester et al. 1993.
  65. ^ Leenaars et al. 2003.
  66. ^ Leenaars et al. 2001.
  67. ^ Carrington & Moyer 1994.
  68. ^ Bridges 2004.
  69. ^ a b Gagne et al. 2010.
  70. ^ Caron 2004.
  71. ^ Caron, Julien & Huang 2008.
  72. ^ Sloan et al. 1990.
  73. ^ Langmann 2012.
  74. ^ Ozanne-Smith 2004.
  75. ^ Cantor & Slater 1995.
  76. ^ Baker & McPhedran 2006.
  77. ^ a b Chapman et al. 2006.
  78. ^ Lee & Suardi 2010.
  79. ^ Hemenway 2009.
  80. ^ Leigh & Neill 2010.
  81. ^ Klieve, Barnes & De Leo 2009.
  82. ^ Chapman, Alpers & Jones 2016.
  83. ^ Kapusta 2007.
  84. ^ "Lei 10.426". www.planalto.gov.br. Retrieved 2016-01-31. 
  85. ^ de Souza et al. 2007.
  86. ^ Beautrais et al. 2006.
  87. ^ Lubin et al. 2010.
  88. ^ Reisch et al. 2013.
  89. ^ Gjertsen et al. 2013.
  90. ^ Matzopoulos et al. 2014.
  91. ^ Villaveces et al. 2000.

Bibliography

External links

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